Abstract

Metal-halide perovskites are a class of solution processed materials with remarkable optoelectronic properties such as high photoluminescence quantum yields and long carrier lifetimes, which makes them promising for a wide range of efficient photonic devices. In this work, we demonstrate the first successful integration of a perovskite laser onto a silicon nitride photonic chip. High throughput, low cost optical lithography is used, followed by indirect structuring of the perovskite waveguide. We embed methylammonium lead tri-iodide (MAPbI3) in a pre-patterned race-track microresonator and couple the emitted light to an integrated photonic waveguide. We clearly observe the build-up of spectrally narrow lasing modes at room temperature upon a pump threshold fluence of 19.6 µJcm−2. Our results evidence the possibility of on-chip lasers based on metal-halide perovskites with industry relevance on a commercially available dielectric photonic platform, which is a step forward towards low-cost integrated photonic devices.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

N. Zhang, W. Sun, S. P. Rodrigues, K. Wang, Z. Gu, S. Wang, W. Cai, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “Highly reproducible organometallic halide perovskite microdevices based on top-down lithography,” Adv. Mater. 29(15), 1606205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (9)

V. Sarritzu, M. Cadelano, N. Sestu, D. Marongiu, R. Piras, X. Chang, F. Quochi, M. Saba, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Paving the way for solution- processable perovskite lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 1033, 1028–1033 (2016).

Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, A. N. Brigeman, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Diode-pumped organo-lead halide perovskite lasing in a metal-clad distributed feedback resonator,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4624–4629 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite materials for light-emitting diodes and lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sharenko and M. F. Toney, “Relationships between lead halide perovskite thin-film fabrication, morphology, and performance in solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(2), 463–470 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. C. Smirnov, Q. Zhang, R. Wannemacher, L. Wu, S. Casado, R. Xia, I. Rodriguez, and J. Cabanillas-González, “Flexible all-polymer waveguide for low threshold amplified spontaneous emission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34565 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Srimath Kandada and A. Petrozza, “Photophysics of hybrid lead halide perovskites: the role of microstructure,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(3), 536–544 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. A. Akkerman, M. Gandini, F. Di Stasio, P. Rastogi, F. Palazon, G. Bertoni, J. M. Ball, M. Prato, A. Petrozza, and L. Manna, “Strongly emissive perovskite nanocrystal inks for high-voltage solar cells,” Nat. Energy 2(2), 16194 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Lai, T. Y. S. Tay, A. Sadhanala, S. E. Dutton, G. Li, R. H. Friend, and Z.-K. Tan, “Tunable near-infrared luminescence in tin halide perovskite devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(14), 2653–2658 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

M. S. Alias, I. Dursun, D. Shi, M. I. Saidaminov, E. M. Diallo, D. Priante, T. K. Ng, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 33, 51207 (2015).

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Y. Chin, D. Cortecchia, J. Yin, A. Bruno, and C. Soci, “Lead iodide perovskite light-emitting field-effect transistor,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-temperature near-infrared high-Q perovskite whispering-gallery planar nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 332–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Piels, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Low-loss silicon nitride AWG demultiplexer heterogeneously integrated with hybrid III–V/silicon photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 817–823 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Yang, Y. Li, Y. Z. Huang, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon nitride three-mode division multiplexing and wavelength-division multiplexing using asymmetrical directional couplers and microring resonators,” Opt. Express 22(18), 22172–22183 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

X. Tu, J. Song, T.-Y. Liow, M. K. Park, J. Q. Yiying, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Thermal independent silicon-nitride slot waveguide biosensor with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2640–2648 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 546–549 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

L. Vivien, F. Grillot, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, A. Lupu, S. Laval, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Comparison between strip and rib SOI microwaveguides for intra-chip light distribution,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 27(5), 756–762 (2005).
[Crossref]

Akkerman, Q. A.

Q. A. Akkerman, M. Gandini, F. Di Stasio, P. Rastogi, F. Palazon, G. Bertoni, J. M. Ball, M. Prato, A. Petrozza, and L. Manna, “Strongly emissive perovskite nanocrystal inks for high-voltage solar cells,” Nat. Energy 2(2), 16194 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alexander-Webber, J. A.

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alias, M. S.

M. S. Alias, I. Dursun, D. Shi, M. I. Saidaminov, E. M. Diallo, D. Priante, T. K. Ng, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 33, 51207 (2015).

Atatüre, M.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bakr, O. M.

M. S. Alias, I. Dursun, D. Shi, M. I. Saidaminov, E. M. Diallo, D. Priante, T. K. Ng, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 33, 51207 (2015).

Ball, J. M.

Q. A. Akkerman, M. Gandini, F. Di Stasio, P. Rastogi, F. Palazon, G. Bertoni, J. M. Ball, M. Prato, A. Petrozza, and L. Manna, “Strongly emissive perovskite nanocrystal inks for high-voltage solar cells,” Nat. Energy 2(2), 16194 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ballif, C.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauters, J. F.

Beeker, W.

Bertoni, G.

Q. A. Akkerman, M. Gandini, F. Di Stasio, P. Rastogi, F. Palazon, G. Bertoni, J. M. Ball, M. Prato, A. Petrozza, and L. Manna, “Strongly emissive perovskite nanocrystal inks for high-voltage solar cells,” Nat. Energy 2(2), 16194 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boix, P. P.

S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite materials for light-emitting diodes and lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bongiovanni, G.

V. Sarritzu, M. Cadelano, N. Sestu, D. Marongiu, R. Piras, X. Chang, F. Quochi, M. Saba, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Paving the way for solution- processable perovskite lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 1033, 1028–1033 (2016).

Bowers, J. E.

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 332–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

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F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
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H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
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N. Zhang, W. Sun, S. P. Rodrigues, K. Wang, Z. Gu, S. Wang, W. Cai, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “Highly reproducible organometallic halide perovskite microdevices based on top-down lithography,” Adv. Mater. 29(15), 1606205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
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M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
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Humphry-Baker, R.

H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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Im, S. H.

H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen, R.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
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F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
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H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, A. N. Brigeman, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Diode-pumped organo-lead halide perovskite lasing in a metal-clad distributed feedback resonator,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4624–4629 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, S.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnston, M. B.

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kee, J. S.

Kerner, R. A.

Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, A. N. Brigeman, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Diode-pumped organo-lead halide perovskite lasing in a metal-clad distributed feedback resonator,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4624–4629 (2016).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. C.

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, M. L.

M. L. Lai, T. Y. S. Tay, A. Sadhanala, S. E. Dutton, G. Li, R. H. Friend, and Z.-K. Tan, “Tunable near-infrared luminescence in tin halide perovskite devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(14), 2653–2658 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lardenois, S.

L. Vivien, F. Grillot, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, A. Lupu, S. Laval, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Comparison between strip and rib SOI microwaveguides for intra-chip light distribution,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 27(5), 756–762 (2005).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
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H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
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F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
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Leyssens, K.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
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M. L. Lai, T. Y. S. Tay, A. Sadhanala, S. E. Dutton, G. Li, R. H. Friend, and Z.-K. Tan, “Tunable near-infrared luminescence in tin halide perovskite devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(14), 2653–2658 (2016).
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S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite materials for light-emitting diodes and lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
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Lim, S. S.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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Lipson, M.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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L. Vivien, F. Grillot, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, A. Lupu, S. Laval, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Comparison between strip and rib SOI microwaveguides for intra-chip light distribution,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 27(5), 756–762 (2005).
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Q. A. Akkerman, M. Gandini, F. Di Stasio, P. Rastogi, F. Palazon, G. Bertoni, J. M. Ball, M. Prato, A. Petrozza, and L. Manna, “Strongly emissive perovskite nanocrystal inks for high-voltage solar cells,” Nat. Energy 2(2), 16194 (2016).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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V. Sarritzu, M. Cadelano, N. Sestu, D. Marongiu, R. Piras, X. Chang, F. Quochi, M. Saba, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Paving the way for solution- processable perovskite lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 1033, 1028–1033 (2016).

Marpaung, D.

Mathews, N.

S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite materials for light-emitting diodes and lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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Mhaisalkar, S. G.

S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite materials for light-emitting diodes and lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
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M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
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V. Sarritzu, M. Cadelano, N. Sestu, D. Marongiu, R. Piras, X. Chang, F. Quochi, M. Saba, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Paving the way for solution- processable perovskite lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 1033, 1028–1033 (2016).

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M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
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H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
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A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
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M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
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P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
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M. S. Alias, I. Dursun, D. Shi, M. I. Saidaminov, E. M. Diallo, D. Priante, T. K. Ng, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 33, 51207 (2015).

Palazon, F.

Q. A. Akkerman, M. Gandini, F. Di Stasio, P. Rastogi, F. Palazon, G. Bertoni, J. M. Ball, M. Prato, A. Petrozza, and L. Manna, “Strongly emissive perovskite nanocrystal inks for high-voltage solar cells,” Nat. Energy 2(2), 16194 (2016).
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Park, M.-H.

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Park, N.-G.

H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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Pascal, D.

L. Vivien, F. Grillot, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, A. Lupu, S. Laval, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Comparison between strip and rib SOI microwaveguides for intra-chip light distribution,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 27(5), 756–762 (2005).
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M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
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F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
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A. R. Srimath Kandada and A. Petrozza, “Photophysics of hybrid lead halide perovskites: the role of microstructure,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(3), 536–544 (2016).
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Q. A. Akkerman, M. Gandini, F. Di Stasio, P. Rastogi, F. Palazon, G. Bertoni, J. M. Ball, M. Prato, A. Petrozza, and L. Manna, “Strongly emissive perovskite nanocrystal inks for high-voltage solar cells,” Nat. Energy 2(2), 16194 (2016).
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A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
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Phillips, R. T.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
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Piras, R.

V. Sarritzu, M. Cadelano, N. Sestu, D. Marongiu, R. Piras, X. Chang, F. Quochi, M. Saba, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Paving the way for solution- processable perovskite lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 1033, 1028–1033 (2016).

Poon, A. W.

Prato, M.

Q. A. Akkerman, M. Gandini, F. Di Stasio, P. Rastogi, F. Palazon, G. Bertoni, J. M. Ball, M. Prato, A. Petrozza, and L. Manna, “Strongly emissive perovskite nanocrystal inks for high-voltage solar cells,” Nat. Energy 2(2), 16194 (2016).
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Priante, D.

M. S. Alias, I. Dursun, D. Shi, M. I. Saidaminov, E. M. Diallo, D. Priante, T. K. Ng, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 33, 51207 (2015).

Price, M.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
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V. Sarritzu, M. Cadelano, N. Sestu, D. Marongiu, R. Piras, X. Chang, F. Quochi, M. Saba, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Paving the way for solution- processable perovskite lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 1033, 1028–1033 (2016).

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Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, A. N. Brigeman, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Diode-pumped organo-lead halide perovskite lasing in a metal-clad distributed feedback resonator,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4624–4629 (2016).
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Riede, M. K.

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
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N. Zhang, W. Sun, S. P. Rodrigues, K. Wang, Z. Gu, S. Wang, W. Cai, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “Highly reproducible organometallic halide perovskite microdevices based on top-down lithography,” Adv. Mater. 29(15), 1606205 (2017).
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J. R. C. Smirnov, Q. Zhang, R. Wannemacher, L. Wu, S. Casado, R. Xia, I. Rodriguez, and J. Cabanillas-González, “Flexible all-polymer waveguide for low threshold amplified spontaneous emission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34565 (2016).
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Rottenberg, X.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
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Ryu, S.

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
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Saba, M.

V. Sarritzu, M. Cadelano, N. Sestu, D. Marongiu, R. Piras, X. Chang, F. Quochi, M. Saba, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Paving the way for solution- processable perovskite lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 1033, 1028–1033 (2016).

Sabba, D.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadhanala, A.

M. L. Lai, T. Y. S. Tay, A. Sadhanala, S. E. Dutton, G. Li, R. H. Friend, and Z.-K. Tan, “Tunable near-infrared luminescence in tin halide perovskite devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(14), 2653–2658 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saidaminov, M. I.

M. S. Alias, I. Dursun, D. Shi, M. I. Saidaminov, E. M. Diallo, D. Priante, T. K. Ng, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 33, 51207 (2015).

Saliba, M.

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samuel, I. D. W.

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 546–549 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sarritzu, V.

V. Sarritzu, M. Cadelano, N. Sestu, D. Marongiu, R. Piras, X. Chang, F. Quochi, M. Saba, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Paving the way for solution- processable perovskite lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 1033, 1028–1033 (2016).

Selvaraja, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seok, S. I.

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sestu, N.

V. Sarritzu, M. Cadelano, N. Sestu, D. Marongiu, R. Piras, X. Chang, F. Quochi, M. Saba, A. Mura, and G. Bongiovanni, “Paving the way for solution- processable perovskite lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 1033, 1028–1033 (2016).

Severi, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sharenko, A.

A. Sharenko and M. F. Toney, “Relationships between lead halide perovskite thin-film fabrication, morphology, and performance in solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(2), 463–470 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, D.

M. S. Alias, I. Dursun, D. Shi, M. I. Saidaminov, E. M. Diallo, D. Priante, T. K. Ng, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 33, 51207 (2015).

Smirnov, J. R. C.

J. R. C. Smirnov, Q. Zhang, R. Wannemacher, L. Wu, S. Casado, R. Xia, I. Rodriguez, and J. Cabanillas-González, “Flexible all-polymer waveguide for low threshold amplified spontaneous emission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34565 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snaith, H. J.

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soci, C.

X. Y. Chin, D. Cortecchia, J. Yin, A. Bruno, and C. Soci, “Lead iodide perovskite light-emitting field-effect transistor,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

Song, Q.

N. Zhang, W. Sun, S. P. Rodrigues, K. Wang, Z. Gu, S. Wang, W. Cai, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “Highly reproducible organometallic halide perovskite microdevices based on top-down lithography,” Adv. Mater. 29(15), 1606205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srimath Kandada, A. R.

A. R. Srimath Kandada and A. Petrozza, “Photophysics of hybrid lead halide perovskites: the role of microstructure,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(3), 536–544 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stranks, S. D.

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stuckelberger, M.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramanian, A. Z.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sum, T. C.

S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite materials for light-emitting diodes and lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-temperature near-infrared high-Q perovskite whispering-gallery planar nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

N. Zhang, W. Sun, S. P. Rodrigues, K. Wang, Z. Gu, S. Wang, W. Cai, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “Highly reproducible organometallic halide perovskite microdevices based on top-down lithography,” Adv. Mater. 29(15), 1606205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Z.-K.

M. L. Lai, T. Y. S. Tay, A. Sadhanala, S. E. Dutton, G. Li, R. H. Friend, and Z.-K. Tan, “Tunable near-infrared luminescence in tin halide perovskite devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(14), 2653–2658 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tay, T. Y. S.

M. L. Lai, T. Y. S. Tay, A. Sadhanala, S. E. Dutton, G. Li, R. H. Friend, and Z.-K. Tan, “Tunable near-infrared luminescence in tin halide perovskite devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(14), 2653–2658 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teuscher, J.

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toney, M. F.

A. Sharenko and M. F. Toney, “Relationships between lead halide perovskite thin-film fabrication, morphology, and performance in solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(2), 463–470 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Topic, M.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trinh, M. T.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, X.

Turnbull, G.

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 546–549 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Dorpe, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Veldhuis, S. A.

S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite materials for light-emitting diodes and lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, F. Grillot, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, A. Lupu, S. Laval, M. Heitzmann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Comparison between strip and rib SOI microwaveguides for intra-chip light distribution,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 27(5), 756–762 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. T.-W.

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

N. Zhang, W. Sun, S. P. Rodrigues, K. Wang, Z. Gu, S. Wang, W. Cai, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “Highly reproducible organometallic halide perovskite microdevices based on top-down lithography,” Adv. Mater. 29(15), 1606205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

N. Zhang, W. Sun, S. P. Rodrigues, K. Wang, Z. Gu, S. Wang, W. Cai, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “Highly reproducible organometallic halide perovskite microdevices based on top-down lithography,” Adv. Mater. 29(15), 1606205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wannemacher, R.

J. R. C. Smirnov, Q. Zhang, R. Wannemacher, L. Wu, S. Casado, R. Xia, I. Rodriguez, and J. Cabanillas-González, “Flexible all-polymer waveguide for low threshold amplified spontaneous emission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34565 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenger, B.

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, J.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, C.

H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, S. M.

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, L.

J. R. C. Smirnov, Q. Zhang, R. Wannemacher, L. Wu, S. Casado, R. Xia, I. Rodriguez, and J. Cabanillas-González, “Flexible all-polymer waveguide for low threshold amplified spontaneous emission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34565 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, R.

J. R. C. Smirnov, Q. Zhang, R. Wannemacher, L. Wu, S. Casado, R. Xia, I. Rodriguez, and J. Cabanillas-González, “Flexible all-polymer waveguide for low threshold amplified spontaneous emission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34565 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

N. Zhang, W. Sun, S. P. Rodrigues, K. Wang, Z. Gu, S. Wang, W. Cai, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “Highly reproducible organometallic halide perovskite microdevices based on top-down lithography,” Adv. Mater. 29(15), 1606205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, G.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Q.

Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-temperature near-infrared high-Q perovskite whispering-gallery planar nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W. S.

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. D.

Yantara, N.

S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite materials for light-emitting diodes and lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

X. Y. Chin, D. Cortecchia, J. Yin, A. Bruno, and C. Soci, “Lead iodide perovskite light-emitting field-effect transistor,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yiying, J. Q.

Yoo, S.

H. Cho, S.-H. Jeong, M.-H. Park, Y.-H. Kim, C. Wolf, C.-L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T.-W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

Yum, J.-H.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, N.

N. Zhang, W. Sun, S. P. Rodrigues, K. Wang, Z. Gu, S. Wang, W. Cai, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “Highly reproducible organometallic halide perovskite microdevices based on top-down lithography,” Adv. Mater. 29(15), 1606205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

J. R. C. Smirnov, Q. Zhang, R. Wannemacher, L. Wu, S. Casado, R. Xia, I. Rodriguez, and J. Cabanillas-González, “Flexible all-polymer waveguide for low threshold amplified spontaneous emission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34565 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-temperature near-infrared high-Q perovskite whispering-gallery planar nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.-Y.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, L.

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

A. R. Srimath Kandada and A. Petrozza, “Photophysics of hybrid lead halide perovskites: the role of microstructure,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(3), 536–544 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (3)

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T.-W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured organic-inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite materials for light-emitting diodes and lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zhang, W. Sun, S. P. Rodrigues, K. Wang, Z. Gu, S. Wang, W. Cai, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “Highly reproducible organometallic halide perovskite microdevices based on top-down lithography,” Adv. Mater. 29(15), 1606205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. R. Heck and J. E. Bowers, “Energy efficient and energy proportional optical interconnects for multi-core processors: driving the need for on-chip sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 332–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. DuBois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. Sharenko and M. F. Toney, “Relationships between lead halide perovskite thin-film fabrication, morphology, and performance in solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(2), 463–470 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (3)

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D.-D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Lai, T. Y. S. Tay, A. Sadhanala, S. E. Dutton, G. Li, R. H. Friend, and Z.-K. Tan, “Tunable near-infrared luminescence in tin halide perovskite devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(14), 2653–2658 (2016).
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Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-temperature near-infrared high-Q perovskite whispering-gallery planar nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
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M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Sketch of the racetrack perovskite laser. (b) Cross section of the coupling region.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Sketch of the fabrication process: (a) patterning of silicon nitride waveguide on SiO2, (b) deposition of SiO2 cladding and planarization, (c) etching of trenches in SiO2, d) perovskite deposition via spin-coating. (e) SEM micrograph of the device cross section in the coupling region. Inset: TE and TM mode profile in the perovskite waveguide.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measurement setup. (b) Schematic of ASE measurement. The pump beam is moved away from the resonator together with the optical fiber to collect light from the perovskite thin film. (c) Schematic view of end-fire coupling to the laser output. The pump beam (outlined) is focused onto the resonator while the optical fiber is aligned to the silicon nitride waveguide.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) ASE spectra of the perovskite thin film. Inset: Peak intensity vs. pump fluence. (b) Emission spectra of the integrated perovskite laser (R = 15 µm, L = 6.7 µm) at different excitations Inset: peak intensity vs. excitation fluence with a threshold of 19.6 µJcm−2. (c) Image of photoluminescence from excited racetrack resonator. The scattered light of the pump beam was removed with an optical longpass filter. (d) Comparison of emission spectra of resonators with L = 2.5 µm and L = 11µm pumped just above the threshold.

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