Abstract

We present an experimental study and analysis of a travelling wave series push-pull silicon photonic multi-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator (ME-MZM) and compare its performance with a single-electrode travelling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator (TWMZM). Utilizing the functionality of the ME-MZM structure plus digital-signal-processing, we report: 1) the C-band transmission of 84 Gb/s OOK modulated data below the KP4 forward error correction threshold with 2 Vpp drive voltage over a distance of 2 km; 2) the transmission of a 128 Gb/s optical 4-level pulse amplitude modulated signal over 1 km of fiber; and 3) the generation of a 168 Gb/s PAM-4 signal using two electrical OOK signals. By comparing the transmission system performance measurements for the ME-MZM with measurements performed using a similar series push-pull TWMZM, we show that the ME-MZM provides a clear advantage in achieving higher baud PAM-4 generation and transmission compared to a TWMZM.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  5. P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  8. M. Chagnon, M. Morsy-Osman, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, A. Samani, and D. Plant, “Digital signal processing for dual-polarization intensity and interpolarization phase modulation formats using Stokes detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 188–195 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Shastri, C. Muzio, M. Webster, G. Jeans, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Chattin, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Ultra-low-power single-polarization QAM-16 generation without DAC using a CMOS photonics based segmented modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1255–1260 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push-pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “336 Gb/s in direct detection below KP4 FEC threshold for intra data center applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2233–2236 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “168 Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “168 Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “336 Gb/s in direct detection below KP4 FEC threshold for intra data center applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2233–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Hai, M. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 123–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Morsy-Osman, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, A. Samani, and D. Plant, “Digital signal processing for dual-polarization intensity and interpolarization phase modulation formats using Stokes detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 188–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, W. Yao, L. Shen, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “−1 V bias 67 GHz bandwidth Si-contacted germanium waveguide p-i-n photodetector for optical links at 56 Gbps and beyond,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4622 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Dubé-Demers, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Low-power DAC-less PAM-4 transmitter using a cascaded microring modulator,” Opt. Lett. 41(22), 5369–5372 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Fard, G. Cowan, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Responsivity optimization of a high-speed germanium-on-silicon photodetector,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27738–27752 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

A. Shastri, C. Muzio, M. Webster, G. Jeans, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Chattin, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Ultra-low-power single-polarization QAM-16 generation without DAC using a CMOS photonics based segmented modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1255–1260 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type Si Mach–Zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 199–206 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2012 (2)

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push-pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Absil, P.

Amrani, O.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Balakrishnan, S.

Bergman, K.

Chagnon, M.

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “168 Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “336 Gb/s in direct detection below KP4 FEC threshold for intra data center applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2233–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Morsy-Osman, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, A. Samani, and D. Plant, “Digital signal processing for dual-polarization intensity and interpolarization phase modulation formats using Stokes detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 188–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J. F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chattin, B.

Chen, H.

Chen, L.

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push-pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. K.

Chen, Y.-K.

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push-pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cowan, G.

Dama, B.

De Coster, J.

De Heyn, P.

Ding, R.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push-pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dubé-Demers, R.

Ehrlichman, Y.

El-Fiky, E.

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “168 Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fard, M.

M. Hai, M. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 123–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fard, M. M.

Gagné, J. F.

Gajda, A.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type Si Mach–Zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 199–206 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hai, M.

M. Hai, M. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 123–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Jeans, G.

Kroh, M.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type Si Mach–Zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 199–206 (2015).
[Crossref]

LaRochelle, S.

Latrasse, C.

Lepage, G.

Lessard, S.

Li, Q.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

M. Hai, M. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 123–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. M. Fard, G. Cowan, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Responsivity optimization of a high-speed germanium-on-silicon photodetector,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27738–27752 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, A.

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.

Ma, Y.

Metz, P.

Miller, D.

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morsy-Osman, M.

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “168 Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Morsy-Osman, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, A. Samani, and D. Plant, “Digital signal processing for dual-polarization intensity and interpolarization phase modulation formats using Stokes detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 188–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

Muzio, C.

Osman, M.

Painchaud, Y.

Paquet, C.

Patel, D.

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Morsy-Osman, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, A. Samani, and D. Plant, “Digital signal processing for dual-polarization intensity and interpolarization phase modulation formats using Stokes detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 188–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petermann, K.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type Si Mach–Zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 199–206 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petousi, D.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type Si Mach–Zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 199–206 (2015).
[Crossref]

Plant, D.

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “168 Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “336 Gb/s in direct detection below KP4 FEC threshold for intra data center applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2233–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Morsy-Osman, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, A. Samani, and D. Plant, “Digital signal processing for dual-polarization intensity and interpolarization phase modulation formats using Stokes detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 188–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J. F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plant, D. V.

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poulin, M.

Roelkens, G.

Ruschin, S.

Samani, A.

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “168 Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Morsy-Osman, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, A. Samani, and D. Plant, “Digital signal processing for dual-polarization intensity and interpolarization phase modulation formats using Stokes detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 188–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shastri, A.

Shastri, K.

Shen, L.

Shi, W.

Sowailem, M.

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “168 Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sunder, S.

Tillack, B.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type Si Mach–Zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 199–206 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Veerasubramanian, V.

M. Chagnon, M. Morsy-Osman, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, A. Samani, and D. Plant, “Digital signal processing for dual-polarization intensity and interpolarization phase modulation formats using Stokes detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 188–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verheyen, P.

Voigt, K.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type Si Mach–Zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 199–206 (2015).
[Crossref]

Webster, M.

Winzer, G.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type Si Mach–Zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 199–206 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Yao, W.

Zhong, Q.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, L.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type Si Mach–Zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 199–206 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, A. Gajda, M. Kroh, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of optical and electrical tradeoffs of traveling-wave depletion-type Si Mach–Zehnder modulators for high-speed operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 199–206 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Hai, M. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 123–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push-pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “336 Gb/s in direct detection below KP4 FEC threshold for intra data center applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2233–2236 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “168 Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

IEEE P802.3bs 400 GbE Task Force, http://www.ieee802.org/3/bs/index.html

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic of the structure and (b) analytical model of a SPP ME-MZM.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Micrograph of (a) the ME-MZM and (b) the TWMZM.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured values of the: (a) Phase shift vs. voltage of ME-MZM and TWMZM, (b) the optical power transmission of the presented ME-MZM as a function of the voltage applied to each segment and (c) transfer function of the SiP ME-MZM (ignoring losses).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electro-optic response of the (a) ME-MZM and (b) TWMZM, and the electrical S11 response of the (c) ME-MZM and (d) TWMZM.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the experimental setup for (a) OOK and PAM-4 modulation using TWMZM (b) OOK modulation using ME-MZM and (c) PAM-4 modulation using ME-MZM.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 40 Gbaud OOK eye diagram of (a) TWMMZM (b) ME-MZM and (c) PAM-4 eye diagram of ME-MZM.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Back to Back OOK Q-factor of (a) ME-MZM and TWMZM, (b) OOK BER of ME-MZM and TWMZM and (c) the PAM-4 BER of ME-MZM over various length of SMF.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) 56 Gbaud OOK, (b) 84 Gbaud OOK, (c) 56 Gbaud PAM-4 and (d) 84 Gbaud PAM-4 eye diagram of the ME-MZM.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 OOK BER of (a) ME-MZM and TWMZM over various length of SMF, (b) PAM-4 BER of TWMZM, and (c) the PAM-4 BER of ME-MZM versus drive voltage. Dashed lines indicate the HD-FEC threshold of 3.8 × 10−3 and the KP-4 FEC threshold of 2.0 × 10−4.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 BER performance of the (a) TWMZM and (b) ME-MZM for various bauds and transmission distances. Dashed lines indicate the HD-FEC threshold of 3.8 × 10−3 and the KP-4 FEC threshold of 2.0 × 10−4.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Power consumption per bit (pj/bit) of each modulator.

Equations (2)

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E o = E i 2 e j( θ 1 + θ 2 )
I o = | E i | 2 2 (1+cos( θ 1 + θ 2 ))

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