Abstract

Laser-induced damage with ps pulse widths straddles the transition from intrinsic, multi-photon ionization and avalanche ionization-based ablation with fs pulses to defect-dominated, thermal-based damage with ns pulses. We investigated the morphology of damage for fused silica and silica coatings between 1 ps and 60 ps at 1053 nm. Using calibrated laser-induced damage experiments, in situ imaging, and high-resolution optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we show that defects play an important role in laser-induced damage down to 1 ps. Three types of damage are observed: ablation craters, ultra-high density pits, and smooth, circular depressions with central pits. For 10 ps and longer, the smooth, circular depressions limit the damage performance of fused silica and silica coatings. The observed high-density pits and material removal down to 3 ps indicate that variations in surface properties limit the laser-induced damage onset to a greater extent than expected below 60 ps. Below 3 ps, damage craters are smoother although there is still evidence as seen by AFM of inhomogeneous laser-induced damage response very near the damage onset. These results show that modeling the damage onset only as a function of pulse width does not capture the convoluted processes leading to laser induced damage with ps pulses. It is necessary to account for the effects of defects on the processes leading to laser-induced damage. The effects of isolated defects or inhomogeneities are most pronounced above 3 ps but are still discernible and possibly important down to the shortest pulse width investigated here.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

H. Wang, H. Qi, J. Zhao, B. Wang, and J. Shao, “Transition from isolated submicrometer pits to integral ablation of HfO2 and SiO2 films under subpicosecond irradiation,” Opt. Commun. 387, 214–222 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, T. A. Laurence, K. Stanion, G. Guss, D. A. Cross, P. J. Wegner, and C. J. Stolz, “Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011008 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Gallais, D.-B. Douti, M. Commandré, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, L. Smalakys, V. Sirutkaitis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(22), 223103 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, H. Qi, B. Wang, Y. Cui, M. Guo, J. Zhao, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, “Defect analysis of UV high-reflective coatings used in the high power laser system,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5213–5220 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Mitchell, D. W. Schumacher, and E. A. Chowdhury, “Modeling crater formation in femtosecond-pulse laser damage from basic principles,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2189–2192 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Alessi, C. W. Carr, R. P. Hackel, R. A. Negres, K. Stanion, J. E. Fair, D. A. Cross, J. Nissen, R. Luthi, G. Guss, J. A. Britten, W. H. Gourdin, and C. Haefner, “Picosecond laser damage performance assessment of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15532–15544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, L. A. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Determination of defect densities from spatiotemporally resolved optical-laser induced damage measurements,” Appl. Opt. 54(22), 6813–6819 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, L. A. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Spatio-TEmporally REsolved Optical Laser Induced Damage (STEREO LID) technique for material characterization,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21607–21614 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nieto, J. Arines, G. M. O’Connor, and M. T. Flores-Arias, “Single-pulse laser ablation threshold of borosilicate, fused silica, sapphire, and soda-lime glass for pulse widths of 500 fs, 10 ps, 20 ns,” Appl. Opt. 54(29), 8596–8601 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

C. Xu and F. W. Wise, “Recent advances in fiber lasers for nonlinear microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 1006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 TBIT/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

L. Gallais, J. Capoulade, J.-Y. Natoli, and M. Commandré, “Investigation of nanodefect properties in optical coatings by coupling measured and simulated laser damage statistics,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(5), 053120 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. V. Smith and B. T. Do, “Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt. 47(26), 4812–4832 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2−x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Two mechanisms of crater formation in ultraviolet-pulsed-laser irradiated SiO2 thin films with artificial defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114906 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. H. Chowdhury, A. Q. Wu, X. Xu, and A. M. Weiner, “Ultra-fast laser absorption and ablation dynamics in wide-band-gap dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(8), 1627–1632 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, C. A. Ebbers, C. P. J. Barty, N. Forget, and C. Le Blanc, “Generation of high-contrast millijoule pulses by optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification in periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 1036–1038 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

I. Jovanovic, C. Brown, B. Wattellier, N. Nielsen, W. Molander, B. Stuart, D. Pennington, and C. P. J. Barty, “Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(12), 5193–5202 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alessi, D. A.

D. A. Alessi, C. W. Carr, R. P. Hackel, R. A. Negres, K. Stanion, J. E. Fair, D. A. Cross, J. Nissen, R. Luthi, G. Guss, J. A. Britten, W. H. Gourdin, and C. Haefner, “Picosecond laser damage performance assessment of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15532–15544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, R. A. Negres, S. Ly, N. Shen, C. W. Carr, D. A. Alessi, A. Rigatti, and J. D. Bude, “The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: II. scaling laws and the density of precursors,” Submitted (2017).

Arines, J.

Arnold, P.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Barty, C. P. J.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, C. A. Ebbers, C. P. J. Barty, N. Forget, and C. Le Blanc, “Generation of high-contrast millijoule pulses by optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification in periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 1036–1038 (2005).
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I. Jovanovic, C. Brown, B. Wattellier, N. Nielsen, W. Molander, B. Stuart, D. Pennington, and C. P. J. Barty, “Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(12), 5193–5202 (2004).
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Bataviciute, G.

L. Gallais, D.-B. Douti, M. Commandré, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, L. Smalakys, V. Sirutkaitis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(22), 223103 (2015).
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Baxamusa, S.

Boley, C. D.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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Bowers, M. W.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Britten, J. A.

Brown, C.

I. Jovanovic, C. Brown, B. Wattellier, N. Nielsen, W. Molander, B. Stuart, D. Pennington, and C. P. J. Barty, “Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(12), 5193–5202 (2004).
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Brown, C. G.

Bude, J.

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Carr, J. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Carr, J. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bude, J. D.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, and S. Ly, “Quasi-continuum photoluminescence: Unusual broad spectral and temporal characteristics found in defective surfaces of silica and other materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(8), 083501 (2014).
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T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, R. A. Negres, S. Ly, N. Shen, C. W. Carr, D. A. Alessi, A. Rigatti, and J. D. Bude, “The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: II. scaling laws and the density of precursors,” Submitted (2017).

Budge, T. S.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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Capoulade, J.

L. Gallais, J. Capoulade, J.-Y. Natoli, and M. Commandré, “Investigation of nanodefect properties in optical coatings by coupling measured and simulated laser damage statistics,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(5), 053120 (2008).
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Carr, C.

C. Carr, J. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Carr, J. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carr, C. W.

R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, T. A. Laurence, K. Stanion, G. Guss, D. A. Cross, P. J. Wegner, and C. J. Stolz, “Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011008 (2016).
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D. A. Alessi, C. W. Carr, R. P. Hackel, R. A. Negres, K. Stanion, J. E. Fair, D. A. Cross, J. Nissen, R. Luthi, G. Guss, J. A. Britten, W. H. Gourdin, and C. Haefner, “Picosecond laser damage performance assessment of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15532–15544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A859–A864 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2−x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, R. A. Negres, S. Ly, N. Shen, C. W. Carr, D. A. Alessi, A. Rigatti, and J. D. Bude, “The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: II. scaling laws and the density of precursors,” Submitted (2017).

Carr, W.

Chen, S.

Chimier, B.

B. Chimier, O. Uteza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Legare, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84(9), 094104 (2011).
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Chowdhury, E. A.

Chowdhury, I. H.

I. H. Chowdhury, A. Q. Wu, X. Xu, and A. M. Weiner, “Ultra-fast laser absorption and ablation dynamics in wide-band-gap dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(8), 1627–1632 (2005).
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Christensen, K.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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Clapp, B.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
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Clausen, A. T.

H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 TBIT/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
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Commandré, M.

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
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Crane, J. K.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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Cross, D.

Cross, D. A.

Cui, Y.

Dawson, J. W.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

DeMange, P.

C. Carr, J. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Carr, J. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
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Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
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S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

Di Nicola, J. M.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Do, B. T.

Douti, D.-B.

L. Gallais, D.-B. Douti, M. Commandré, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, L. Smalakys, V. Sirutkaitis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(22), 223103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ebbers, C. A.

Emmert, L. A.

Erbert, G.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Fair, J. E.

Fang, Z.

Feigenbaum, E.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Feit, M. D.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2−x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, T.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Flores-Arias, M. T.

Forget, N.

Galili, M.

H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 TBIT/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gallais, L.

Gong, Q.

Gourdin, W. H.

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 TBIT/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, M.

Guss, G.

R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, T. A. Laurence, K. Stanion, G. Guss, D. A. Cross, P. J. Wegner, and C. J. Stolz, “Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011008 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. Alessi, C. W. Carr, R. P. Hackel, R. A. Negres, K. Stanion, J. E. Fair, D. A. Cross, J. Nissen, R. Luthi, G. Guss, J. A. Britten, W. H. Gourdin, and C. Haefner, “Picosecond laser damage performance assessment of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15532–15544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hackel, R. P.

Haefner, C.

D. A. Alessi, C. W. Carr, R. P. Hackel, R. A. Negres, K. Stanion, J. E. Fair, D. A. Cross, J. Nissen, R. Luthi, G. Guss, J. A. Britten, W. H. Gourdin, and C. Haefner, “Picosecond laser damage performance assessment of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15532–15544 (2015).
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J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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Heebner, J. E.

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J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
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B. Chimier, O. Uteza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Legare, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84(9), 094104 (2011).
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T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, and S. Ly, “Quasi-continuum photoluminescence: Unusual broad spectral and temporal characteristics found in defective surfaces of silica and other materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(8), 083501 (2014).
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T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
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P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
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P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
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T. A. Laurence, R. A. Negres, S. Ly, N. Shen, C. W. Carr, D. A. Alessi, A. Rigatti, and J. D. Bude, “The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: II. scaling laws and the density of precursors,” Submitted (2017).

Lawson, J. K.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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Legare, F.

B. Chimier, O. Uteza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Legare, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84(9), 094104 (2011).
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Liu, J.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
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J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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Luthi, R.

Ly, S.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, and S. Ly, “Quasi-continuum photoluminescence: Unusual broad spectral and temporal characteristics found in defective surfaces of silica and other materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(8), 083501 (2014).
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T. A. Laurence, R. A. Negres, S. Ly, N. Shen, C. W. Carr, D. A. Alessi, A. Rigatti, and J. D. Bude, “The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: II. scaling laws and the density of precursors,” Submitted (2017).

Mangote, B.

Martin, S.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
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McCandless, K.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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Melninkaitis, A.

Menapace, J.

Mero, M.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
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M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miller, P.

Miller, P. E.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
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P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
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Mitchell, R. A.

Molander, W.

I. Jovanovic, C. Brown, B. Wattellier, N. Nielsen, W. Molander, B. Stuart, D. Pennington, and C. P. J. Barty, “Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(12), 5193–5202 (2004).
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Monticelli, M. V.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
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R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, T. A. Laurence, K. Stanion, G. Guss, D. A. Cross, P. J. Wegner, and C. J. Stolz, “Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011008 (2016).
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D. A. Alessi, C. W. Carr, R. P. Hackel, R. A. Negres, K. Stanion, J. E. Fair, D. A. Cross, J. Nissen, R. Luthi, G. Guss, J. A. Britten, W. H. Gourdin, and C. Haefner, “Picosecond laser damage performance assessment of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15532–15544 (2015).
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S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
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S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
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C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A859–A864 (2011).
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T. A. Laurence, R. A. Negres, S. Ly, N. Shen, C. W. Carr, D. A. Alessi, A. Rigatti, and J. D. Bude, “The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: II. scaling laws and the density of precursors,” Submitted (2017).

Nielsen, N.

I. Jovanovic, C. Brown, B. Wattellier, N. Nielsen, W. Molander, B. Stuart, D. Pennington, and C. P. J. Barty, “Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(12), 5193–5202 (2004).
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Nieto, D.

Nissen, J.

Norton, M. A.

C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A859–A864 (2011).
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T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
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O’Connor, G. M.

Oxenlowe, L. K.

H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenlowe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 TBIT/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
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J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
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Pennington, D.

I. Jovanovic, C. Brown, B. Wattellier, N. Nielsen, W. Molander, B. Stuart, D. Pennington, and C. P. J. Barty, “Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(12), 5193–5202 (2004).
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Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
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J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Prantil, M. A.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Pupka, E.

L. Gallais, D.-B. Douti, M. Commandré, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, L. Smalakys, V. Sirutkaitis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(22), 223103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qi, H.

H. Wang, H. Qi, J. Zhao, B. Wang, and J. Shao, “Transition from isolated submicrometer pits to integral ablation of HfO2 and SiO2 films under subpicosecond irradiation,” Opt. Commun. 387, 214–222 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, H. Qi, B. Wang, Y. Cui, M. Guo, J. Zhao, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, “Defect analysis of UV high-reflective coatings used in the high power laser system,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5213–5220 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raman, R. N.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rehak, M. L.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Rever, M. A.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rigatti, A.

T. A. Laurence, R. A. Negres, S. Ly, N. Shen, C. W. Carr, D. A. Alessi, A. Rigatti, and J. D. Bude, “The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: II. scaling laws and the density of precursors,” Submitted (2017).

Ristau, D.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rubenchik, A. M.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica: Material response during nanosecond laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2−x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudolph, W.

Y. Xu, L. A. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Spatio-TEmporally REsolved Optical Laser Induced Damage (STEREO LID) technique for material characterization,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21607–21614 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, L. A. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Determination of defect densities from spatiotemporally resolved optical-laser induced damage measurements,” Appl. Opt. 54(22), 6813–6819 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rushford, M. C.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Sacks, R. A.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Sanner, N.

B. Chimier, O. Uteza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Legare, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84(9), 094104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schmid, A. W.

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Two mechanisms of crater formation in ultraviolet-pulsed-laser irradiated SiO2 thin films with artificial defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114906 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schumacher, D. W.

Šciuka, M.

L. Gallais, D.-B. Douti, M. Commandré, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, L. Smalakys, V. Sirutkaitis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(22), 223103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sentis, M.

B. Chimier, O. Uteza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Legare, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84(9), 094104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shao, J.

Shaw, M.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, N.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, and S. Ly, “Quasi-continuum photoluminescence: Unusual broad spectral and temporal characteristics found in defective surfaces of silica and other materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(8), 083501 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, R. A. Negres, S. Ly, N. Shen, C. W. Carr, D. A. Alessi, A. Rigatti, and J. D. Bude, “The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: II. scaling laws and the density of precursors,” Submitted (2017).

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirutkaitis, V.

Smalakys, L.

L. Gallais, D.-B. Douti, M. Commandré, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, L. Smalakys, V. Sirutkaitis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(22), 223103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smauley, D.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, A. V.

Smith, L. K.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Speck, R.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Spinka, T. M.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Stanion, K.

R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, T. A. Laurence, K. Stanion, G. Guss, D. A. Cross, P. J. Wegner, and C. J. Stolz, “Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011008 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. A. Alessi, C. W. Carr, R. P. Hackel, R. A. Negres, K. Stanion, J. E. Fair, D. A. Cross, J. Nissen, R. Luthi, G. Guss, J. A. Britten, W. H. Gourdin, and C. Haefner, “Picosecond laser damage performance assessment of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15532–15544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starke, K.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Steele, W.

Steele, W. A.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, and S. Ly, “Quasi-continuum photoluminescence: Unusual broad spectral and temporal characteristics found in defective surfaces of silica and other materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(8), 083501 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stolz, C. J.

R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, T. A. Laurence, K. Stanion, G. Guss, D. A. Cross, P. J. Wegner, and C. J. Stolz, “Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stuart, B.

I. Jovanovic, C. Brown, B. Wattellier, N. Nielsen, W. Molander, B. Stuart, D. Pennington, and C. P. J. Barty, “Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(12), 5193–5202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

Suratwala, T.

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T. I.

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tietbohl, G.

J. M. Di Nicola, S. T. Yang, C. D. Boley, J. K. Crane, J. E. Heebner, T. M. Spinka, P. Arnold, C. P. J. Barty, M. W. Bowers, T. S. Budge, K. Christensen, J. W. Dawson, G. Erbert, E. Feigenbaum, G. Guss, C. Haefner, M. R. Hermann, D. Homoelle, J. A. Jarboe, J. K. Lawson, R. Lowe-Webb, K. McCandless, B. McHale, L. J. Pelz, P. P. Pham, M. A. Prantil, M. L. Rehak, M. A. Rever, M. C. Rushford, R. A. Sacks, M. Shaw, D. Smauley, L. K. Smith, R. Speck, G. Tietbohl, P. J. Wegner, and C. Widmayer, “The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output,” Proc. SPIE 9345, 93450I (2015).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Uteza, O.

B. Chimier, O. Uteza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Legare, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84(9), 094104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vidal, F.

B. Chimier, O. Uteza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Legare, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84(9), 094104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

H. Wang, H. Qi, J. Zhao, B. Wang, and J. Shao, “Transition from isolated submicrometer pits to integral ablation of HfO2 and SiO2 films under subpicosecond irradiation,” Opt. Commun. 387, 214–222 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, H. Qi, B. Wang, Y. Cui, M. Guo, J. Zhao, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, “Defect analysis of UV high-reflective coatings used in the high power laser system,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5213–5220 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, H. Qi, J. Zhao, B. Wang, and J. Shao, “Transition from isolated submicrometer pits to integral ablation of HfO2 and SiO2 films under subpicosecond irradiation,” Opt. Commun. 387, 214–222 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, H. Qi, B. Wang, Y. Cui, M. Guo, J. Zhao, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, “Defect analysis of UV high-reflective coatings used in the high power laser system,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5213–5220 (2015).
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Wattellier, B.

I. Jovanovic, C. Brown, B. Wattellier, N. Nielsen, W. Molander, B. Stuart, D. Pennington, and C. P. J. Barty, “Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(12), 5193–5202 (2004).
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Wegner, P. J.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A. Fluence damage onset (defined at 50% damage probability) for three samples: fused silica (black), e-beam silica coating (red), PIAD silica coating (green). For each sample there are two definitions of damage used. Solid lines indicate 50% probability of damage for any observed change, whereas for the dotted lines, only sites that include deeper damage pits with features at least 100 nm deep or that follow the spatial profile of the beam, i.e. near Gaussian. The deeper damage pits were initially observed as visible, dark pits using our in situ microscope. The size and depth of these pits were verified using confocal microscopy and AFM. B. 1-on-1 damage probability curves for 31 ps. Legend is same as in A. C. Probability of damage as function of fluence normalized by the fluence at which 50% of sites damage for pulse widths ranging from 0.9 to 59 ps.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematics of damage morphologies found in laser-induced damage for 1-60 ps pulse widths. For bare substrate: A. Smooth ablation crater of ~50 μm wide (size of beam), 200 – 1000 nm deep. B. High density pits ~25-50 nm deep, ~50 nm wide that coalesce to form large damage craters. C. Smooth, circular depressions 75-200 nm deep, 1-10 μm wide with small, deep pit associated with smooth, wide, shallow craters. For coated substrate: D. Crater from removal of coating and material ablation typically greater than 300 nm deep. E) Smooth, circular depression with small, deep pit in center, similar to those found in C).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Plot of fluences for images of damage sites in Fig. 4 overlaid on to the 50% damage probability for fused silica. Blue squares are for low fluence images, where damage just begins to occur (~10% damage level). Cyan circles are for mid-fluence images (~50% damage level). Magenta triangles are for high fluence images (~100% damage level).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Confocal images of laser induced damage sites as a function of pulse width and fluence for fused silica. The first three columns of images show the damage sites at low fluence, mid fluence, and high fluence for each pulse width. The last column shows the line-out profile corresponding to the high fluence column with 0 μm indicating the surface. Confocal images of damage sites near the damage onset (low) suggest that extrinsic factors affect the damage onset and mechanisms. Smooth, circular depression sites appear in the 13-59 ps range. For higher fluences, the smooth ablation craters at short pulses (0.9 ps to 1.8 ps) give way to extremely rough crater for longer pulses. The orange line across the image on the “high” column corresponds to the line-out in the last column. The orange arrow in the last column indicates the edge of the damage site.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A. AFM image of single shot damage site for 13 ps pulse near the onset of damage. Same site as image for 13 ps and 13.5 J/cm2, “low” column in Fig. 4. B. AFM image of single shot damage site for 31 ps pulse width just above damage onset. Same site as image for 31 ps, “low” column” in Fig. 4. C. AFM image of single shot damage site for 59 ps pulse width near the onset of damage. Same site as image for 59 ps, 40.3 J/ cm2 in Fig. 4. D-F. Lineouts from corresponding images. The surface of the substrate is located at 0.00 μm on the y-axis. The locations of the lineouts are marked in green. G) SEM image corresponding to the region in A with the line in green approximately same location as A. H) SEM image corresponding to magnified view in B with the line in green approximately same location as B.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 A. AFM image of single shot damage site for 1.8 ps pulse just above damage onset. Same site as image for 1.8 ps, 5.3 J/ cm2, “low” column in Fig. 4. B. AFM image of single shot damage site for 3.6 ps pulse width just below crater formation, but above damage onset. Same site as image for 3.6 ps, in Fig. 4. C. Zoom in on same site as in B in order to show structure of surface after laser shot. D-F. Lineouts from corresponding images above lineouts. . The surface of the substrate is located at 0.00 μm on the y-axis. The locations of the lineouts are marked in green. G. SEM image corresponding to an unspecified region on image A. On the left edge of the ablation pit that sits toward the right, many small pits observable. H. SEM image corresponding to the site in B. A region similar to that for the line-out in B is shown as an inset at higher magnification.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Plot of fluences for images of damage sites overlaid on to the 50% damage probability for e-beam coating of silica. Blue squares are for low fluences images (any change observed). Cyan circles are for mid-fluence images (~50% damage probability). Magenta triangles are for high fluence images (100% damage).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Confocal images of laser induced damage sites as a function of pulse width and fluence for an e-beam silica coating. The first three columns of images show the damage sites at low fluence, mid fluence, and high fluence for each pulse width. The last column shows the line-out profile corresponding to the high fluence column with 0 μm indicating the surface. Confocal images of damage sites near or just below damage onset (low fluence column) show evidence of isolated precursors for laser-induced damage. The isolated precursors appear as small gray circles in the confocal images. The isolated damage sites appear significantly more prominent in the 13-59 ps range. For short pulses 0.9 ps, 1.8 ps and 3.6 ps, complete coating removal is the most common morphology observed. In contrast, damage sites for pulse widths of 13 ps and greater exhibit rougher damage sites that appear to be conglomerations of many small damage sites. The orange line across the image on the “high” column corresponds to the line-out in the last column.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 A. AFM image of single shot damage site for 0.9 ps pulse near the damage onset. Same site as image for 0.9 ps, top row in Fig. 8 (“low” column, 5.4 J/cm2). B. AFM image of single shot damage site for 13 ps pulse width near the damage onset (“low” column, 9.1 J/cm2). C. AFM image of single shot damage site for 31 ps pulse width near the onset of damage [dashed line in Fig. 7]. D-F. Lineouts from corresponding images above. The locations of the lineouts are marked in green. G. SEM image corresponding to region of line-out in A showing small, isolated damage site visible in confocal microscopy as well as numerous, nanoscale pits in the coating. H. SEM image of C, showing SEM images of pits corresponding to line-out in F.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Surface roughness and profiles of damage morphologies observed from bare fused silica and coated substrates.

Metrics