Abstract

The trade-off between the spectral bandwidth and average output power from chalcogenide fiber-based mid-infrared supercontinuum sources is one of the major challenges towards practical application of the technology. In this paper we address this challenge through tapering of large-mode-area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers. Compared to previously reported step-index fiber tapers the photonic crystal fiber structure ensures single-mode propagation, which improves the beam quality and reduces losses in the taper due to higher-order mode stripping. By pumping the tapered fibers at 4 μm using a MHz optical parametric generation source, and choosing an appropriate length of the untapered fiber segments, the output could be tailored for either the broadest bandwidth from 1 to 11.5 μm with 35.4 mW average output power, or the highest output power of 57.3 mW covering a spectrum from 1 to 8 μm.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (6)

M. Michalska, J. Mikolajczyk, J. Wojtas, and J. Swiderski, “Mid-infrared, super-flat, supercontinuum generation covering the 2-5 μm spectral band using a fluoroindate fibre pumped with picosecond pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39138 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, Y. Wang, A. Yang, X. Gai, R. Wang, Z. Yang, and B. Luther-Davies, “High brightness 2.2-12 μm mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a nontoxic chalcogenide step-index fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(8), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, K. Nagasaka, G. Qin, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Coherence property of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fibers with different structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011101 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Markos, “Thermo-tunable hybrid photonic crystal fiber based on solution-processed chalcogenide glass nanolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31711 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Athanasiou, J. Ernst, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, J. Chauhan, J. Middleton, C. Parmenter, M. Fay, N. Neate, V. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, and A. B. Seddon, “Toward mid-infrared, subdiffraction, spectral-mapping of human cells and tissue: SNIM (Scanning near-field infrared microscopy) tip fabrication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(4), 1212–1219 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Cheng, K. Nagasaka, T. H. Tuan, X. Xue, M. Matsumoto, H. Tezuka, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation spanning 2.0 to 15.1 μm in a chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Opt. Lett. 41(9), 2117–2120 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (4)

S. Shabahang, G. Tao, M. Marquez, H. Hu, T. Ensley, P. Delfyett, and A. Abouraddy, “Nonlinear characterization of robust multimaterial chalcogenide nanotapers for infrared supercontinuum generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(3), 450–457 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Toupin, L. Brilland, D. Mechin, J.-L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Optical aging of chalcogenide microstructured optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(13), 2428–2432 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Hu, C. Menyuk, L. Shaw, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. W. Rudy, A. Marandi, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in in situ tapered As2S3 fiber pumped by a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2865–2868 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

2011 (4)

A. B. Seddon, “A prospective for new mid-infrared medical endoscopy using chalcogenide glasses,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 2(3), 177–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kohoutek, X. Yan, T. Shiosaka, S. Yannopoulos, A. Chrissanthopoulos, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain of Ge–Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glass for highly nonlinear microstructured optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2294 (2011).

C. Florea, J. Sanghera, L. Busse, B. Shaw, F. Miklos, and I. Aggarwal, “Reduced Fresnel losses in chalcogenide fibers obtained through fiber-end microstructuring,” Appl. Opt. 50(1), 17–21 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, S. A. Dekker, E. C. Mägi, A. C. Judge, S. D. Jackson, E. Li, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Octave spanning supercontinuum in an As2S3 taper using ultralow pump pulse energy,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1122–1124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. Kolesik, E. Wright, and J. Moloney, “Simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in sub-micron diameter tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 293–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Abdel-Moneim, N.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Abouraddy, A.

Adam, J.-L.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Toupin, L. Brilland, D. Mechin, J.-L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Optical aging of chalcogenide microstructured optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(13), 2428–2432 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Toupin, L. Brilland, J. Troles, and J.-L. Adam, “Small core Ge-As-Se microstructured optical fiber with single-mode propagation and low optical losses,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1359–1366 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I.

J. Hu, C. Menyuk, L. Shaw, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Gattass, L. Shaw, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Florea, J. Sanghera, L. Busse, B. Shaw, F. Miklos, and I. Aggarwal, “Reduced Fresnel losses in chalcogenide fibers obtained through fiber-end microstructuring,” Appl. Opt. 50(1), 17–21 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Andersen, T. V.

Anne, M.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Athanasiou, G. S.

Bang, O.

Benson, T.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Benson, T. M.

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

Boussard, C.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brilland, L.

Bureau, B.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Busse, L.

Byer, R. L.

Camy, P.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chahal, R.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Charpentier, F.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chartier, T.

Chauhan, J.

Chen, F.

Cheng, T.

Chrissanthopoulos, A.

T. Kohoutek, X. Yan, T. Shiosaka, S. Yannopoulos, A. Chrissanthopoulos, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain of Ge–Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glass for highly nonlinear microstructured optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2294 (2011).

Churbanov, M. F.

Coulombier, Q.

Cui, S.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dai, S.

de Sterke, C.

Dekker, S. A.

Delfyett, P.

Dianov, E. M.

Doualan, J.-L.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dupont, S.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B.

Eggleton, B. J.

Ensley, T.

Ernst, J.

Fay, M.

Florea, C.

Furniss, D.

G. S. Athanasiou, J. Ernst, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, J. Chauhan, J. Middleton, C. Parmenter, M. Fay, N. Neate, V. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, and A. B. Seddon, “Toward mid-infrared, subdiffraction, spectral-mapping of human cells and tissue: SNIM (Scanning near-field infrared microscopy) tip fabrication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(4), 1212–1219 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gai, X.

B. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, Y. Wang, A. Yang, X. Gai, R. Wang, Z. Yang, and B. Luther-Davies, “High brightness 2.2-12 μm mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a nontoxic chalcogenide step-index fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(8), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, A. Yang, X. Gai, Y. Yu, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, “High-resolution chalcogenide fiber bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4384–4387 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gattass, R.

R. Gattass, L. Shaw, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

Guo, W.

Houizot, P.

Hu, H.

Hu, J.

J. Hu, C. Menyuk, L. Shaw, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hudson, D. D.

Jackson, S. D.

Jakobsen, C.

Johansen, J.

Judge, A.

Judge, A. C.

Kedenburg, S.

Kohoutek, T.

T. Kohoutek, X. Yan, T. Shiosaka, S. Yannopoulos, A. Chrissanthopoulos, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain of Ge–Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glass for highly nonlinear microstructured optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2294 (2011).

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, E. Wright, and J. Moloney, “Simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in sub-micron diameter tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 293–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kubat, I.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuhlmey, B.

Lægsgaard, J.

Laegsgaard, J.

Larsen, C.

Leon-Saval, S.

Li, E.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, K. Nagasaka, G. Qin, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Coherence property of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fibers with different structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Loréal, O.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lucas, J.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lucas, P.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Mägi, E.

Mägi, E. C.

Marandi, A.

Markos, C.

C. Markos, “Thermo-tunable hybrid photonic crystal fiber based on solution-processed chalcogenide glass nanolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31711 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquez, M.

Matsumoto, M.

Mechin, D.

Méchin, D.

Menyuk, C.

J. Hu, C. Menyuk, L. Shaw, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Michalska, M.

M. Michalska, J. Mikolajczyk, J. Wojtas, and J. Swiderski, “Mid-infrared, super-flat, supercontinuum generation covering the 2-5 μm spectral band using a fluoroindate fibre pumped with picosecond pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39138 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Middleton, J.

Miklos, F.

Mikolajczyk, J.

M. Michalska, J. Mikolajczyk, J. Wojtas, and J. Swiderski, “Mid-infrared, super-flat, supercontinuum generation covering the 2-5 μm spectral band using a fluoroindate fibre pumped with picosecond pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39138 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Møller, U.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. T. Sørensen, U. Møller, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, T. V. Andersen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Deep-blue supercontinnum sources with optimum taper profiles--verification of GAM,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10635–10645 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moloney, J.

M. Kolesik, E. Wright, and J. Moloney, “Simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in sub-micron diameter tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 293–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

Monbet, V.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Monteville, A.

Mörz, F.

Moselund, P. M.

N’guyen, T. N.

Nagasaka, K.

L. Liu, K. Nagasaka, G. Qin, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Coherence property of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fibers with different structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Cheng, K. Nagasaka, T. H. Tuan, X. Xue, M. Matsumoto, H. Tezuka, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation spanning 2.0 to 15.1 μm in a chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Opt. Lett. 41(9), 2117–2120 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nazabal, V.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neate, N.

Nguyen, V.

R. Gattass, L. Shaw, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ohishi, Y.

L. Liu, K. Nagasaka, G. Qin, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Coherence property of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fibers with different structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Cheng, K. Nagasaka, T. H. Tuan, X. Xue, M. Matsumoto, H. Tezuka, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation spanning 2.0 to 15.1 μm in a chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Opt. Lett. 41(9), 2117–2120 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kohoutek, X. Yan, T. Shiosaka, S. Yannopoulos, A. Chrissanthopoulos, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain of Ge–Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glass for highly nonlinear microstructured optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2294 (2011).

Orain, H.

Pain, T.

Pant, R.

Parmenter, C.

Petersen, C. R.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Prasad, A.

Pureza, P.

R. Gattass, L. Shaw, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qi, S.

B. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, Y. Wang, A. Yang, X. Gai, R. Wang, Z. Yang, and B. Luther-Davies, “High brightness 2.2-12 μm mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a nontoxic chalcogenide step-index fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(8), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, A. Yang, X. Gai, Y. Yu, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, “High-resolution chalcogenide fiber bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4384–4387 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, G.

L. Liu, K. Nagasaka, G. Qin, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Coherence property of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fibers with different structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Quetel, L.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ramsay, J.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Renversez, G.

Rudy, C. W.

Russell, P. S.

Sanghera, J.

J. Hu, C. Menyuk, L. Shaw, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Gattass, L. Shaw, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Florea, J. Sanghera, L. Busse, B. Shaw, F. Miklos, and I. Aggarwal, “Reduced Fresnel losses in chalcogenide fibers obtained through fiber-end microstructuring,” Appl. Opt. 50(1), 17–21 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanghera, J. S.

Sangleboeuf, J. C.

Seddon, A.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seddon, A. B.

Shabahang, S.

Shaw, B.

Shaw, L.

J. Hu, C. Menyuk, L. Shaw, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Gattass, L. Shaw, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shaw, L. B.

Shiosaka, T.

T. Kohoutek, X. Yan, T. Shiosaka, S. Yannopoulos, A. Chrissanthopoulos, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain of Ge–Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glass for highly nonlinear microstructured optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2294 (2011).

Shiryaev, V.

Sire, O.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smektala, F.

Smith, A.

Sørensen, S. T.

Steinle, T.

Steinmann, A.

Sujecki, S.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Suzuki, T.

L. Liu, K. Nagasaka, G. Qin, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Coherence property of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fibers with different structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Cheng, K. Nagasaka, T. H. Tuan, X. Xue, M. Matsumoto, H. Tezuka, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation spanning 2.0 to 15.1 μm in a chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Opt. Lett. 41(9), 2117–2120 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kohoutek, X. Yan, T. Shiosaka, S. Yannopoulos, A. Chrissanthopoulos, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain of Ge–Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glass for highly nonlinear microstructured optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2294 (2011).

Swiderski, J.

M. Michalska, J. Mikolajczyk, J. Wojtas, and J. Swiderski, “Mid-infrared, super-flat, supercontinuum generation covering the 2-5 μm spectral band using a fluoroindate fibre pumped with picosecond pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39138 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, D.

Tang, Z.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tao, G.

Tariel, H.

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. R.

Tezuka, H.

Thomsen, C. L.

Toupin, P.

Travers, J. C.

Troles, J.

Trolès, J.

Tuan, T. H.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Wadsworth, W.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, R.

Wang, R.-P.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

B. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, Y. Wang, A. Yang, X. Gai, R. Wang, Z. Yang, and B. Luther-Davies, “High brightness 2.2-12 μm mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a nontoxic chalcogenide step-index fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(8), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

Witkowska, A.

Wojtas, J.

M. Michalska, J. Mikolajczyk, J. Wojtas, and J. Swiderski, “Mid-infrared, super-flat, supercontinuum generation covering the 2-5 μm spectral band using a fluoroindate fibre pumped with picosecond pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39138 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, E.

M. Kolesik, E. Wright, and J. Moloney, “Simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in sub-micron diameter tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 293–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Xu, Y.

Xue, X.

Yan, X.

T. Kohoutek, X. Yan, T. Shiosaka, S. Yannopoulos, A. Chrissanthopoulos, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain of Ge–Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glass for highly nonlinear microstructured optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2294 (2011).

Yang, A.

B. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, Y. Wang, A. Yang, X. Gai, R. Wang, Z. Yang, and B. Luther-Davies, “High brightness 2.2-12 μm mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a nontoxic chalcogenide step-index fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(8), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, A. Yang, X. Gai, Y. Yu, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, “High-resolution chalcogenide fiber bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4384–4387 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

B. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, Y. Wang, A. Yang, X. Gai, R. Wang, Z. Yang, and B. Luther-Davies, “High brightness 2.2-12 μm mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a nontoxic chalcogenide step-index fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(8), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, A. Yang, X. Gai, Y. Yu, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, “High-resolution chalcogenide fiber bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4384–4387 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yannopoulos, S.

T. Kohoutek, X. Yan, T. Shiosaka, S. Yannopoulos, A. Chrissanthopoulos, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain of Ge–Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glass for highly nonlinear microstructured optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2294 (2011).

Yu, Y.

B. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, Y. Wang, A. Yang, X. Gai, R. Wang, Z. Yang, and B. Luther-Davies, “High brightness 2.2-12 μm mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a nontoxic chalcogenide step-index fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(8), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, A. Yang, X. Gai, Y. Yu, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, “High-resolution chalcogenide fiber bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4384–4387 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zha, C. J.

Zhai, C.

B. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, Y. Wang, A. Yang, X. Gai, R. Wang, Z. Yang, and B. Luther-Davies, “High brightness 2.2-12 μm mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a nontoxic chalcogenide step-index fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(8), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, A. Yang, X. Gai, Y. Yu, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, “High-resolution chalcogenide fiber bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4384–4387 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, Y. Wang, A. Yang, X. Gai, R. Wang, Z. Yang, and B. Luther-Davies, “High brightness 2.2-12 μm mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a nontoxic chalcogenide step-index fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(8), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, A. Yang, X. Gai, Y. Yu, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, “High-resolution chalcogenide fiber bundles for infrared imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4384–4387 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, B.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Kolesik, E. Wright, and J. Moloney, “Simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in sub-micron diameter tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 293–300 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Liu, K. Nagasaka, G. Qin, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Coherence property of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fibers with different structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011101 (2016).
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Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (1)

A. B. Seddon, “A prospective for new mid-infrared medical endoscopy using chalcogenide glasses,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 2(3), 177–191 (2011).
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J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

B. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, Y. Wang, A. Yang, X. Gai, R. Wang, Z. Yang, and B. Luther-Davies, “High brightness 2.2-12 μm mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a nontoxic chalcogenide step-index fiber,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(8), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Hu, C. Menyuk, L. Shaw, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Bureau, C. Boussard, S. Cui, R. Chahal, M. Anne, V. Nazabal, O. Sire, O. Loréal, P. Lucas, V. Monbet, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Tariel, F. Charpentier, L. Quetel, J.-L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(2), 027101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Q. Coulombier, L. Brilland, P. Houizot, T. Chartier, T. N. N’guyen, F. Smektala, G. Renversez, A. Monteville, D. Méchin, T. Pain, H. Orain, J. C. Sangleboeuf, and J. Trolès, “Casting method for producing low-loss chalcogenide microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9107–9112 (2010).
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W. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. Leon-Saval, and T. Birks, “Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6541–6549 (2005).
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J. Laegsgaard, “Mode profile dispersion in the generalised nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16110–16123 (2007).
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A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R.-P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
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A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
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S. T. Sørensen, U. Møller, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, T. V. Andersen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Deep-blue supercontinnum sources with optimum taper profiles--verification of GAM,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10635–10645 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. Dai, P. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Liu, F. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Zhang, R. Wang, and G. Tao, “Fabrication and characterization of multimaterial chalcogenide glass fiber tapers with high numerical apertures,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23472–23483 (2015).
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Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

R. Gattass, L. Shaw, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
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Opt. Lett. (7)

J. C. Travers and J. R. Taylor, “Soliton trapping of dispersive waves in tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 115–117 (2009).
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S. Kedenburg, T. Steinle, F. Mörz, A. Steinmann, and H. Giessen, “High-power mid-infrared high repetition-rate supercontinuum source based on a chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2668–2671 (2015).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Sci. Rep. (2)

C. Markos, “Thermo-tunable hybrid photonic crystal fiber based on solution-processed chalcogenide glass nanolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31711 (2016).
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M. Michalska, J. Mikolajczyk, J. Wojtas, and J. Swiderski, “Mid-infrared, super-flat, supercontinuum generation covering the 2-5 μm spectral band using a fluoroindate fibre pumped with picosecond pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39138 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (34519 KB)      Simulated spectrogram evolution with propagation distance for a long length of fiber before the taper
» Visualization 2: AVI (34519 KB)      Simulated spectrogram evolution with propagation distance for a short length of fiber before the taper

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characterization of the Ge10As22Se68 fiber. (a) Fiber loss in the 12.7 μm core diameter PCF measured using the cut-back technique (solid line), together with the material loss profile used for simulations (dashed). (b) Measured spontaneous Raman scattering spectrum used for modelling the Raman response. Inset shows the collected Raman signal distribution from the fiber end facet (c) SEM image of the fiber end facet showing calculation of the mean hole diameter (d) and pitch (Λ) . (d) Calculated dispersion curves for different core diameters assuming constant pitch-to-hole ratio d/Λ=0.44 and hole diameter and pitch as in Table 1. The asterisks show the measured dispersion of the 12.7 μm core diameter fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Taper characterization. (a) Illustration of the longitudinal sections of the tapered fiber: Length before the taper ( L BT ) , down-taper length ( L DT ) , waist length ( L W ) , up-taper length ( L UT ) , and length after the taper ( L AT ) . (b,c) Same magnification SEM images of the 12.7 μm fiber cross-section in L BT and L W , respectively. (d) Normalized FTIR transmission through the three tapers before cut-back. (e) Typical measured outer diameter profile in the taper transition region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a,b) Calculated dispersion and (c,d) confinement losses for the 12.7 μm fiber (a,c) and 15.1 μm fiber (b,d) assuming a linear reduction in hole size (solid lines) as indicated in the legend. The core diameter is given by 2Λd . The corresponding dispersion and confinement loss for the smallest core diameter and constant d/Λ is plotted as a dashed line for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for MIR pump and supercontinuum generation. A 1.04 μm laser is focused together with a CW seed inside the nonlinear crystal for parametric anti-Stokes generation. The light below 3.5 μm is filtered out and the beam collimated by an achromatic doublet. The beam is directed to a ZnSe asphere for fiber coupling, and the power is tuned by a polarizer (BD-2: Black diamond chalcogenide lens, LPF: Long-pass filter).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Overview of experimental results with (a-c) 12.7 μm and (d) 11.5 μm fibers pumping at 4.0 μm (blue) and 4.4 μm (red). (a) SC generated in 25 cm untapered 12.7 μm fiber (*: Power above 4.5 μm was in this case derived from the PSD plot normalized to the total output power). (b,c) Experimental (solid) and numerical (dashed) output spectra for a tapered 12.7 μm fiber with L BT  ~ 20 cm and L BT  ~ 4.5 cm, respectively. (d) Output spectrum for the 11.5 μm fiber having both a short L BT  ~ 4 cm and L AT  ~ 5 cm. (e,f) Numerical modelling of experiments with 4 μm pumping in (b) and (c), respectively, showing the effect of the cut-back for a 250 fs Gaussian pulse with 16 kW peak power. The different sections of the taper is indicated by white dashed lines, and the ZDWs are indicated by black lines.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Overview of experimental results for SC in the 15.1 μm tapered fiber. (a) Highest measured output power with a spectrum from 1 to 8 μm generated with a long L BT  ~ 25 cm and short L AT  ~ 7.5 cm. (b) SC generated in the same fiber as (a), but coupling in from the other end of the fiber. (c) Broadest SC generated with L BT  ~ 7.5 cm and L AT cut back to ~4 cm, resulting in extension of the LW edge to 11.5 μm. (d) Output spectra with increasing power for pump case (c). (e) Contour plot illustrating the spectral broadening evolution in pump case (c) with increasing pump power. The dashed lines show the expected ZDWs at the waist assuming negligible hole collapse.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated time-wavelength spectrograms corresponding to the simulation in Fig. 5(e). (a) Formation of soliton A and DW pair. (b) Fission and red-shift of soliton A, together with emergence of soliton B. (c) Soliton B has merged with lesser solitons and red-shifted beyond soliton A. (d) The SSFS of A and B stagnate, and soliton C emerges just before the down-taper transition. (e) New DWs appear after down-tapering due to change in ZDWs, and energy radiates from soliton clusters A/B. (f) After the up-taper interaction length is again increased, resulting in XPM/FWM between solitons C/D and the SPM-broadened part of the pulse at 3-3.5 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean structural parameters for the produced chalcogenide PCFs measured in the untapered fiber and in the taper waist using SEM and confocal microscopy. The values in parenthesis indicate the diameters of the tapers used for SCG. *: Values estimated from fiber outer diameter (OD).

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