Abstract

Solution processable nanocrystal solar cells combine the advantages of low-cost printing and wide range of accessible absorber materials, however high trap densities limit performance and layer thickness. In this work we develop a versatile route to realize the infiltration of a photonic crystal, with copper indium diselenide nanocrystal ink. The photonic crystal allows to couple incident light into pseudo-guided modes and thereby enhanced light absorption. For the presented design, we are able to identify individual guided modes, explain the underlying physics, and obtain a perfect match between the measured and simulated absorption peaks. For our relatively low refractive index layers, a 7% maximum integrated absorption enhancement is demonstrated.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

V. R. Voggu, J. Sham, S. Pfeffer, J. Pate, L. Fillip, T. B. Harvey, R. M. Brown, and B. A. Korgel, “Flexible CuInSe2 Nanocrystal Solar Cells on Paper,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(3), 574–581 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. Smeets, K. Bittkau, F. Lentz, A. Richter, K. Ding, R. Carius, U. Rau, and U. W. Paetzold, “Post passivation light trapping back contacts for silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Nanoscale 8(44), 18726–18733 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

U. W. Paetzold, S. Lehnen, K. Bittkau, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Nanoscale investigation of polarization-dependent light coupling to individual waveguide modes in nanophotonic thin-film solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5(6), 1523–1527 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Ghosh, and R. van Erven, “Periodic nano-textures enhance efficiency in multi-junction silicon thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 30–35 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. McLeod, C. J. Hages, N. J. Carter, and R. Agrawal, “Synthesis and characterization of 15% efficient CIGSSe solar cells from nanoparticle inks,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(11), 1550–1556 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. W. Paetzold, W. Qiu, F. Finger, J. Poortmans, and D. Cheyns, “Nanophotonic front electrodes for perovskite solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173101 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. P. Sharma, H. S. Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

H. Azimi, Y. Hou, and C. J. Barbec, “Towards low-cost, environmentally friendly printed chalcopyrite and kesterite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(6), 1829–1849 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “„Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22(11), 1147–1158 (2014).
[Crossref]

U. W. Paetzold, S. Lehnen, K. Bittkau, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Nanoscale observation of waveguide modes enhancing the efficiency of solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6599–6605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Depauw, X. Meng, O. El Daif, G. Gomard, L. Lalouat, E. Drouard, C. Trompoukis, A. Fave, C. Seassal, and I. Gordon, “Micrometer-thin crystalline-silicon solar cells integrating numerically optimized 2-D Photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(1), 215–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP Nanowire Array Solar Cells Achieving 13.8% Efficiency by Exceeding The Ray Optics Limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lin, L. J. Martínez, and M. L. Povinelli, “Experimental broadband absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells,” Opt. Express 21(18), A872–A882 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Panthani, C. J. Stolle, D. K. Reid, D. J. Rhee, T. B. Harvey, V. A. Akhavan, Y. Yu, and B. A. Korgel, “CuInSe2 Quantum Dot Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(12), 2030–2034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, R. Peretti, E. Drouard, X. Meng, and C. Seassal, “Photonic crystals and optical mode engineering for thin film photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 21(9), A515–A527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yin, C. Merschjann, and M. Schmid, “The effect of surface roughness on the determination of optical constants of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(21), 213510 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Optics-Uk 14(2), 024011 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053113 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Demésy and S. John, “Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 074326 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Photonic light-trapping versus Lambertian limits in thin film silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns,” Opt. Express 20(6), A224–A244 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 95, S18–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, and V. L. Dalal, “A photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing light absorption in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Q. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Akhavan, M. G. Panthani, B. W. Goodfellow, D. K. Reid, and B. A. Korgel, “Thickness-limited performance of CuInSe2 nanocrystal photovoltaic devices,” Opt. Express 18(19), A411–A420 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jeong, L. Hu, H. R. Lee, E. Garnett, J. W. Choi, and Y. Cui, “Fast and scalable printing of large area monolayer nanoparticles for nanotexturing applications,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2989–2994 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. G. Panthani, V. Akhavan, B. Goodfellow, J. P. Schmidtke, L. Dunn, A. Dodabalapur, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Synthesis of CulnS2, CulnSe2, and Cu(InxGa(1-x))Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystal “inks” for printable photovoltaics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(49), 16770–16777 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023825 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

K. R. Catchpole and M. A. Green, “A conceptual model of light coupling by pillar diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photopolymerization and 3D lithographic microfabrication,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 170, 169–273 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. D. Paulson, R. W. Birkmire, and W. N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 879–888 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

C. Eberspacher, C. Fredric, K. Pauls, and J. Serra, “Thin-film CIS alloy PV materials fabricated using non-vacuum, particles-based techniques,” Thin Solid Films 387(1–2), 18–22 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. I. Alonso, K. Wakita, J. Pascual, M. Garriga, and N. Yamamoto, “Optical function and electronic structures of CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, CuInS2, and CuGas2,” Phys. Rev. B 63(7), 075203 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Powalla and B. Dimmler, “Scaling up issues of CIGS solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361, 540–546 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

C. Ruppe and A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288(1), 8–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

Åberg, I.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP Nanowire Array Solar Cells Achieving 13.8% Efficiency by Exceeding The Ray Optics Limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramov, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[Crossref]

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U. W. Paetzold, W. Qiu, F. Finger, J. Poortmans, and D. Cheyns, “Nanophotonic front electrodes for perovskite solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173101 (2015).
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S. Jeong, L. Hu, H. R. Lee, E. Garnett, J. W. Choi, and Y. Cui, “Fast and scalable printing of large area monolayer nanoparticles for nanotexturing applications,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2989–2994 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garnett, E. C.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garriga, M.

M. I. Alonso, K. Wakita, J. Pascual, M. Garriga, and N. Yamamoto, “Optical function and electronic structures of CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, CuInS2, and CuGas2,” Phys. Rev. B 63(7), 075203 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gerelli, E.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Optics-Uk 14(2), 024011 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, M.

M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Ghosh, and R. van Erven, “Periodic nano-textures enhance efficiency in multi-junction silicon thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 30–35 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gippius, N. A.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gomard, G.

V. Depauw, X. Meng, O. El Daif, G. Gomard, L. Lalouat, E. Drouard, C. Trompoukis, A. Fave, C. Seassal, and I. Gordon, “Micrometer-thin crystalline-silicon solar cells integrating numerically optimized 2-D Photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(1), 215–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Gomard, R. Peretti, E. Drouard, X. Meng, and C. Seassal, “Photonic crystals and optical mode engineering for thin film photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 21(9), A515–A527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Optics-Uk 14(2), 024011 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Q. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goodfellow, B.

M. G. Panthani, V. Akhavan, B. Goodfellow, J. P. Schmidtke, L. Dunn, A. Dodabalapur, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Synthesis of CulnS2, CulnSe2, and Cu(InxGa(1-x))Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystal “inks” for printable photovoltaics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(49), 16770–16777 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodfellow, B. W.

Gordon, I.

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. P. Sharma, H. S. Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Depauw, X. Meng, O. El Daif, G. Gomard, L. Lalouat, E. Drouard, C. Trompoukis, A. Fave, C. Seassal, and I. Gordon, “Micrometer-thin crystalline-silicon solar cells integrating numerically optimized 2-D Photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(1), 215–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

Green, M. A.

K. R. Catchpole and M. A. Green, “A conceptual model of light coupling by pillar diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hages, C. J.

S. M. McLeod, C. J. Hages, N. J. Carter, and R. Agrawal, “Synthesis and characterization of 15% efficient CIGSSe solar cells from nanoparticle inks,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(11), 1550–1556 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hajjam, K. E.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Optics-Uk 14(2), 024011 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harvey, T. B.

V. R. Voggu, J. Sham, S. Pfeffer, J. Pate, L. Fillip, T. B. Harvey, R. M. Brown, and B. A. Korgel, “Flexible CuInSe2 Nanocrystal Solar Cells on Paper,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(3), 574–581 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. G. Panthani, C. J. Stolle, D. K. Reid, D. J. Rhee, T. B. Harvey, V. A. Akhavan, Y. Yu, and B. A. Korgel, “CuInSe2 Quantum Dot Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(12), 2030–2034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haug, F.-J.

A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “„Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22(11), 1147–1158 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herzig, H. P.

A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “„Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22(11), 1147–1158 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, Y.

H. Azimi, Y. Hou, and C. J. Barbec, “Towards low-cost, environmentally friendly printed chalcopyrite and kesterite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(6), 1829–1849 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

S. Jeong, L. Hu, H. R. Lee, E. Garnett, J. W. Choi, and Y. Cui, “Fast and scalable printing of large area monolayer nanoparticles for nanotexturing applications,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2989–2994 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huffman, M.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP Nanowire Array Solar Cells Achieving 13.8% Efficiency by Exceeding The Ray Optics Limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishihara, T.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jeong, L. Hu, H. R. Lee, E. Garnett, J. W. Choi, and Y. Cui, “Fast and scalable printing of large area monolayer nanoparticles for nanotexturing applications,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2989–2994 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

John, S.

G. Demésy and S. John, “Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 074326 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023825 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kaminski, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Q. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photopolymerization and 3D lithographic microfabrication,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 170, 169–273 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, D. H.

D. H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korgel, B. A.

V. R. Voggu, J. Sham, S. Pfeffer, J. Pate, L. Fillip, T. B. Harvey, R. M. Brown, and B. A. Korgel, “Flexible CuInSe2 Nanocrystal Solar Cells on Paper,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(3), 574–581 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. G. Panthani, C. J. Stolle, D. K. Reid, D. J. Rhee, T. B. Harvey, V. A. Akhavan, Y. Yu, and B. A. Korgel, “CuInSe2 Quantum Dot Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(12), 2030–2034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Akhavan, M. G. Panthani, B. W. Goodfellow, D. K. Reid, and B. A. Korgel, “Thickness-limited performance of CuInSe2 nanocrystal photovoltaic devices,” Opt. Express 18(19), A411–A420 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Panthani, V. Akhavan, B. Goodfellow, J. P. Schmidtke, L. Dunn, A. Dodabalapur, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Synthesis of CulnS2, CulnSe2, and Cu(InxGa(1-x))Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystal “inks” for printable photovoltaics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(49), 16770–16777 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozinsky, I.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lalouat, L.

V. Depauw, X. Meng, O. El Daif, G. Gomard, L. Lalouat, E. Drouard, C. Trompoukis, A. Fave, C. Seassal, and I. Gordon, “Micrometer-thin crystalline-silicon solar cells integrating numerically optimized 2-D Photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(1), 215–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

Le Rouzo, J.

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 95, S18–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. R.

S. Jeong, L. Hu, H. R. Lee, E. Garnett, J. W. Choi, and Y. Cui, “Fast and scalable printing of large area monolayer nanoparticles for nanotexturing applications,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2989–2994 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lehnen, S.

U. W. Paetzold, S. Lehnen, K. Bittkau, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Nanoscale investigation of polarization-dependent light coupling to individual waveguide modes in nanophotonic thin-film solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5(6), 1523–1527 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. W. Paetzold, S. Lehnen, K. Bittkau, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Nanoscale observation of waveguide modes enhancing the efficiency of solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6599–6605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemiti, M.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Optics-Uk 14(2), 024011 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Q. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lentz, F.

M. Smeets, K. Bittkau, F. Lentz, A. Richter, K. Ding, R. Carius, U. Rau, and U. W. Paetzold, “Post passivation light trapping back contacts for silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Nanoscale 8(44), 18726–18733 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Letartre, X.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Q. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Li, J.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

Liscidini, M.

Liu, J.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, R.

D. H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magnusson, M. H.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP Nanowire Array Solar Cells Achieving 13.8% Efficiency by Exceeding The Ray Optics Limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martínez, L. J.

Martins, E. R.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGehee, M. D.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLeod, S. M.

S. M. McLeod, C. J. Hages, N. J. Carter, and R. Agrawal, “Synthesis and characterization of 15% efficient CIGSSe solar cells from nanoparticle inks,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(11), 1550–1556 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meier, M.

M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Ghosh, and R. van Erven, “Periodic nano-textures enhance efficiency in multi-junction silicon thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 30–35 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meng, X.

V. Depauw, X. Meng, O. El Daif, G. Gomard, L. Lalouat, E. Drouard, C. Trompoukis, A. Fave, C. Seassal, and I. Gordon, “Micrometer-thin crystalline-silicon solar cells integrating numerically optimized 2-D Photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(1), 215–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Gomard, R. Peretti, E. Drouard, X. Meng, and C. Seassal, “Photonic crystals and optical mode engineering for thin film photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 21(9), A515–A527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Optics-Uk 14(2), 024011 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meng, X. Q.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Q. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Merschjann, C.

G. Yin, C. Merschjann, and M. Schmid, “The effect of surface roughness on the determination of optical constants of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(21), 213510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mertens, R.

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. P. Sharma, H. S. Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muljarov, E. A.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[Crossref]

Naqavi, A.

A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “„Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22(11), 1147–1158 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orobtchouk, R.

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Optics-Uk 14(2), 024011 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Paeder, V.

A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “„Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22(11), 1147–1158 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paetzold, U. W.

M. Smeets, K. Bittkau, F. Lentz, A. Richter, K. Ding, R. Carius, U. Rau, and U. W. Paetzold, “Post passivation light trapping back contacts for silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Nanoscale 8(44), 18726–18733 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. W. Paetzold, S. Lehnen, K. Bittkau, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Nanoscale investigation of polarization-dependent light coupling to individual waveguide modes in nanophotonic thin-film solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5(6), 1523–1527 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Ghosh, and R. van Erven, “Periodic nano-textures enhance efficiency in multi-junction silicon thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 30–35 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. W. Paetzold, W. Qiu, F. Finger, J. Poortmans, and D. Cheyns, “Nanophotonic front electrodes for perovskite solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173101 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. W. Paetzold, S. Lehnen, K. Bittkau, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Nanoscale observation of waveguide modes enhancing the efficiency of solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6599–6605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panthani, M. G.

M. G. Panthani, C. J. Stolle, D. K. Reid, D. J. Rhee, T. B. Harvey, V. A. Akhavan, Y. Yu, and B. A. Korgel, “CuInSe2 Quantum Dot Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(12), 2030–2034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Akhavan, M. G. Panthani, B. W. Goodfellow, D. K. Reid, and B. A. Korgel, “Thickness-limited performance of CuInSe2 nanocrystal photovoltaic devices,” Opt. Express 18(19), A411–A420 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Panthani, V. Akhavan, B. Goodfellow, J. P. Schmidtke, L. Dunn, A. Dodabalapur, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Synthesis of CulnS2, CulnSe2, and Cu(InxGa(1-x))Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystal “inks” for printable photovoltaics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(49), 16770–16777 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pascual, J.

M. I. Alonso, K. Wakita, J. Pascual, M. Garriga, and N. Yamamoto, “Optical function and electronic structures of CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, CuInS2, and CuGas2,” Phys. Rev. B 63(7), 075203 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pate, J.

V. R. Voggu, J. Sham, S. Pfeffer, J. Pate, L. Fillip, T. B. Harvey, R. M. Brown, and B. A. Korgel, “Flexible CuInSe2 Nanocrystal Solar Cells on Paper,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(3), 574–581 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pattnaik, S.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, and V. L. Dalal, “A photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing light absorption in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pauls, K.

C. Eberspacher, C. Fredric, K. Pauls, and J. Serra, “Thin-film CIS alloy PV materials fabricated using non-vacuum, particles-based techniques,” Thin Solid Films 387(1–2), 18–22 (2001).
[Crossref]

Paulson, P. D.

P. D. Paulson, R. W. Birkmire, and W. N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 879–888 (2003).
[Crossref]

Peretti, R.

G. Gomard, R. Peretti, E. Drouard, X. Meng, and C. Seassal, “Photonic crystals and optical mode engineering for thin film photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 21(9), A515–A527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Optics-Uk 14(2), 024011 (2012).
[Crossref]

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Peumans, P.

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pfeffer, S.

V. R. Voggu, J. Sham, S. Pfeffer, J. Pate, L. Fillip, T. B. Harvey, R. M. Brown, and B. A. Korgel, “Flexible CuInSe2 Nanocrystal Solar Cells on Paper,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(3), 574–581 (2017).
[Crossref]

Poortmans, J.

U. W. Paetzold, W. Qiu, F. Finger, J. Poortmans, and D. Cheyns, “Nanophotonic front electrodes for perovskite solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173101 (2015).
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C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. P. Sharma, H. S. Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
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Povinelli, M. L.

Powalla, M.

M. Powalla and B. Dimmler, “Scaling up issues of CIGS solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361, 540–546 (2000).
[Crossref]

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Qiu, W.

U. W. Paetzold, W. Qiu, F. Finger, J. Poortmans, and D. Cheyns, “Nanophotonic front electrodes for perovskite solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Radhakrishnan, H. S.

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. P. Sharma, H. S. Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rau, U.

M. Smeets, K. Bittkau, F. Lentz, A. Richter, K. Ding, R. Carius, U. Rau, and U. W. Paetzold, “Post passivation light trapping back contacts for silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Nanoscale 8(44), 18726–18733 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. W. Paetzold, S. Lehnen, K. Bittkau, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Nanoscale investigation of polarization-dependent light coupling to individual waveguide modes in nanophotonic thin-film solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5(6), 1523–1527 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. W. Paetzold, S. Lehnen, K. Bittkau, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Nanoscale observation of waveguide modes enhancing the efficiency of solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6599–6605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, D. K.

M. G. Panthani, C. J. Stolle, D. K. Reid, D. J. Rhee, T. B. Harvey, V. A. Akhavan, Y. Yu, and B. A. Korgel, “CuInSe2 Quantum Dot Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(12), 2030–2034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Akhavan, M. G. Panthani, B. W. Goodfellow, D. K. Reid, and B. A. Korgel, “Thickness-limited performance of CuInSe2 nanocrystal photovoltaic devices,” Opt. Express 18(19), A411–A420 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhee, D. J.

M. G. Panthani, C. J. Stolle, D. K. Reid, D. J. Rhee, T. B. Harvey, V. A. Akhavan, Y. Yu, and B. A. Korgel, “CuInSe2 Quantum Dot Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(12), 2030–2034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richter, A.

M. Smeets, K. Bittkau, F. Lentz, A. Richter, K. Ding, R. Carius, U. Rau, and U. W. Paetzold, “Post passivation light trapping back contacts for silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Nanoscale 8(44), 18726–18733 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ruppe, C.

C. Ruppe and A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288(1), 8–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

Samuelson, L.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP Nanowire Array Solar Cells Achieving 13.8% Efficiency by Exceeding The Ray Optics Limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samulski, E. T.

D. H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scharf, T.

A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “„Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22(11), 1147–1158 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, M.

G. Yin, C. Merschjann, and M. Schmid, “The effect of surface roughness on the determination of optical constants of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(21), 213510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmidtke, J. P.

M. G. Panthani, V. Akhavan, B. Goodfellow, J. P. Schmidtke, L. Dunn, A. Dodabalapur, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, “Synthesis of CulnS2, CulnSe2, and Cu(InxGa(1-x))Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystal “inks” for printable photovoltaics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(49), 16770–16777 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seassal, C.

V. Depauw, X. Meng, O. El Daif, G. Gomard, L. Lalouat, E. Drouard, C. Trompoukis, A. Fave, C. Seassal, and I. Gordon, “Micrometer-thin crystalline-silicon solar cells integrating numerically optimized 2-D Photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(1), 215–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Gomard, R. Peretti, E. Drouard, X. Meng, and C. Seassal, “Photonic crystals and optical mode engineering for thin film photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 21(9), A515–A527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Optics-Uk 14(2), 024011 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Q. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Serra, J.

C. Eberspacher, C. Fredric, K. Pauls, and J. Serra, “Thin-film CIS alloy PV materials fabricated using non-vacuum, particles-based techniques,” Thin Solid Films 387(1–2), 18–22 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shafarman, W. N.

P. D. Paulson, R. W. Birkmire, and W. N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 879–888 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sham, J.

V. R. Voggu, J. Sham, S. Pfeffer, J. Pate, L. Fillip, T. B. Harvey, R. M. Brown, and B. A. Korgel, “Flexible CuInSe2 Nanocrystal Solar Cells on Paper,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(3), 574–581 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sharma, P. P.

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. P. Sharma, H. S. Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sheng, X.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 843–847 (2011).
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Siefer, G.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP Nanowire Array Solar Cells Achieving 13.8% Efficiency by Exceeding The Ray Optics Limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simon, J. J.

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 95, S18–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Singh, K. K.

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Slafer, W. D.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, and V. L. Dalal, “A photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing light absorption in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smeets, M.

M. Smeets, K. Bittkau, F. Lentz, A. Richter, K. Ding, R. Carius, U. Rau, and U. W. Paetzold, “Post passivation light trapping back contacts for silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Nanoscale 8(44), 18726–18733 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Söderström, K.

A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “„Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22(11), 1147–1158 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Stolle, C. J.

M. G. Panthani, C. J. Stolle, D. K. Reid, D. J. Rhee, T. B. Harvey, V. A. Akhavan, Y. Yu, and B. A. Korgel, “CuInSe2 Quantum Dot Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(12), 2030–2034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photopolymerization and 3D lithographic microfabrication,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 170, 169–273 (2006).
[Crossref]

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S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[Crossref]

Torchio, P.

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 95, S18–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Trompoukis, C.

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. P. Sharma, H. S. Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Depauw, X. Meng, O. El Daif, G. Gomard, L. Lalouat, E. Drouard, C. Trompoukis, A. Fave, C. Seassal, and I. Gordon, “Micrometer-thin crystalline-silicon solar cells integrating numerically optimized 2-D Photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(1), 215–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tumbleston, J. R.

D. H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

van Erven, R.

M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Ghosh, and R. van Erven, “Periodic nano-textures enhance efficiency in multi-junction silicon thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(1), 30–35 (2015).
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Van Nieuwenhuysen, K.

C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, P. P. Sharma, H. S. Radhakrishnan, M. Debucquoy, V. Depauw, K. Van Nieuwenhuysen, I. Gordon, R. Mertens, and J. Poortmans, “Passivation of photonic nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(6), 734–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vedraine, S.

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 95, S18–S25 (2011).
[Crossref]

Visser, R. J.

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Voggu, V. R.

V. R. Voggu, J. Sham, S. Pfeffer, J. Pate, L. Fillip, T. B. Harvey, R. M. Brown, and B. A. Korgel, “Flexible CuInSe2 Nanocrystal Solar Cells on Paper,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(3), 574–581 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wakita, K.

M. I. Alonso, K. Wakita, J. Pascual, M. Garriga, and N. Yamamoto, “Optical function and electronic structures of CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, CuInS2, and CuGas2,” Phys. Rev. B 63(7), 075203 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wallentin, J.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP Nanowire Array Solar Cells Achieving 13.8% Efficiency by Exceeding The Ray Optics Limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wangperawong, A.

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 053113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Williams, S.

D. H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witzigmann, B.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP Nanowire Array Solar Cells Achieving 13.8% Efficiency by Exceeding The Ray Optics Limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H. Q.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP Nanowire Array Solar Cells Achieving 13.8% Efficiency by Exceeding The Ray Optics Limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yablonskii, A. L.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, N.

M. I. Alonso, K. Wakita, J. Pascual, M. Garriga, and N. Yamamoto, “Optical function and electronic structures of CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, CuInS2, and CuGas2,” Phys. Rev. B 63(7), 075203 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, G.

G. Yin, C. Merschjann, and M. Schmid, “The effect of surface roughness on the determination of optical constants of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(21), 213510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

M. G. Panthani, C. J. Stolle, D. K. Reid, D. J. Rhee, T. B. Harvey, V. A. Akhavan, Y. Yu, and B. A. Korgel, “CuInSe2 Quantum Dot Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(12), 2030–2034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

D. H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
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Zhou, J.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) J-V characteristics of nanocrystal solar cells with CIS layer thicknesses of 140 nm (solid) and 280 nm (dotted) under AM 1.5g illumination (red) and dark condition (black). (b) Stacked layer structure of the cells. Utilization of spectral irradiance in the 140 nm (c) and in the 280 nm (d) CIS layers. Spectral irradiance absorbed in the CIS layer (dark green) is retrieved from transfer matrix simulations of the complete layer stack. The spectral irradiance converted to charge carriers (light green) is plotted using EQE data. The total spectral irradiance of the AM 1.5g spectrum is also plotted (black). The Jsc available via these spectra is given in the legends.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured real (black) and imaginary (red) parts of the refractive index of the CIS nanocrystal layers. (b) The simulated (black solid) reflection, transmission and absorption spectra of the 400 nm thick CIS layer, obtained by implementing the measured CIS optical indices, are in good agreement with the experimental spectra (red crosses).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the investigated infiltrated PhC slab consisting of a 2D square array (lattice constant “a”) of photoresist nanocones embedded into a layer (thickness “H”) of CIS nanocrystals and standing on a fused silica substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Dispersion relation for TE (blue) and TM (red) guided modes calculated for a 560 nm thick PhC structured CIS layer on fused silica, with a VFF of 25%, approximated as a homogenous layer of averaged refractive index. (b) One dimensional power spectral density (1D-PSD) calculated for the same PhC structured layer with a lattice constant of 650 nm. The numbers in brackets indicate the diffraction order. (c) Simulated absorption spectra of the infiltrated absorbing PhC (black) and of a planar reference of identical thickness (red) under normal incidence illumination. The three graphs ((a), (b), and (c)) combined show the relation between the spatial frequency of the PhC pattern and the resulting waveguide coupling condition (vertical green), and the wavelength at which absorption enhancement occurs (horizontal green). (d) Contour plot of the absorption enhancement as defined in Eq. (4) as a function of the lattice constant and CIS layer thickness. The VFF was kept constant at 25%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic of the DLW process used for fabricating the square lattice of nanocones. (b) 30° tilted view SEM image of the fabricated PhC pattern with a lattice constant of 650 nm. Inset: AFM height profile of a single nanocone.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic of the doctor blading step used for infiltrating the CIS nanocrystal ink into the nanocone array. (b) 54° tilted view SEM image of a FIB cut through the nanocones, buried in a dense CIS layer. Inset: TEM image of the CIS nanocrystals.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated absorption spectra of the PhC structured CIS nanocrystal layer (solid black) of thickness 560 nm and of a planar reference (dashed black) of identical thickness (dashed black), shown together with the measured spectrum of the infiltrated PhC demonstrator (solid red). All spectra were obtained under normal incidence.

Equations (4)

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tan(2Ht)= t(u+s) t 2 us
tan(2Ht)= t n ¯ avg 2 (u+ n s 2 s) n s 2 t 2 n ¯ avg 4 us
2DPSD( ν x , ν y )= 1 L 2 | l m h lm e 2πi( ν x l+ ν y m )ΔL Δ L 2 | 2
AE= 1300nm 300nm A PhC (λ)I(λ)dλ 1300nm 300nm A Planar (λ)I(λ)dλ 1300nm 300nm A Planar (λ)I(λ)dλ

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