Abstract

Previous analyses have shown that optimizing illuminants’ spectral power distributions for object reflectance can yield energy savings in excess of 40% by reducing the light lost to absorption. Here, commercially available LEDs and real objects, instead of theoretical spectra and test sample colors, are investigated. Simulations show that energy savings of up to 15% are possible when illuminating common objects with mixtures of narrowband LEDs, compared to illumination by reference phosphor-coated white LEDs, without inducing changes in color appearance. Experiments show that higher energy savings are achievable without degrading object appearance. Object optical properties impact the success of this approach.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry (Artech House Publ., 1994).
  2. D. Durmus and W. Davis, “Optimising Light Source Spectrum For Object Reflectance,” Opt. Express 23(11), A456–A464 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).
  4. D. Durmus and W. Davis, “Absorption-Minimizing Spectral Power Distributions,” Light, Energy and the Environment (Optical Society of America, OSA Technical Digest (online), 2015), paper JTu5A.2.
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. CIE, Colorimetry (CIE 15, 2004).
  7. R. W. G. Hunt and R. M. Pointer, Measuring Colour (John Wiley & Sons, 2011).
  8. G. Smets, “A tool for measuring relative effects of hue, brightness and saturation on color pleasantness,” Percept. Mot. Skills 55 (3f), 1159–1164 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. N. Camgöz, C. Yener, and D. Guvenc, “Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference,” Color Res. Appl. 27(3), 199–207 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Ohno, M. Fein, and C. Miller, “Vision experiment on chroma saturation for colour quality preference,” Light Eng. 23(4), 6–14 (2015).
  11. K. McLaren, “CIELAB hue-angle anomalies at low tristimulus ratios,” Color Res. 5(3), 139–143 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Jost-Boissard, P. Avouac, and M. Fontoynont, “Assessing the colour quality of LED sources: Naturalness, attractiveness, colourfulness and colour difference,” Light. Res. Technol. 47(7), 769–794 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).

2015 (3)

Y. Ohno, M. Fein, and C. Miller, “Vision experiment on chroma saturation for colour quality preference,” Light Eng. 23(4), 6–14 (2015).

S. Jost-Boissard, P. Avouac, and M. Fontoynont, “Assessing the colour quality of LED sources: Naturalness, attractiveness, colourfulness and colour difference,” Light. Res. Technol. 47(7), 769–794 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Durmus and W. Davis, “Optimising Light Source Spectrum For Object Reflectance,” Opt. Express 23(11), A456–A464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Camgöz, C. Yener, and D. Guvenc, “Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference,” Color Res. Appl. 27(3), 199–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

G. Smets, “A tool for measuring relative effects of hue, brightness and saturation on color pleasantness,” Percept. Mot. Skills 55 (3f), 1159–1164 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

K. McLaren, “CIELAB hue-angle anomalies at low tristimulus ratios,” Color Res. 5(3), 139–143 (1980).
[Crossref]

Avouac, P.

S. Jost-Boissard, P. Avouac, and M. Fontoynont, “Assessing the colour quality of LED sources: Naturalness, attractiveness, colourfulness and colour difference,” Light. Res. Technol. 47(7), 769–794 (2015).
[Crossref]

Camgöz, N.

N. Camgöz, C. Yener, and D. Guvenc, “Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference,” Color Res. Appl. 27(3), 199–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

Davis, W.

Durmus, D.

Fein, M.

Y. Ohno, M. Fein, and C. Miller, “Vision experiment on chroma saturation for colour quality preference,” Light Eng. 23(4), 6–14 (2015).

Fontoynont, M.

S. Jost-Boissard, P. Avouac, and M. Fontoynont, “Assessing the colour quality of LED sources: Naturalness, attractiveness, colourfulness and colour difference,” Light. Res. Technol. 47(7), 769–794 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guvenc, D.

N. Camgöz, C. Yener, and D. Guvenc, “Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference,” Color Res. Appl. 27(3), 199–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hu, R.

J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).

Jin, X.

J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).

Jost-Boissard, S.

S. Jost-Boissard, P. Avouac, and M. Fontoynont, “Assessing the colour quality of LED sources: Naturalness, attractiveness, colourfulness and colour difference,” Light. Res. Technol. 47(7), 769–794 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).

McLaren, K.

K. McLaren, “CIELAB hue-angle anomalies at low tristimulus ratios,” Color Res. 5(3), 139–143 (1980).
[Crossref]

Miller, C.

Y. Ohno, M. Fein, and C. Miller, “Vision experiment on chroma saturation for colour quality preference,” Light Eng. 23(4), 6–14 (2015).

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno, M. Fein, and C. Miller, “Vision experiment on chroma saturation for colour quality preference,” Light Eng. 23(4), 6–14 (2015).

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smets, G.

G. Smets, “A tool for measuring relative effects of hue, brightness and saturation on color pleasantness,” Percept. Mot. Skills 55 (3f), 1159–1164 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).

Xie, B.

J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).

Yener, C.

N. Camgöz, C. Yener, and D. Guvenc, “Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference,” Color Res. Appl. 27(3), 199–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).

Yu, Z.

J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).

Zhang, L.

J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).

Color Res. (1)

K. McLaren, “CIELAB hue-angle anomalies at low tristimulus ratios,” Color Res. 5(3), 139–143 (1980).
[Crossref]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

N. Camgöz, C. Yener, and D. Guvenc, “Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference,” Color Res. Appl. 27(3), 199–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

J. Zhang, R. Hu, B. Xie, X. Yu, X. Luo, Z. Yu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and X. Jin, “Energy-Saving Light Source Spectrum Optimization by Considering Object’s Reflectance,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–11 (2017).

Light Eng. (1)

Y. Ohno, M. Fein, and C. Miller, “Vision experiment on chroma saturation for colour quality preference,” Light Eng. 23(4), 6–14 (2015).

Light. Res. Technol. (1)

S. Jost-Boissard, P. Avouac, and M. Fontoynont, “Assessing the colour quality of LED sources: Naturalness, attractiveness, colourfulness and colour difference,” Light. Res. Technol. 47(7), 769–794 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Percept. Mot. Skills (1)

G. Smets, “A tool for measuring relative effects of hue, brightness and saturation on color pleasantness,” Percept. Mot. Skills 55 (3f), 1159–1164 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

W. R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry (Artech House Publ., 1994).

D. Durmus and W. Davis, “Absorption-Minimizing Spectral Power Distributions,” Light, Energy and the Environment (Optical Society of America, OSA Technical Digest (online), 2015), paper JTu5A.2.
[Crossref]

CIE, Colorimetry (CIE 15, 2004).

R. W. G. Hunt and R. M. Pointer, Measuring Colour (John Wiley & Sons, 2011).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Spectral reflectance as a function of wavelength for the 10 reflective objects.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Power as a function of wavelength for the two reference illuminants.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The spectral power distributions of the nine narrowband LEDs that were mixed to simulate test SPDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The test and reference SPDs were generated by the Source Four LED Profile x7 Color System theatrical lights, which were positioned on top of the two adjacent black booths.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 When the green Granny Smith apple (dashed gray line; right y-axis) is illuminated by the test SPD (continuous black line; left y-axis), which consists of five different LEDs, 8% of energy is saved, compared to illumination by the reference pcLED (continuous gray line; left y-axis), without inducing any noticeable color shifts (ΔE*ab<1.0).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 When the green Granny Smith apple (dashed gray line; right y-axis) is illuminated by the test SPD (continuous black line; left y-axis), which consists of three different LEDs, 17% less energy is required than when it is illuminated by the reference pcLED (continuous gray line; left y-axis) if a slight color shift (ΔE*ab = 3.6) is allowed.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Percentage of trials in which participants judged object color to appear more natural (long dashed line; left y-axes) and attractive (dotted line; left y-axes) as a function of the difference in chroma (dC*ab), when the object was illuminated by the test SPDs, than when illuminated by the pcLED reference light source. Error bars show the standard error of the mean (SEM). Generally, increases in object chroma were associated with increased energy savings (continuous black line; right y-axes).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Percentage of trials in which participants judged object color to appear more natural (long dashed line; left y-axes) and attractive (dotted line; left y-axes) as a function of the difference in chroma (dC*ab), when the object was illuminated by the test SPDs, than when illuminated by the pcLED + red reference light source. Error bars show the standard error of the mean (SEM). Generally, increases in object chroma were associated with increased energy savings (continuous black line; right y-axes).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The narrowband LED channels that were mixed to generate the test SPDs, and the resulting color differences ΔE*ab, energy consumption relative to the reference source, and chroma difference dC*ab values, when the reference light source was the pcLED.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The narrowband LED channels that were mixed to generate the test SPDs, and the resulting color differences ΔE*ab, energy consumption relative to the reference source, and chroma difference dC*ab values, when the reference light source was the pcLED + red.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Percentage of energy savings for illumination of individual objects, compared to reference light sources, when color difference is imperceptible (ΔE*ab<1.0) and detectable, but not large (ΔE*ab<5).

Tables Icon

Table 4 Average percentage of optimized energy savings for illumination of each hue group of objects, compared to the reference light sources, when color difference is imperceptible (ΔE*ab<1.0) and detectable (ΔE*ab<5).

Metrics