Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a high-speed air-water optical wireless communication system with both downlink and uplink transmission employing 32-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and a single-mode pigtailed green-light laser diode (LD). This work is an important step towards the future study on optical wireless communications between underwater platforms and airborne terminals. Over a 5-m air channel and a 21-m water channel, we achieve a 5.3-Gbps transmission without power loading (PL) and a 5.5-Gbps transmission with PL in the downlink. The corresponding bit error rates (BERs) are 2.64×10−3 and 2.47×10−3, respectively, which are below the forward error correction (FEC) criterion. A data rate of 5.5 Gbps with PL at a BER of 2.92×10−3 is also achieved in the uplink.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication

Hassan M. Oubei, Jose R. Duran, Bilal Janjua, Huai-Yung Wang, Cheng-Ting Tsai, Yu-Cheih Chi, Tien Khee Ng, Hao-Chung Kuo, Jr-Hau He, Mohamed-Slim Alouini, Gong-Ru Lin, and Boon S. Ooi
Opt. Express 23(18) 23302-23309 (2015)

20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate

Chao Shen, Yujian Guo, Hassan M. Oubei, Tien Khee Ng, Guangyu Liu, Ki-Hong Park, Kang-Ting Ho, Mohamed-Slim Alouini, and Boon S. Ooi
Opt. Express 24(22) 25502-25509 (2016)

2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode

Hassan Makine Oubei, Changping Li, Ki-Hong Park, Tien Khee Ng, Mohamed-Slim Alouini, and Boon S. Ooi
Opt. Express 23(16) 20743-20748 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Gabriel, M. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, P. Léon, and V. Rigaud, “Monte-Carlo-based channel characterization for underwater optical communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(1), 1–12 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Wiener and S. Karp, “The role of blue/green laser systems in strategic submarine communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 28(9), 1602–1607 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. W. Turner, “Submarine communication antenna systems,” Proc. IRE47(5), 735–739 (1959).
  4. H. B. Singh and R. Pal, “Submarine Communications,” Def. Sci. J. 43(1), 43–51 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  5. I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. H. Quazi and W. L. Konrad, “Underwater acoustic communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 20(2), 24–30 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Melodia, H. Kulhandjian, L.-C. Kuo, and E. Demirors, “Advances in underwater acoustic networking,” in Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: Cutting Edge Directions, S. Basagni, M. Conti, S. Giordano, and I. Stojmenovic, eds. (John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2013).
  8. J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H. C. Kuo, J. H. He, M. S. Alouini, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Underwater optical wireless communication,” IEEE Access 4, 1518–1547 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, J. K. Lotsberg, B. Yan, and K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 42(15), 2609–2622 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. S. Sangeetha, R. L. Awasthi, and T. Santhanakrishnan, “Design and analysis of a laser communication link between an underwater body and an air platform,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Next Generation Intelligent Systems. (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–5.
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Shen, Y. Guo, H. M. Oubei, T. K. Ng, G. Liu, K. H. Park, K. T. Ho, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25502–25509 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40480 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C. Ho, C. Lu, H. Lu, S. Huang, M. Cheng, Z. Yang, and X. Lin, “A 10m/10Gbps Underwater Wireless Laser Transmission System,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3C.3.
    [Crossref]
  18. M. W. Kong, Z. Tong, X. Y. Yu, Y. H. Song, A. B. Lin, and J. Xu, “Airborne Wireless Optical Communication System in Low Altitude Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LEDs,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology (2016), paper 012031.
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Underwater optical wireless communication,” IEEE Access 4, 1518–1547 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, Y. Guo, H. M. Oubei, T. K. Ng, G. Liu, K. H. Park, K. T. Ho, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25502–25509 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2013 (1)

2005 (1)

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1993 (1)

H. B. Singh and R. Pal, “Submarine Communications,” Def. Sci. J. 43(1), 43–51 (1993).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

A. H. Quazi and W. L. Konrad, “Underwater acoustic communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 20(2), 24–30 (1982).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

T. Wiener and S. Karp, “The role of blue/green laser systems in strategic submarine communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 28(9), 1602–1607 (1980).
[Crossref]

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alouini, M. S.

Awasthi, R. L.

R. S. Sangeetha, R. L. Awasthi, and T. Santhanakrishnan, “Design and analysis of a laser communication link between an underwater body and an air platform,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Next Generation Intelligent Systems. (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Bourennane, S.

Chi, Y. C.

Deng, N.

J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duran, J. R.

Gabriel, C.

Gjerstad, K. I.

Guo, Y.

Hamre, B.

Han, J.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J. H.

Ho, K. T.

Janjua, B.

Jia, W.

J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kaddoum, G.

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Underwater optical wireless communication,” IEEE Access 4, 1518–1547 (2016).
[Crossref]

Karp, S.

T. Wiener and S. Karp, “The role of blue/green laser systems in strategic submarine communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 28(9), 1602–1607 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kaushal, H.

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Underwater optical wireless communication,” IEEE Access 4, 1518–1547 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khalighi, M.

Kong, M.

J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, M. W.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. W. Kong, Z. Tong, X. Y. Yu, Y. H. Song, A. B. Lin, and J. Xu, “Airborne Wireless Optical Communication System in Low Altitude Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LEDs,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology (2016), paper 012031.
[Crossref]

Konrad, W. L.

A. H. Quazi and W. L. Konrad, “Underwater acoustic communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 20(2), 24–30 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Léon, P.

Lin, A.

J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, A. B.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. W. Kong, Z. Tong, X. Y. Yu, Y. H. Song, A. B. Lin, and J. Xu, “Airborne Wireless Optical Communication System in Low Altitude Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LEDs,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology (2016), paper 012031.
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

Liu, G.

Lotsberg, J. K.

Melodia, T.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ng, T. K.

Ooi, B. S.

Oubei, H. M.

Pal, R.

H. B. Singh and R. Pal, “Submarine Communications,” Def. Sci. J. 43(1), 43–51 (1993).
[Crossref]

Park, K. H.

Pompili, D.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).
[Crossref]

Qu, F.

J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qu, F. Z.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Quazi, A. H.

A. H. Quazi and W. L. Konrad, “Underwater acoustic communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 20(2), 24–30 (1982).
[Crossref]

Rigaud, V.

Sangeetha, R. S.

R. S. Sangeetha, R. L. Awasthi, and T. Santhanakrishnan, “Design and analysis of a laser communication link between an underwater body and an air platform,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Next Generation Intelligent Systems. (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Santhanakrishnan, T.

R. S. Sangeetha, R. L. Awasthi, and T. Santhanakrishnan, “Design and analysis of a laser communication link between an underwater body and an air platform,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Next Generation Intelligent Systems. (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Shen, C.

Singh, H. B.

H. B. Singh and R. Pal, “Submarine Communications,” Def. Sci. J. 43(1), 43–51 (1993).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y. H.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. W. Kong, Z. Tong, X. Y. Yu, Y. H. Song, A. B. Lin, and J. Xu, “Airborne Wireless Optical Communication System in Low Altitude Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LEDs,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology (2016), paper 012031.
[Crossref]

Stamnes, J. J.

Stamnes, K.

Tong, Z.

M. W. Kong, Z. Tong, X. Y. Yu, Y. H. Song, A. B. Lin, and J. Xu, “Airborne Wireless Optical Communication System in Low Altitude Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LEDs,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology (2016), paper 012031.
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. T.

Turner, R. W.

R. W. Turner, “Submarine communication antenna systems,” Proc. IRE47(5), 735–739 (1959).

Wang, H. Y.

Wiener, T.

T. Wiener and S. Karp, “The role of blue/green laser systems in strategic submarine communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 28(9), 1602–1607 (1980).
[Crossref]

Wu, T. C.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Kong, Z. Tong, X. Y. Yu, Y. H. Song, A. B. Lin, and J. Xu, “Airborne Wireless Optical Communication System in Low Altitude Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LEDs,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology (2016), paper 012031.
[Crossref]

Yan, B.

Yu, X.

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, X. Y.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. W. Kong, Z. Tong, X. Y. Yu, Y. H. Song, A. B. Lin, and J. Xu, “Airborne Wireless Optical Communication System in Low Altitude Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LEDs,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology (2016), paper 012031.
[Crossref]

Ad Hoc Netw. (1)

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Def. Sci. J. (1)

H. B. Singh and R. Pal, “Submarine Communications,” Def. Sci. J. 43(1), 43–51 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE Access (1)

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Underwater optical wireless communication,” IEEE Access 4, 1518–1547 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. H. Quazi and W. L. Konrad, “Underwater acoustic communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 20(2), 24–30 (1982).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Xu, A. Lin, X. Yu, M. Kong, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

T. Wiener and S. Karp, “The role of blue/green laser systems in strategic submarine communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 28(9), 1602–1607 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Sci. Rep. (1)

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

C. Ho, C. Lu, H. Lu, S. Huang, M. Cheng, Z. Yang, and X. Lin, “A 10m/10Gbps Underwater Wireless Laser Transmission System,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3C.3.
[Crossref]

M. W. Kong, Z. Tong, X. Y. Yu, Y. H. Song, A. B. Lin, and J. Xu, “Airborne Wireless Optical Communication System in Low Altitude Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LEDs,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology (2016), paper 012031.
[Crossref]

R. S. Sangeetha, R. L. Awasthi, and T. Santhanakrishnan, “Design and analysis of a laser communication link between an underwater body and an air platform,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Next Generation Intelligent Systems. (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

R. W. Turner, “Submarine communication antenna systems,” Proc. IRE47(5), 735–739 (1959).

T. Melodia, H. Kulhandjian, L.-C. Kuo, and E. Demirors, “Advances in underwater acoustic networking,” in Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: Cutting Edge Directions, S. Basagni, M. Conti, S. Giordano, and I. Stojmenovic, eds. (John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2013).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The conception of laser communication between underwater and airborne terminals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The downlink experimental setup of the proposed air-water laser communication scheme. Inset: (a) the transmitter module, (b) the receiver module and (c) the water tank.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) BERs of the downlink 5-Gbps OFDM signal at different underwater channel distances (with a 5-m air channel). Insets: corresponding 32-QAM constellation diagrams. (b) Downlink BERs at different data rates (21-m underwater and 5-m air channel). Insets: corresponding 32-QAM constellation diagrams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The waveform and (b) the corresponding spectrum of the captured downlink 5.3-Gbps OFDM signal. The spectrum of the captured downlink 5.5-Gbps OFDM signal (c) without PL, (d) with PL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The downlink and uplink EVMs for different subcarriers. Insets: constellation maps of the captured uplink 5.5-Gbps OFDM signal (a) without PL, (b) with PL.