Abstract

It is challenging in realizing high-performance transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with symmetrical light emission to both sides. Herein, an efficient transparent OLED with highly balanced white emission to both sides is demonstrated by integrating quasi-periodic nanostructures into the organic emitter and the metal-dielectric composite top electrode, which can simultaneously suppressing waveguide and surface plasmonic loss. The power efficiency and external quantum efficiency are raised to 83.5 lm W−1 and 38.8%, respectively, along with a bi-directional luminance ratio of 1.26. The proposed scheme provides a facile route for extending application scope of transparent OLEDs for future transparent displays and lightings.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

F. Fries, M. Fröbel, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Transparent and color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes with highly balanced emission to both sides,” Org. Electron. 41, 315–318 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, S. Shen, Y. Zhou, Y.-Y. Fan, J. Zhang, and J.-X. Tang, “Tailoring directive gain for high-contrast, wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting diodes using speckle image holograpy metasurfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(34), 22402–22409 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q.-D. Ou, L.-H. Xu, W.-Y. Zhang, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, J.-D. Chen, and J.-X. Tang, “Light outcoupling enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 24(6), A674–A681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, H.-Y. Xiang, L.-H. Xu, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Efficiently releasing the trapped energy flow in white organic light-emitting diodes with multifunctional nanofunnel arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(18), 2660–2668 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Xiang, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, H.-J. Xie, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, L.-S. Chen, C.-S. Lee, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. D. Chen, C. Cui, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, C. Li, Y. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Single-junction polymer solar cells exceeding 10% power conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(6), 1035–1041 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, Y. C. Han, H. C. Kim, E. G. Jeong, and K. C. Choi, “Highly transparent and flexible organic light-emitting diodes with structure optimized for anode/cathode multilayer electrodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(46), 7145–7153 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (9)

G. W. Kim, R. Lampande, J. Boizot, G. H. Kim, D. C. Choe, and J. H. Kwon, “An efficient nano-composite layer for highly transparent organic light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 6(7), 3810–3817 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(5), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Hwang, N. S. Cho, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “A randomly nano-structured scattering layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10727–10733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells featuring a biomimetic active layer and a self-cleaning antireflective coating,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(9), 1301777 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, J.-X. Tang, Y.-Q. Li, and S.-T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “Unusually high optical transmission in Ca:Ag blend films: high-performance top electrodes for efficient organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(42), 6668–6676 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Deng, Q.-D. Ou, Q.-K. Wang, H.-X. Wei, Y.-Q. Li, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “The role of charge generation layers in the operational stability of tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(11), 1982–1989 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, D. Zhao, D. Gu, H. Kim, T. Ling, Y. K. R. Wu, and L. J. Guo, “An ultrathin, smooth, and low-loss Al-doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 26(32), 5696–5701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, J. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Organic/metal hybrid cathode for transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(8), 2039–2045 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Betancur, P. Romero-Gomez, A. Martinez-Otero, X. Elias, M. Maymó, and J. Martorell, “Transparent polymer solar cells employing a layered light-trapping architecture,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 995–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Jin, C. Tao, M. Velusamy, M. Aljada, Y. Zhang, M. Hambsch, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Efficient, large area ITO-and-PEDOT-free organic solar cell sub-modules,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2572–2577 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A universal method to produce low-work function electrodes for organic electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
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S.-Y. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1010–1015 (2010).
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T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
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W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).

2009 (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Meyer, P. Görrn, S. Hamwi, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Indium-free transparent organic light emitting diodes with Al doped ZnO electrodes grown by atomic layer and pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073308 (2008).
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J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light-emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20(20), 3839–3843 (2008).
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2007 (2)

S. Y. Ryu, S. H. Choi, J. T. Kim, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, and H. S. Jeong, “Highly efficient transparent organic light-emitting diodes by ion beam assisted deposition-prepared indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033513 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards see-through displays: fully transparent thin-film transistors driving transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
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E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
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C.-L. Lin, T.-Y. Cho, C.-H. Chang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081114 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C.-H. Chung, Y.-W. Ko, Y.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Sohn, H. Y. Chu, and J. H. Lee, “Improvement in performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes with increasing sputtering power in the deposition of indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 093504 (2005).
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B. Chen, X. W. Sun, and S. Tan, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Mg:Ag cathode,” Opt. Express 13(3), 937–941 (2005).
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2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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2002 (1)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
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2000 (1)

G. Parthasarathy, C. Adachi, P. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “High-efficiency transparent organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(15), 2128–2130 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

L. Hung and C. W. Tang, “Interface engineering in preparation of organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3209–3211 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

G. Parthasarathy, P. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. Burrows, S. Forrest, and M. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adachi, C.

G. Parthasarathy, C. Adachi, P. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “High-efficiency transparent organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(15), 2128–2130 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aljada, M.

H. Jin, C. Tao, M. Velusamy, M. Aljada, Y. Zhang, M. Hambsch, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Efficient, large area ITO-and-PEDOT-free organic solar cell sub-modules,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2572–2577 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).

Bae, S.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baik, H. K.

S. Y. Ryu, S. H. Choi, J. T. Kim, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, and H. S. Jeong, “Highly efficient transparent organic light-emitting diodes by ion beam assisted deposition-prepared indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033513 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barlow, S.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A universal method to produce low-work function electrodes for organic electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Becker, E.

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards see-through displays: fully transparent thin-film transistors driving transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
[Crossref]

Betancur, R.

R. Betancur, P. Romero-Gomez, A. Martinez-Otero, X. Elias, M. Maymó, and J. Martorell, “Transparent polymer solar cells employing a layered light-trapping architecture,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 995–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boizot, J.

G. W. Kim, R. Lampande, J. Boizot, G. H. Kim, D. C. Choe, and J. H. Kwon, “An efficient nano-composite layer for highly transparent organic light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 6(7), 3810–3817 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brédas, J. L.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A universal method to produce low-work function electrodes for organic electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulovic, V.

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. Burrows, S. Forrest, and M. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

Burn, P. L.

H. Jin, C. Tao, M. Velusamy, M. Aljada, Y. Zhang, M. Hambsch, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Efficient, large area ITO-and-PEDOT-free organic solar cell sub-modules,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2572–2577 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burrows, P.

G. Parthasarathy, C. Adachi, P. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “High-efficiency transparent organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(15), 2128–2130 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Parthasarathy, P. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. Burrows, S. Forrest, and M. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-H.

C.-L. Lin, T.-Y. Cho, C.-H. Chang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

Chen, J. D.

J. D. Chen, C. Cui, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, C. Li, Y. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Single-junction polymer solar cells exceeding 10% power conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(6), 1035–1041 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.-D.

Q.-D. Ou, L.-H. Xu, W.-Y. Zhang, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, J.-D. Chen, and J.-X. Tang, “Light outcoupling enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 24(6), A674–A681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-H. Xu, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, Y.-B. Zhang, X.-D. Zhao, H.-Y. Xiang, J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Microcavity-free broadband light outcoupling enhancement in flexible organic light-emitting diodes with nanostructured transparent metal-dielectric composite electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1625–1632 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, L.-H. Xu, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Broadband light out-coupling enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using biomimetic quasi-random nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, H.-Y. Xiang, L.-H. Xu, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Efficiently releasing the trapped energy flow in white organic light-emitting diodes with multifunctional nanofunnel arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(18), 2660–2668 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, J.-X. Tang, Y.-Q. Li, and S.-T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells featuring a biomimetic active layer and a self-cleaning antireflective coating,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(9), 1301777 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-S.

H.-Y. Xiang, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, H.-J. Xie, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, L.-S. Chen, C.-S. Lee, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheun, H.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A universal method to produce low-work function electrodes for organic electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, D.-H.

J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Hwang, N. S. Cho, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “A randomly nano-structured scattering layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10727–10733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, J. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Organic/metal hybrid cathode for transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(8), 2039–2045 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, N. S.

J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Hwang, N. S. Cho, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “A randomly nano-structured scattering layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10727–10733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, T.-Y.

C.-L. Lin, T.-Y. Cho, C.-H. Chang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choe, D. C.

G. W. Kim, R. Lampande, J. Boizot, G. H. Kim, D. C. Choe, and J. H. Kwon, “An efficient nano-composite layer for highly transparent organic light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 6(7), 3810–3817 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, K. C.

D. Y. Kim, Y. C. Han, H. C. Kim, E. G. Jeong, and K. C. Choi, “Highly transparent and flexible organic light-emitting diodes with structure optimized for anode/cathode multilayer electrodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(46), 7145–7153 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, M.-R.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. H.

S. Y. Ryu, S. H. Choi, J. T. Kim, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, and H. S. Jeong, “Highly efficient transparent organic light-emitting diodes by ion beam assisted deposition-prepared indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033513 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. Y.

J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Hwang, N. S. Cho, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “A randomly nano-structured scattering layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10727–10733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, J. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Organic/metal hybrid cathode for transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(8), 2039–2045 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron. 13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Chung, Y.-W. Ko, Y.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Sohn, H. Y. Chu, and J. H. Lee, “Improvement in performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes with increasing sputtering power in the deposition of indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 093504 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chung, C.-H.

C.-H. Chung, Y.-W. Ko, Y.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Sohn, H. Y. Chu, and J. H. Lee, “Improvement in performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes with increasing sputtering power in the deposition of indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 093504 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cui, C.

J. D. Chen, C. Cui, Y. Q. Li, L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, C. Li, Y. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Single-junction polymer solar cells exceeding 10% power conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(6), 1035–1041 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Deng, Q.-D. Ou, Q.-K. Wang, H.-X. Wei, Y.-Q. Li, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “The role of charge generation layers in the operational stability of tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(11), 1982–1989 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dindar, A.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A universal method to produce low-work function electrodes for organic electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Douglas, E. P.

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elias, X.

R. Betancur, P. Romero-Gomez, A. Martinez-Otero, X. Elias, M. Maymó, and J. Martorell, “Transparent polymer solar cells employing a layered light-trapping architecture,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 995–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eom, S. H.

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Y.-Y.

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, S. Shen, Y. Zhou, Y.-Y. Fan, J. Zhang, and J.-X. Tang, “Tailoring directive gain for high-contrast, wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting diodes using speckle image holograpy metasurfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(34), 22402–22409 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fenoll, M.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A universal method to produce low-work function electrodes for organic electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forrest, S.

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. Burrows, S. Forrest, and M. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

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H.-Y. Xiang, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, H.-J. Xie, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, L.-S. Chen, C.-S. Lee, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
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Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J.-X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
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H.-Y. Xiang, Y.-Q. Li, L. Zhou, H.-J. Xie, C. Li, Q.-D. Ou, L.-S. Chen, C.-S. Lee, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Outcoupling-enhanced flexible organic light-emitting diodes on ameliorated plastic substrate with built-in indium-tin-oxide-free transparent electrode,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7553–7562 (2015).
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J.-D. Chen, L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells featuring a biomimetic active layer and a self-cleaning antireflective coating,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(9), 1301777 (2014).
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Q.-D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y.-Q. Li, S. Shen, J.-D. Chen, C. Li, Q.-K. Wang, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “Extremely efficient white organic light-emitting diodes for general lighting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(46), 7249–7256 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Deng, Q.-D. Ou, Q.-K. Wang, H.-X. Wei, Y.-Q. Li, S.-T. Lee, and J.-X. Tang, “The role of charge generation layers in the operational stability of tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(11), 1982–1989 (2014).
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R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
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Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A universal method to produce low-work function electrodes for organic electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
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T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
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R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the fabrication process of nanostructured white transparent OLEDs. (a) Spin-coating the ZnO layer on ITO-glass substrate. (b) Imprinting the ZnO layer with the PDMS mold. (c) Demolding the PDMS mold. (d) Spin-coating the PEI interlayer on the patterned ZnO layer. (e) Depositing the organic layers and MDCE multilayer onto the patterned PEI/ZnO layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Device structure and surface morphologies. (a) Schematic diagram of white transparent OLED using a metal-dielectric composite electrode (MDCE) as top transparent electrode. (b) SEM image of patterned ZnO on ITO-glass substrate. (c) AFM image of nanostructured device (averaged period: ~400 nm, groove depth: ~50 nm, and fill factor: ~0.6).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thickness optimizations of dielectric layers. (a-c) Simulated transmittance intensities of a planar MoO3/Al-Ag:Ca-Ag/MoO3 multilayer as a function of MoO3 thicknesses for light propagation at the wavelengths of (a) 480 nm, (b) 520 nm and (c) 620 nm, respectively. (d) Simulated spectra intensity distribution as a function of the NPB thickness. For white emission, the optimum thicknesses for internal MoO3, external MoO3 and NPB are 20 nm, 30 nm and 40 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical properties of white transparent OLEDs without and with quasi-periodic nanostructures. (a) Total transmittance of ITO-glass substrate, MDCE structure, flat and nanostructured white transparent OLEDs. (b) Reflectance of flat and nanostructured white transparent OLEDs. (c,d) Photographs of (c) off and (d) on states of nanostructured white transparent OLEDs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Performance characteristics of white transparent OLEDs without and with quasi-periodic nanostructures. (a) Current density-voltage-luminance (J-V-L) characteristics. (b) Current efficiency, (c) power efficiency and (d) EQE as a function of luminance. Total emission is the sum of bottom and top emissions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angular dependence of emission characteristics of white transparent OLEDs. (a) Normalized EL spectra of white transparent OLEDs obtained at 1000 cd m−2 in the direction normal to glass substrate. (b) Normalized angle-dependent emission intensities from bottom and top sides of flat and nanostructured devices. Lambertian emission pattern is displayed as a dashed line. (c,d) CIE color coordinates of (c) bottom and (d) top emissions of flat and nanostructured devices as a function of viewing angle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized cross-section intensity field distributions (at 520 nm) in transparent OLEDs without (a) and with (b) quasi-periodic nanostructures using FDTD method. (c,d) Time dependence of calculated outcoupling efficiency of (c) bottom and top emissions and (d) total emissions from nanostructured device relative to flat device.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized cross-section intensity field distributions in transparent OLEDs without and with quasi-periodic nanostructures. Propagation of a dipole source at 480 nm in (a) flat and (b) nanostructured devices. Propagation of a dipole source at 620 nm in (c) flat and (d) nanostructured devices.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance characteristics of white transparent OLEDs obtained at the maximum values and at a luminance of 1000 cd m−2, respectively. REQE refers to the EQE enhancement ratio of nanostructured device relative to the flat one at a luminance of 1000 cd m−2.

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