Abstract

We report a silicon photonic modulator based on the use of dual parallel microring modulators (MRMs) inserted in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). It is operated in a push-pull configuration for low-chirp transmission at approximately 1550 nm. The chirp parameters of the device are measured using 10 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK) transmission over 20 km of standard single mode fiber (SSMF), and they are less than 0.01, showing the low-chirp characteristic of the modulator. We further demonstrate four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) transmission at 92 Gb/s over 1 km of SSMF and at 40 Gb/s over 20 km of SSMF. The measured bit error rates (BERs) are below the hard-decision (HD) forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10−3.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

R. Dubé-Demers, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Ultrafast pulse-amplitude modulation with a femtojoule silicon photonic modulator,” Optica 3(6), 622–627 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Poulin, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of a silicon photonic modulator enabled 112-Gb/s PAM transmission system with a DAC and ADC,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1380–1387 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, D. Ying, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, Y. Hao, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Trade-off between optical modulation amplitude and modulation bandwidth of silicon micro-ring modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15178–15189 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Novack, M. Gould, Y. Yang, Z. Xuan, M. Streshinsky, Y. Liu, G. Capellini, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Germanium photodetector with 60 GHz bandwidth using inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28387–28393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 44–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

1998 (1)

1988 (1)

F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Ahn, J. H.

D. Vantrease, J. H. Ahn, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Corona: system implications of merging nanophotonic technology,” in Proc. 35th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, 2008), pp. 153–164.
[Crossref]

Alfiad, M. S.

Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atabaki, A. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azadeh, S. S.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 44–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, M. Gould, Y. Yang, Z. Xuan, M. Streshinsky, Y. Liu, G. Capellini, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Germanium photodetector with 60 GHz bandwidth using inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28387–28393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beausoleil, R. G.

L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, Y. Li, B. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Microring-based modulation and demodulation of DPSK signal,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11564–11569 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Vantrease, J. H. Ahn, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Corona: system implications of merging nanophotonic technology,” in Proc. 35th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, 2008), pp. 153–164.
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Binkert, N.

D. Vantrease, J. H. Ahn, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Corona: system implications of merging nanophotonic technology,” in Proc. 35th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, 2008), pp. 153–164.
[Crossref]

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Capellini, G.

Cartledge, J. C.

Cassan, E.

Chagnon, M.

Chang, P. L. D.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, Y.-H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, H. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Courjal, N.

Crozat, P.

Davis, A.

D. Vantrease, J. H. Ahn, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Corona: system implications of merging nanophotonic technology,” in Proc. 35th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, 2008), pp. 153–164.
[Crossref]

Ding, R.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 44–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dubé-Demers, R.

El-Fiky, E.

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J. M.

Fiorentino, M.

D. Vantrease, J. H. Ahn, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Corona: system implications of merging nanophotonic technology,” in Proc. 35th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, 2008), pp. 153–164.
[Crossref]

García, S. R.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Georgas, M. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gould, M.

Grossard, N.

Hao, Y.

Harris, N. C.

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Lankl, B.

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Liao, J. T. S.

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R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
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R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
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A. Novack, M. Gould, Y. Yang, Z. Xuan, M. Streshinsky, Y. Liu, G. Capellini, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Germanium photodetector with 60 GHz bandwidth using inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28387–28393 (2013).
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R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
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A. Novack, M. Gould, Y. Yang, Z. Xuan, M. Streshinsky, Y. Liu, G. Capellini, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Germanium photodetector with 60 GHz bandwidth using inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28387–28393 (2013).
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R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
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McLaren, M.

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Monchiero, M.

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Moss, B. R.

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J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2014).
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Novack, A.

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A. Novack, M. Gould, Y. Yang, Z. Xuan, M. Streshinsky, Y. Liu, G. Capellini, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Germanium photodetector with 60 GHz bandwidth using inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28387–28393 (2013).
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Ou, A. J.

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R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
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Paquet, C.

Patel, D.

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D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
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D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
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A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
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D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
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Peters, J. D.

Piyawanno, K.

Plant, D. V.

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
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M. Chagnon, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Poulin, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of a silicon photonic modulator enabled 112-Gb/s PAM transmission system with a DAC and ADC,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1380–1387 (2015).
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D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
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Polzer, A.

Popovic, M. A.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Porte, H.

Poulin, M.

Ram, R. J.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Reshotko, M. R.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Samani, A.

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schreiber, R.

D. Vantrease, J. H. Ahn, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Corona: system implications of merging nanophotonic technology,” in Proc. 35th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, 2008), pp. 153–164.
[Crossref]

Shainline, J. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, B.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2014).
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Shi, W.

Song, M.

Spinnler, B.

Stojanovic, V. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Streshinsky, M.

Sun, C.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Van Campenhout, J.

Vantrease, D.

D. Vantrease, J. H. Ahn, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Corona: system implications of merging nanophotonic technology,” in Proc. 35th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, 2008), pp. 153–164.
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Veerasubramanian, V.

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
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Vivien, L.

Wade, M. T.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Waterman, A. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, A. E.

Witzens, J.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xuan, Z.

A. Novack, M. Gould, Y. Yang, Z. Xuan, M. Streshinsky, Y. Liu, G. Capellini, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Germanium photodetector with 60 GHz bandwidth using inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28387–28393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 44–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yang, J.-Y.

Yang, Y.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, M. Gould, Y. Yang, Z. Xuan, M. Streshinsky, Y. Liu, G. Capellini, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Germanium photodetector with 60 GHz bandwidth using inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28387–28393 (2013).
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Ying, D.

Young, I. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Zhang, B.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 44–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Q.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, H.

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. (1)

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 44–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Nature (1)

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, Y. Li, B. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Microring-based modulation and demodulation of DPSK signal,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11564–11569 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Forty Gb/s hybrid silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with low chirp,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1455–1460 (2011).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Novack, M. Gould, Y. Yang, Z. Xuan, M. Streshinsky, Y. Liu, G. Capellini, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Germanium photodetector with 60 GHz bandwidth using inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28387–28393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, D. Ying, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, Y. Hao, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Trade-off between optical modulation amplitude and modulation bandwidth of silicon micro-ring modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15178–15189 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optica (1)

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (8)

R. Li, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “56-Gbps OOK transmission using silicon microring assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STu4G.4.
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to CMOS silicon chips,” in Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PMB3.

Ranovus, http://ranovus.com/worlds-first-quantum-dot-multi-wavelength-laser-and-silicon-photonics-platform-technologies-for-dci-market .

N. Eiselt, J. Wei, H. Griesser, A. Dochhan, M. H. Eiselt, J.-P. Elbers, J. J. Vegas Olmos, and I. Tafur Monroy, “First real-time 400G PAM-4 demonstration for inter-data center transmission over 100 km of SSMF at 1550 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W1K.5.
[Crossref]

C.-M. Chang, P. Dong, C. Gui, and G. de Valicourt, “Low-chirp push-pull microring modulators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4H.2.
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, L. Xu, and D. V. Plant, “A C-band push-pull dual-ring silicon photonic modulator for 20 km SSMF transmission without CD compensation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper SM4O.3.

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design: From Devices to Systems (Cambridge University, 2015).

D. Vantrease, J. H. Ahn, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Corona: system implications of merging nanophotonic technology,” in Proc. 35th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, 2008), pp. 153–164.
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic structure of the push-pull dual parallel MRMs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated (a) power transmission and (b) phase responses of the device in the push-pull operation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured DC spectra when applying reverse bias voltages on the RF pad of (a) MRM 1 and (b) MRM 2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured (a) EE S11 responses and (b) EO S21 responses of the two MRMs measured at 50 pm and 100 pm away from their resonant wavelengths.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental setup for chirp characterization, measured constellation diagrams and chirp parameters using 10 Gb/s OOK signals after (b) B2B, (c) 2 km and (d) 20 km of SSMF transmission. (x axis: real part of the electric field, y axis: imaginary part of the electric field.)
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Experimental setup of the PAM-4 transmission and (b) offline DSP.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Optical eye diagrams at 43. 75 Gb/s after B2B transmission obtained by the DCA, and eye diagrams obtained using offline DSP at (b) 80 Gb/s after 2 km, (c) 56 Gb/s after 10 km and (d) 34 Gb/s after 20 km of SSMF transmission.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured BERs of the push-pull device after transmission over 0 – 20 km of SSMF.

Equations (1)

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α=2I dϕ/dt dI/dt =2I dϕ/dV dI/dV

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