Abstract

We report the generation of prescribed optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum with spiral complex field modulation. Both symmetric and asymmetric OAM spectrums are generated with a vector beam generator and measured with a hybrid conformal mapper. Three methods for OAM spectrum generation ranging from the pure spiral phase modulation, the spiral amplitude and phase modulation, to the spiral phase and polarization modulation are demonstrated. The OAM spectrum generation with spiral complex field modulation may find applications in optical trapping and high-speed data communication.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

C. Wan, J. Chen, and Q. Zhan, “Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter,” APL Photon. 2(3), 031302 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wan, J. Chen, X. Tang, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental demonstration of a highly efficient fan-out polarization grating,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39626 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

M. Malik, M. Mirhosseini, M. P. Lavery, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Direct measurement of a 27-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum state vector,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3115 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “What spatial light modulators can do for optical microscopy,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 81–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Wan, B. Tiffany, and J. R. Leger, “Analysis of path length sensitivity in coherent beam combining by spatial filtering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(6), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, N. Zhang, and X. C. Yuan, “High-volume optical vortex multiplexing and de-multiplexing for free-space optical communication,” Opt. Express 19(2), 482–492 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

M. V. Vasnetsov, V. A. Pas’ko, and M. S. Soskin, “Analysis of orbital angular momentum of a misaligned optical beam,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 46 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. J. Corcoran and F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201118 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, X.-C. Yuan, S. H. Tao, and R. E. Burge, “Collinear superposition of multiple helical beams generated by a single azimuthally modulated phase-only element,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3266–3268 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles,” Phys. Rev. A 54(2), 1593–1596 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Albero, J.

Allen, L.

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arlt, J.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashrafi, N.

Ashrafi, S.

Beijersbergen, M. W.

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkhout, G. C.

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “What spatial light modulators can do for optical microscopy,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 81–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Size selective trapping with optical “cogwheel” tweezers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4129–4135 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bock, R.

Boyd, R. W.

M. Malik, M. Mirhosseini, M. P. Lavery, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Direct measurement of a 27-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum state vector,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3115 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, and R. W. Boyd, “Near-perfect sorting of orbital angular momentum and angular position states of light,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24444–24449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burge, R. E.

Chen, J.

C. Wan, J. Chen, and Q. Zhan, “Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter,” APL Photon. 2(3), 031302 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wan, J. Chen, X. Tang, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental demonstration of a highly efficient fan-out polarization grating,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39626 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, W.

Corcoran, C. J.

C. J. Corcoran and F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cottrell, D. M.

Courtial, J.

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, J. A.

Dholakia, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dudley, A.

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. A. Litvin, A. Dudley, F. S. Roux, and A. Forbes, “Azimuthal decomposition with digital holograms,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10996–11004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duparré, M.

Durville, F.

C. J. Corcoran and F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Enger, J.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles,” Phys. Rev. A 54(2), 1593–1596 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Forbes, A.

Friese, M. E. J.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles,” Phys. Rev. A 54(2), 1593–1596 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fürhapter, S.

Granger, C. E.

Han, W.

Heckenberg, N. R.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles,” Phys. Rev. A 54(2), 1593–1596 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jesacher, A.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “What spatial light modulators can do for optical microscopy,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 81–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Size selective trapping with optical “cogwheel” tweezers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4129–4135 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. C.

Lavery, M. P.

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Malik, M. Mirhosseini, M. P. Lavery, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Direct measurement of a 27-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum state vector,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3115 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

M. Malik, M. Mirhosseini, M. P. Lavery, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Direct measurement of a 27-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum state vector,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3115 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leger, J. R.

C. Wan, B. Tiffany, and J. R. Leger, “Analysis of path length sensitivity in coherent beam combining by spatial filtering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(6), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Levy, U.

Li, L.

Lin, J.

Litvin, I. A.

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malik, M.

M. Malik, M. Mirhosseini, M. P. Lavery, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Direct measurement of a 27-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum state vector,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3115 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, and R. W. Boyd, “Near-perfect sorting of orbital angular momentum and angular position states of light,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24444–24449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maurer, C.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “What spatial light modulators can do for optical microscopy,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 81–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

McCormick, K. R.

McLaren, M.

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mirhosseini, M.

M. Malik, M. Mirhosseini, M. P. Lavery, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Direct measurement of a 27-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum state vector,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3115 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, and R. W. Boyd, “Near-perfect sorting of orbital angular momentum and angular position states of light,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24444–24449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molisch, A. F.

Moreno, I.

Ngcobo, S.

O’Sullivan, M. N.

Padgett, M. J.

M. Malik, M. Mirhosseini, M. P. Lavery, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Direct measurement of a 27-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum state vector,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3115 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pas’ko, V. A.

M. V. Vasnetsov, V. A. Pas’ko, and M. S. Soskin, “Analysis of orbital angular momentum of a misaligned optical beam,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 46 (2005).
[Crossref]

Paterson, L.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “What spatial light modulators can do for optical microscopy,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 81–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Size selective trapping with optical “cogwheel” tweezers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4129–4135 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roux, F. S.

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles,” Phys. Rev. A 54(2), 1593–1596 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulze, C.

Shi, Z.

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simpson, N. B.

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soskin, M. S.

M. V. Vasnetsov, V. A. Pas’ko, and M. S. Soskin, “Analysis of orbital angular momentum of a misaligned optical beam,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 46 (2005).
[Crossref]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, X.

C. Wan, J. Chen, X. Tang, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental demonstration of a highly efficient fan-out polarization grating,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39626 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, S. H.

Tiffany, B.

C. Wan, B. Tiffany, and J. R. Leger, “Analysis of path length sensitivity in coherent beam combining by spatial filtering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(6), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. H.

Tur, M.

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

M. V. Vasnetsov, V. A. Pas’ko, and M. S. Soskin, “Analysis of orbital angular momentum of a misaligned optical beam,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 46 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volke-Sepulveda, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, C.

C. Wan, J. Chen, and Q. Zhan, “Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter,” APL Photon. 2(3), 031302 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wan, J. Chen, X. Tang, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental demonstration of a highly efficient fan-out polarization grating,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39626 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wan, “Laser beam splitting by polarization encoding,” Appl. Opt. 54(9), 2495–2500 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wan, B. Tiffany, and J. R. Leger, “Analysis of path length sensitivity in coherent beam combining by spatial filtering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(6), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Simultaneous generation of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single phase-only element,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26221–26233 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, A. E.

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, G.

Yan, Y.

G. Xie, L. Li, Y. Ren, H. Huang, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, M. P. Lavery, N. Ashrafi, S. Ashrafi, R. Bock, M. Tur, A. F. Molisch, and A. E. Willner, “Performance metrics and design considerations for a free-space optical orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed communication link,” Optica 2(4), 357–365 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Yuan, X. C.

Yuan, X.-C.

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

C. Wan, J. Chen, and Q. Zhan, “Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter,” APL Photon. 2(3), 031302 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wan, J. Chen, X. Tang, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental demonstration of a highly efficient fan-out polarization grating,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39626 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Han, Y. Yang, W. Cheng, and Q. Zhan, “Vectorial optical field generator for the creation of arbitrarily complex fields,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20692–20706 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, N.

Zhao, Z.

Zhu, L.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

APL Photon. (1)

C. Wan, J. Chen, and Q. Zhan, “Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter,” APL Photon. 2(3), 031302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. J. Corcoran and F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201118 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Wan, B. Tiffany, and J. R. Leger, “Analysis of path length sensitivity in coherent beam combining by spatial filtering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(6), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “What spatial light modulators can do for optical microscopy,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 81–101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Malik, M. Mirhosseini, M. P. Lavery, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Direct measurement of a 27-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum state vector,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3115 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. V. Vasnetsov, V. A. Pas’ko, and M. S. Soskin, “Analysis of orbital angular momentum of a misaligned optical beam,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 46 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Size selective trapping with optical “cogwheel” tweezers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4129–4135 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Levy, C. H. Tsai, H. C. Kim, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication and characterization of subwavelength computer-generated holograms for spot array generation,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5345–5355 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Han, Y. Yang, W. Cheng, and Q. Zhan, “Vectorial optical field generator for the creation of arbitrarily complex fields,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20692–20706 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, N. Zhang, and X. C. Yuan, “High-volume optical vortex multiplexing and de-multiplexing for free-space optical communication,” Opt. Express 19(2), 482–492 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Litvin, A. Dudley, F. S. Roux, and A. Forbes, “Azimuthal decomposition with digital holograms,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10996–11004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, and R. W. Boyd, “Near-perfect sorting of orbital angular momentum and angular position states of light,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24444–24449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schulze, S. Ngcobo, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Modal decomposition without a priori scale information,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27866–27873 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Simultaneous generation of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single phase-only element,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26221–26233 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles,” Phys. Rev. A 54(2), 1593–1596 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. Wan, J. Chen, X. Tang, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental demonstration of a highly efficient fan-out polarization grating,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39626 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. L. Andrews and M. Babiker, The angular momentum of light (Cambridge, 2013).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The algorithm to find the pure spiral phase modulation pattern for the OAM spectrum generation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a)(b) The spiral phase modulation patterns to generate the OAM spectrum (η-101 = 1:1:1) shown in (c); (d)(e) The spiral phase modulation patterns to generate the OAM spectrum (η-101 = 2:1.5:1) shown in (f).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)(b) The spiral amplitude modulation patterns and (c)(d) the spiral phase modulation patterns to generate the OAM spectrum (η-101 = 2:1.5:1) shown in (e).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)(b) The spiral amplitude modulation patterns and (c)(d) the spiral phase modulation patterns to generate the OAM spectrum (η-2-1012 = 1:1.5:2.5:3:1.5) shown in (e).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The spiral phase and polarization modulation and the generated OAM spectrum. (a) The spiral common phase ϕx(φ). (b) The spiral amplitude ratio Ay(φ)/Ax(φ). (c) The spiral retardation ϕy(φ)- ϕx(φ). (d) The spiral common phase ϕx(x,y). (e) The polarization map. (f) The generated OAM spectrum (η-101 = 1:1:1). All OAM orders are linearly polarized with polarization angles of 0, π/4, and π/2 respectively indicated by double-end arrows.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental setup for demonstrating the OAM spectrum generation with spiral complex optical field. Section 1 and 2 are used to generate the required complex field modulation. Section 3 and 4 work as a hybrid conformal mapper to measure the OAM spectrum.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Generation of OAM spectrum (η-101 = 1:1:1) with spiral phase modulation. The experimental result is η-101 = 1:1.02:1.05.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Generation of OAM spectrum (η-101 = 2:1.5:1) with spiral phase modulation. The experimental result is η-101 = 1.94:1.46:1.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Generation of OAM spectrum (η-101 = 2:1.5:1) with spiral amplitude and phase modulation. The experimental result is η-101 = 1.95:1.51:1.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Generation of OAM spectrum (η-2-1012 = 1:1.5:2.5:3:1.5) with spiral amplitude and phase modulation. The experimental result is η-2-1012 = 1:1.52:2.58:3.10:1.46.

Equations (8)

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η l = | E a * E l d A | 2 | E a | 2 d A | E l | 2 d A ,
exp ( i ϕ 0 ( x , y ) ) E l d A = a l e i b l .
l = M M a l ' exp ( i ( b l + l φ ) ) = A ( x , y ) exp ( i ϕ ( x , y ) ) .
A x ( x , y ) exp ( i ϕ x ( x , y ) ) = l = M M a l cos θ l exp ( i b l x ) exp ( i l φ ) .
A y ( x , y ) exp ( i ϕ y ( x , y ) ) = l = M M a l sin θ l exp ( i b l y ) exp ( i l φ ) .
| A x ( x , y ) | 2 + | A y ( x , y ) | 2 = c o n s t .
Ψ 1 ( x , y ) = 2 π d λ f ( y tan 1 ( y x ) x 2 ln ( x 2 + y 2 ) + p x ) transformation term + tan 1 ( m = N N b m sin ( 2 π θ λ m y + a m ) m = N N b m cos ( 2 π θ λ m y + a m ) ) fan-out term π λ f ( x 2 + y 2 ) lens term .
Ψ 2 ( x ' , y ' ) = m = N N ( 2 π L exp ( p 1 ) λ f exp ( x ' L ) cos ( y ' L ) r e c t ( y ' 2 m π L 2 π L ) + ϕ b c ( m ) ) ,

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