Abstract

We present the isolation of single attosecond pulses for multi-cycle and few-cycle laser pulses from high harmonic generation in overdense plasmas, calculated with particle-in-cell simulations. By the combination of two laser pulses of equal amplitude and a small frequency shift between them, we demonstrate that it is possible to shorten the region in which the laser pulse is most intense, therefore restricting the generation of high harmonic orders in the form of attosecond pulses to a narrower time window. The creation of this window is achieved due to the combination of the laser pulse envelope and the slow oscillating wave obtained from the coherent sum of the two pulses. A parametric scan, performed with particle-in-cell simulations, reveals how the pulse isolation behaves for different input laser pulse lengths and which are the optimal frequency shifts between the two laser pulses in each case, giving the conditions for having a good isolation of an attosecond pulse when working with laser-plasma interaction in overdense targets.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (2)

2016 (1)

M. R. Edwards and J. M. Mikhailova, “Waveform-Controlled Relativistic High-Order-Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 125001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

S. Haessler, T. Balčiūnas, G. Fan, L. E. Chipperfield, and A. Baltuška, “Enhanced multi-colour gating for the generation of high-power isolated attosecond pulses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10084 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Debayle, J. Sanz, and L. Gremillet, “Self-consistent theory of high-order harmonic generation by relativistic plasma mirror,” Phys. Rev. E 92, 053108 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Ma, W. Dallari, A. Borot, F. Krausz, W. Yu, G. D. Tsakiris, and L. Veisz, “Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation from relativistic laser plasmas using few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 22, 033105 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. Vincenti, S. Monchocé, S. Kahaly, G. Bonnaud, P. Martin, and F. Quéré, “Optical properties of relativistic plasma mirrors,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3403 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Edwards, V. T. Platonenko, and J. M. Mikhailova, “Enhanced attosecond bursts of relativistic high-order harmonics driven by two-color fields,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6823–6826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

S. Mirzanejad and M. Salehi, “Two-color high-order-harmonic generation: Relativistic mirror effects and attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063815 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Fonseca, J. Vieira, F. Fiuza, A. Davidson, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, and L. O. Silva, “Exploiting multi-scale parallelism for large scale numerical modelling of laser wakefield accelerators,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 55, 124011 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and J. Midorikawa, “Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2691 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malvache, A. Borot, F. Quéré, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Coherent wake emission spectroscopy as a probe of steep plasma density profiles,” Phys. Rev. E 87, 035101 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Debayle, J. Sanz, L. Gremillet, and K. Mima, “Toward a self-consistent model of the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse with an overdense plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 053107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Sanz, A. Debayle, and K. Mima, “Model for ultraintense laser-plasma interaction at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. E 85, 046411 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. A. Wheeler, A. Borot, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, A. Ricci, A. Malvache, R. Lopez-Martens, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses from plasma mirrors,” Nat. Photonics 6, 829–833 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses: how to use spatiotemporally coupled light fields to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. A. Gonoskov, A. V. Korzhimanov, A. V. Kim, M. Marklund, and A. M. Sergeev, “Ultrarelativistic nanoplasmonics as a route towards extreme-intensity attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 84, 046403 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photon. 5, 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. Thaury and F. Quéré, “High-order harmonic and attosecond pulse generation on plasma mirrors: basic mechanisms,” J. Phys. B 43, 213001 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and J. Midorikawa, “Infrared Two-Color Multicycle Laser Field Synthesis for Generating an Intense Attosecond Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mèvel, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Teubner and P. Gibbon, “High-order harmonics from laser-irradiated plasma surfaces,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 445–479 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. P. Tarasevitch, R. Kohn, and D. von der Linde, “Towards intense attosecond pulses: using two beams for high order harmonic generation from solid targets,” J. Phys. B 42, 134006 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Tarasevitch and D. von der Linde, “High order harmonic generation from solid targets: Towards intense attosecond pulses,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 175, 35–41 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. G. Rykovanov, M. Geissler, J. Meyer-ter Vehn, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Intense single attosecond pulses from surface harmonics using the polarization gating technique,” New J. Phys. 10, 025025 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. A. Fonseca, S. F. Martins, L. O. Silva, J. W. Tonge, F. S. Tsung, and W. B. Mori, “One-to-one direct modeling of experiments and astrophysical scenarios: pushing the envelope on kinetic plasma simulations,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50, 124034 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

H. Merdji, T. Auguste, W. Boutu, J. P. Caumes, B. Carré, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses using a detuned second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3134–3136 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Ulberacker, T. Uphues, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rausehenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakkinig, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007)
[Crossref]

2006 (7)

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 023404 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. S. Pirozhkov, S. V. Bulanov, T. Z. Esirkepov, M. Mori, A. Sagisaka, and H. Daido, “Attosecond pulse generation in the relativistic regime of the laser-foil interaction: The sliding mirror model,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 013107 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne Mixing of Laser Fields for Temporal Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, J. Meyer-ter Vehn, and F. Krausz, “Route to intense single attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys. 8(1), 19 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813–855 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast Time-Resolved Soft X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lety. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(7), 1234–1237 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Theobald, R. Häßner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, “Temporally Resolved Measurement of Electron Densities > 1023 cm−3 with High Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(2), 298–301 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, “Short-pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3(9), 3425–3437 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1983 (1)

A. Bourdier, “Oblique incidence of a strong electromagnetic wave on a cold inhomogeneous electron plasma. Relativistic effects,” Phys. Fluids 26, 1804–1807 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

B. Bezzerides, R. D. Jones, and D. W. Forslund, “Plasma Mechanism for Ultraviolet Harmonic Radiation Due to Intense CO2 Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49(3), 202–205 (1982).
[Crossref]

Abel, M. J.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne Mixing of Laser Fields for Temporal Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
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Adam, J. C.

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A. Tarasevitch and D. von der Linde, “High order harmonic generation from solid targets: Towards intense attosecond pulses,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 175, 35–41 (2009).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Laser pulses obtained through the combination of two frequency shifted pulses of (a) equal frequency, (b) a ratio of ω2/ω1 = 1.2 and (c) a ratio ω2/ω1 = 3. The reference wavelength is λ1 = 800 nm and the FWHM is τ = 20 fs. The x axis is in units of the laser period, T.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of two simulations to depict the isolation of a single attosecond pulse in the filtered pulse train. Both simulations are performed with two pulses of (a)–(c) equal frequency and (d)–(f) a frequency ratio of ω2/ω1 = 1.3. The comparison between the reflected pulse trains in (b) and (e) and the electron density oscillations in (c) and (f) clearly shows the narrowing of the HHG window.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Results of the parametric scan for different pulse widths of (a) 10 fs, (b) 25 fs and (c) 40 fs. In the left column it is displayed the train of pulses over time for each frequency ratio. The signal is normalized to the most intense pulse in each frequency ratio. In the right columns the isolation efficiency (ξ) and the maximum intensity in the central pulse of the train is depicted for each frequency ratio.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Trains of pulses generated for the mix of pulses with a frequency ratio of (a)–(c) ω2/ω1 = 1.4 and (b)–(d) ω2/ω1 = 1.2. The pulses FWHM are (a)–(b) 15 fs and (c)–(d) 30 fs. The isolation efficiency is shown in the upper-right corner of each plot.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Results obtained varying the CEP with a pulse of FWHM τ = 25 fs and a frequency ratio of ω2/ω1 = 1.3. (a) A 2D map shows the temporal shape of the pulse train varying the CEP, the signal is normalized to the most intense pulse for each CEP. The isolation efficiency for each CEP is shown in (b). (c) and (d) show the input pulse (blue) and the corresponding attosecond pulse train (red), both normalized to the unity, at (c) CEP = 0° and (d) CEP = 130°.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Frequency ratio (blue circles) for the optimal isolation and the associated isolation efficiency (red squares) for each FWHM.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Effect of the pre-plasma on the gating technique displayed in the (a) isolation efficiency and (b) intensity of the most intense pulse of the train. The frequency ratio is chosen as the optimal one for each FWHM, that is ω2/ω1 = 1.4 for τ = 15 fs and ω2/ω1 = 1.3 for τ = {20, 25} fs.

Equations (2)

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E = E 1 + E 2 = 2 Γ ( t ) cos ( ω 2 + ω 1 2 t ) cos ( ω 2 ω 1 2 t )
ξ = j = 1 N 1 ( 1 I j I 0 )

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