Abstract

An Nd:YAG laser-based sodium temperature/wind lidar was developed for the measurement of the northern polar mesosphere and lower thermosphere at Tromsø (69.6N, 19.2E), Norway. Coherent light at 589 nm is produced by sum frequency generation of 1064 nm and 1319 nm from two diode laser end-pumped pulsed Nd:YAG lasers. The output power is as high as 4W, with 4 mJ/pulse at 1000 Hz repetition rate. Five tilting Cassegrain telescopes enable us to make five-direction (zenith, north, south, east, west) observation for temperature and wind simultaneously. This highly stable laser system is first of its kind to operate virtually maintenance-free during the observation season (from late September to March) since 2010.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Development of a solid-state sodium Doppler lidar using an all-fiber-coupled injection seeding unit for simultaneous temperature and wind measurements in the mesopause region

Yuan Xia, LiFang Du, XueWu Cheng, FaQuan Li, JiHong Wang, ZeLong Wang, Yong Yang, Xin Lin, YuChang Xun, ShunSheng Gong, and GuoTao Yang
Opt. Express 25(5) 5264-5278 (2017)

Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique

Takuya D. Kawahara, Tsukasa Kitahara, Fumitoshi Kobayashi, Yasunori Saito, and Akio Nomura
Opt. Express 19(4) 3553-3561 (2011)

Solid-state 589 nm seed laser based on Raman fiber amplifier for sodium wind/temperature lidar in Tibet, China

Yulian Yang, Yong Yang, Yuan Xia, Xin Lin, Lei Zhang, Huawei Jiang, Xuewu Cheng, Linmei Liu, Kaijun Ji, and Faquan Li
Opt. Express 26(13) 16226-16235 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, R. Akmaev, H. Schmidt, E. Talaat, and S. Yee, “Long-term variability in mesopause region temperatures over Fort Collins, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) based on lidar observations from 1990 through 2007,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 71(14–15), 1558–1564 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. S. Gardner and A. Z. Liu, “Seasonal variations of the vertical fluxes of heat and horizontal momentum in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D9), D09113 (2007), doi:.
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Li, X. Fang, W. Liu, S.-Y. Gu, and X. Dou, “Narrowband sodium lidar for the measurements of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Appl. Opt. 51(22), 5401–5411 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. B. Clemesha, D. Simonich, and P. Batista, “Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause region temperatures at 23° S,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1165–1171 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65(16–18), 1411–1424 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Höffner and F.-J. Lübken, “Potassium lidar temperatures and densities in the mesopause region at Spitsbergen (78°N),” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D20), D20114 (2007).
  7. X. Chu, Z. Yu, C. S. Gardner, C. Chen, and W. Fong, “Lidar observations of neutral Fe layers and fast gravity waves in the thermosphere (110-155 km) at McMurdo (77.8°S, 166.7°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(23), L23807 (2011).
  8. C. J. Heinselman, J. P. Thayer, and B. J. Watkins, “A high-latitude observation of sporadic sodium and sporadic E-layer formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(16), 3059–3062 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).
  10. T. D. Kawahara, C. S. Gardner, and A. Nomura, “Observed temperature structure of the atmosphere above Syowa Station, Antarctica (69°S, 39°E),” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D12), D12103 (2004).
  11. C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-freqency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrowband sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Saito, K. Akagawa, M. Ito, A. Takazawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, M. Ito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Sodium D2 resonance radiation in single-pass sum-frequency generation with actively mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1965–1967 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Doppler-free saturation fluorescence spectroscopy of Na atoms for atmospheric application,” Appl. Opt. 34(6), 1063–1075 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. Nozawa, “Sodium lidar pictures at Tromso,” http://www.isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~nozawa/LIDAR/index_lidaroperation.html
  18. T. Yuan, J. Yue, C.-Y. She, J. P. Sherman, M. A. White, S. D. Harrell, P. E. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “Wind-bias correction method for narrowband sodium Doppler lidars using iodine absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3988–3993 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. D. A. Krueger, C.-Y. She, and T. Yuan, “Retrieving mesopause temperature and line-of-sight wind from full-diurnal-cycle Na lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 54(32), 9469–9489 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).
  23. T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Nozawa, “Sodium lidar data,” http://www.isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~nozawa/indexlidardata.html .

2015 (3)

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. Krueger, C.-Y. She, and T. Yuan, “Retrieving mesopause temperature and line-of-sight wind from full-diurnal-cycle Na lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 54(32), 9469–9489 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

B. Clemesha, D. Simonich, and P. Batista, “Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause region temperatures at 23° S,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1165–1171 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Chu, Z. Yu, C. S. Gardner, C. Chen, and W. Fong, “Lidar observations of neutral Fe layers and fast gravity waves in the thermosphere (110-155 km) at McMurdo (77.8°S, 166.7°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(23), L23807 (2011).

2009 (3)

2007 (4)

C. S. Gardner and A. Z. Liu, “Seasonal variations of the vertical fluxes of heat and horizontal momentum in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D9), D09113 (2007), doi:.
[Crossref]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrowband sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, M. Ito, A. Takazawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, M. Ito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Sodium D2 resonance radiation in single-pass sum-frequency generation with actively mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1965–1967 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Höffner and F.-J. Lübken, “Potassium lidar temperatures and densities in the mesopause region at Spitsbergen (78°N),” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D20), D20114 (2007).

2004 (1)

T. D. Kawahara, C. S. Gardner, and A. Nomura, “Observed temperature structure of the atmosphere above Syowa Station, Antarctica (69°S, 39°E),” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D12), D12103 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65(16–18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).

1998 (1)

C. J. Heinselman, J. P. Thayer, and B. J. Watkins, “A high-latitude observation of sporadic sodium and sporadic E-layer formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(16), 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-freqency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[Crossref]

Acott, P. E.

Akagawa, K.

Akmaev, R.

C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, R. Akmaev, H. Schmidt, E. Talaat, and S. Yee, “Long-term variability in mesopause region temperatures over Fort Collins, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) based on lidar observations from 1990 through 2007,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 71(14–15), 1558–1564 (2009).
[Crossref]

Batista, P.

B. Clemesha, D. Simonich, and P. Batista, “Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause region temperatures at 23° S,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1165–1171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brekke, A.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Chen, C.

X. Chu, Z. Yu, C. S. Gardner, C. Chen, and W. Fong, “Lidar observations of neutral Fe layers and fast gravity waves in the thermosphere (110-155 km) at McMurdo (77.8°S, 166.7°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(23), L23807 (2011).

Chu, X.

X. Chu, Z. Yu, C. S. Gardner, C. Chen, and W. Fong, “Lidar observations of neutral Fe layers and fast gravity waves in the thermosphere (110-155 km) at McMurdo (77.8°S, 166.7°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(23), L23807 (2011).

Clemesha, B.

B. Clemesha, D. Simonich, and P. Batista, “Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause region temperatures at 23° S,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1165–1171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Delgado, R.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65(16–18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dou, X.

Ejiri, M. K.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fang, X.

Fong, W.

X. Chu, Z. Yu, C. S. Gardner, C. Chen, and W. Fong, “Lidar observations of neutral Fe layers and fast gravity waves in the thermosphere (110-155 km) at McMurdo (77.8°S, 166.7°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(23), L23807 (2011).

Friedman, J. S.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65(16–18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fujii, R.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Fujiwara, H.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Gardner, C. S.

X. Chu, Z. Yu, C. S. Gardner, C. Chen, and W. Fong, “Lidar observations of neutral Fe layers and fast gravity waves in the thermosphere (110-155 km) at McMurdo (77.8°S, 166.7°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(23), L23807 (2011).

C. S. Gardner and A. Z. Liu, “Seasonal variations of the vertical fluxes of heat and horizontal momentum in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D9), D09113 (2007), doi:.
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, C. S. Gardner, and A. Nomura, “Observed temperature structure of the atmosphere above Syowa Station, Antarctica (69°S, 39°E),” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D12), D12103 (2004).

Gu, S.-Y.

Hall, C.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hall, C. M.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Harrell, S. D.

Hayano, Y.

Hedin, J.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65(16–18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Heinselman, C. J.

C. J. Heinselman, J. P. Thayer, and B. J. Watkins, “A high-latitude observation of sporadic sodium and sporadic E-layer formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(16), 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hidemori, T.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

Höffner, J.

J. Höffner and F.-J. Lübken, “Potassium lidar temperatures and densities in the mesopause region at Spitsbergen (78°N),” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D20), D20114 (2007).

Ito, M.

Iye, M.

Kawabata, T.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Kawahara, T. D.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrowband sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, C. S. Gardner, and A. Nomura, “Observed temperature structure of the atmosphere above Syowa Station, Antarctica (69°S, 39°E),” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D12), D12103 (2004).

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).

Kitahara, T.

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).

Kobayashi, F.

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).

Krueger, D. A.

D. A. Krueger, C.-Y. She, and T. Yuan, “Retrieving mesopause temperature and line-of-sight wind from full-diurnal-cycle Na lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 54(32), 9469–9489 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yuan, J. Yue, C.-Y. She, J. P. Sherman, M. A. White, S. D. Harrell, P. E. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “Wind-bias correction method for narrowband sodium Doppler lidars using iodine absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3988–3993 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, R. Akmaev, H. Schmidt, E. Talaat, and S. Yee, “Long-term variability in mesopause region temperatures over Fort Collins, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) based on lidar observations from 1990 through 2007,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 71(14–15), 1558–1564 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).

Li, T.

Liu, A. Z.

C. S. Gardner and A. Z. Liu, “Seasonal variations of the vertical fluxes of heat and horizontal momentum in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D9), D09113 (2007), doi:.
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Lübken, F.-J.

J. Höffner and F.-J. Lübken, “Potassium lidar temperatures and densities in the mesopause region at Spitsbergen (78°N),” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D20), D20114 (2007).

Manson, A.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matuura, N.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Meek, C.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nishiyama, T.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nomura, A.

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Kawahara, C. S. Gardner, and A. Nomura, “Observed temperature structure of the atmosphere above Syowa Station, Antarctica (69°S, 39°E),” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D12), D12103 (2004).

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).

Nozawa, S.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Ogawa, T.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Ogawa, Y.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Oyama, S.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Raizada, S.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65(16–18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Saito, N.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, M. Ito, A. Takazawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, M. Ito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Sodium D2 resonance radiation in single-pass sum-frequency generation with actively mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1965–1967 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, Y.

Schmidt, H.

C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, R. Akmaev, H. Schmidt, E. Talaat, and S. Yee, “Long-term variability in mesopause region temperatures over Fort Collins, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) based on lidar observations from 1990 through 2007,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 71(14–15), 1558–1564 (2009).
[Crossref]

She, C.-Y.

D. A. Krueger, C.-Y. She, and T. Yuan, “Retrieving mesopause temperature and line-of-sight wind from full-diurnal-cycle Na lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 54(32), 9469–9489 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yuan, J. Yue, C.-Y. She, J. P. Sherman, M. A. White, S. D. Harrell, P. E. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “Wind-bias correction method for narrowband sodium Doppler lidars using iodine absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3988–3993 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, R. Akmaev, H. Schmidt, E. Talaat, and S. Yee, “Long-term variability in mesopause region temperatures over Fort Collins, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) based on lidar observations from 1990 through 2007,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 71(14–15), 1558–1564 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrowband sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Doppler-free saturation fluorescence spectroscopy of Na atoms for atmospheric application,” Appl. Opt. 34(6), 1063–1075 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-freqency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sherman, J. P.

Simonich, D.

B. Clemesha, D. Simonich, and P. Batista, “Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause region temperatures at 23° S,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1165–1171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, S.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Takami, H.

Takazawa, A.

Talaat, E.

C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, R. Akmaev, H. Schmidt, E. Talaat, and S. Yee, “Long-term variability in mesopause region temperatures over Fort Collins, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) based on lidar observations from 1990 through 2007,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 71(14–15), 1558–1564 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tepley, C. A.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65(16–18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thayer, J. P.

C. J. Heinselman, J. P. Thayer, and B. J. Watkins, “A high-latitude observation of sporadic sodium and sporadic E-layer formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(16), 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tsuda, T. T.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

Tsutsumi, M.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).

Vance, J. D.

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrowband sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wada, S.

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

N. Saito, K. Akagawa, M. Ito, A. Takazawa, Y. Hayano, Y. Saito, M. Ito, H. Takami, M. Iye, and S. Wada, “Sodium D2 resonance radiation in single-pass sum-frequency generation with actively mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1965–1967 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watkins, B. J.

C. J. Heinselman, J. P. Thayer, and B. J. Watkins, “A high-latitude observation of sporadic sodium and sporadic E-layer formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(16), 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

White, M. A.

Williams, B. P.

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrowband sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrowband sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yee, S.

C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, R. Akmaev, H. Schmidt, E. Talaat, and S. Yee, “Long-term variability in mesopause region temperatures over Fort Collins, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) based on lidar observations from 1990 through 2007,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 71(14–15), 1558–1564 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. R.

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Doppler-free saturation fluorescence spectroscopy of Na atoms for atmospheric application,” Appl. Opt. 34(6), 1063–1075 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-freqency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

X. Chu, Z. Yu, C. S. Gardner, C. Chen, and W. Fong, “Lidar observations of neutral Fe layers and fast gravity waves in the thermosphere (110-155 km) at McMurdo (77.8°S, 166.7°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(23), L23807 (2011).

Yuan, T.

Yue, J.

Zhou, Q. H.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65(16–18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

B. Clemesha, D. Simonich, and P. Batista, “Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause region temperatures at 23° S,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1165–1171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ann. Geophys. (2)

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, M. Tsutsumi, C. Hall, S. Suzuki, T. T. Tsuda, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, S. Oyama, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, H. Fujiwara, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C. Meek, and R. Fujii, “A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data,” Ann. Geophys. 32(10), 1195–1205 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, T. T. Tsuda, Y. Ogawa, N. Saito, T. Hidemori, T. D. Kawahara, C. M. Hall, H. Fujiwara, N. Matuura, A. Brekke, M. Tsutsumi, S. Wada, T. Kawabata, S. Oyama, and R. Fujii, “A case study on generation mechanisms of a sporadic sodium layer above Tromsø (69.6° N) during a night of high auroral activity,” Ann. Geophys. 33(8), 941–953 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Can. J. Phys. (1)

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrowband sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (7)

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, M. K. Ejiri, S. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, and T. Nakamura, “Decrease in sodium density observed during auroral particle precipitation over Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(17), 4486–4490 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, “Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(8), L18102 (2011).

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-freqency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[Crossref]

X. Chu, Z. Yu, C. S. Gardner, C. Chen, and W. Fong, “Lidar observations of neutral Fe layers and fast gravity waves in the thermosphere (110-155 km) at McMurdo (77.8°S, 166.7°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(23), L23807 (2011).

C. J. Heinselman, J. P. Thayer, and B. J. Watkins, “A high-latitude observation of sporadic sodium and sporadic E-layer formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(16), 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69°S, 39°E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (2)

C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, R. Akmaev, H. Schmidt, E. Talaat, and S. Yee, “Long-term variability in mesopause region temperatures over Fort Collins, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) based on lidar observations from 1990 through 2007,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 71(14–15), 1558–1564 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, S. Raizada, Q. H. Zhou, J. Hedin, and R. Delgado, “Potassium Doppler-resonance lidar for the study of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at the Arecibo Observatory,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65(16–18), 1411–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

J. Höffner and F.-J. Lübken, “Potassium lidar temperatures and densities in the mesopause region at Spitsbergen (78°N),” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D20), D20114 (2007).

C. S. Gardner and A. Z. Liu, “Seasonal variations of the vertical fluxes of heat and horizontal momentum in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D9), D09113 (2007), doi:.
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, C. S. Gardner, and A. Nomura, “Observed temperature structure of the atmosphere above Syowa Station, Antarctica (69°S, 39°E),” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D12), D12103 (2004).

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

S. Nozawa, “Sodium lidar data,” http://www.isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~nozawa/indexlidardata.html .

S. Nozawa, “Sodium lidar pictures at Tromso,” http://www.isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~nozawa/LIDAR/index_lidaroperation.html

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Pulsed laser unit which is comprised of laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers for 1064 nm and 1319 nm and a LBO crystal for pulsed sum frequency generation of 589 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Injection seeder unit which consists of seeders for 1064 nm and 1319 nm, a PPLN crystal, AO frequency modulators, and a sodium vapor cell for Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy. The 1064 nm seeder light to the oscillator is switched cyclically between ν1064, ν1064 + 630 MHz, and ν1064– 630 MHz, presently every minute.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Example of measured sodium Doppler-free absorption spectrum with a spectral resolution of ~1 MHz in shown relative to the 32P3/2 -> 32S1/2 transition at 16973.36 cm−1 (589.158 nm). Large dips at the Na D2aa = −651 MHz) and enhancements at the crossover (νc = 188 MHz) [16] are clearly seen. The down and up AOM-shifted frequencies are −1.281 GHz and −0.021 GHz, respectively. The probing laser power used for this spectrum is 0.3 mW, resulting in Doppler-free features relatively free from power broadening. The feature around the D2a peak is expanded as an insert in the upper right corner, and the laser is locked at the deepest dip at −0.651 GHz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Illustration of a receiver system.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Typical raw photocount data of one telescope in one-direction mode. Each integration time is 5 seconds.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Observational results of the sodium lidar on 16 January 2014. The altitude and time resolution is 1 km and 15 minutes, respectively. (a) temperature, (b) sodium density, (c) eastward wind, (d) northward wind.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the System Parameters of the Sodium lidar.

Metrics