Abstract

We present a compact sensor for carbon monoxide (CO) in air and exhaled breath based on a room temperature interband cascade laser (ICL) operating at 4.69 µm, a low-volume circular multipass cell and wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy. A fringe-limited (1σ) sensitivity of 6.5 × 10−8 cm−1Hz-1/2 and a detection limit of 9 ± 5 ppbv at 0.07 s acquisition time are achieved, which constitutes a 25-fold improvement compared to direct absorption spectroscopy. Integration over 10 s increases the precision to 0.6 ppbv. The setup also allows measuring the stable isotope 13CO in breath. We demonstrate quantification of indoor air CO and real-time detection of CO expirograms from healthy non-smokers and a healthy smoker before and after smoking. Isotope ratio analysis indicates depletion of 13CO in breath compared to natural abundance.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Real-time, subsecond, multicomponent breath analysis by Optical Parametric Oscillator based Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy

Denis D. Arslanov, Koen Swinkels, Simona M. Cristescu, and Frans J. M. Harren
Opt. Express 19(24) 24078-24089 (2011)

Ppb-level formaldehyde detection using a CW room-temperature interband cascade laser and a miniature dense pattern multipass gas cell

Lei Dong, Yajun Yu, Chunguang Li, Stephen So, and Frank K. Tittel
Opt. Express 23(15) 19821-19830 (2015)

Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in beef cattle using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

C. B. Roller, B. P. Holland, G. McMillen, D. L. Step, C. R. Krehbiel, K. Namjou, and P. J. McCann
Appl. Opt. 46(8) 1333-1342 (2007)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Amann and D. Smith, Volatile Biomarkers: Non-invasive Diagnosis in Physiology and Medicine (Elsevier, 2013).
  2. T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 421–426 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. S. Modak, “Stable isotope breath tests in clinical medicine: a review,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014003 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Li, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, and H. Fischer, “Real-time measurements of atmospheric CO using a continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser based spectrometer,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7590–7601 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. W. Ryter and A. M. K. Choi, “Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics,” J. Breath Res. 7(1), 017111 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. O. Owens, “Endogenous carbon monoxide production in disease,” Clin. Biochem. 43(15), 1183–1188 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. Gajdócsy and I. Horváth, “Exhaled carbon monoxide in airway diseases: from research findings to clinical relevance,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 047102 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Sawano, “Demonstration and quantification of the redistribution and oxidation of carbon monoxide in the human body by tracer analysis,” Med. Gas Res. 6(2), 59–63 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. W. Miekisch and J. K. Schubert, “From highly sophisticated analytical techniques to life-saving diagnostics: Technical developments in breath analysis,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. 25(7), 665–673 (2006).
  15. C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. B. Tuzson, M. Mangold, H. Looser, A. Manninen, and L. Emmenegger, “Compact multipass optical cell for laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 257–259 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. A. Nwaboh, Z. Qu, O. Werhahn, and V. Ebert, “Interband cascade laser-based optical transfer standard for atmospheric carbon monoxide measurements,” Appl. Opt. 56(11), E84–E93 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. L. Dong, Y. Yu, C. Li, S. So, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level formaldehyde detection using a CW room-temperature interband cascade laser and a miniature dense pattern multipass gas cell,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19821–19830 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (4)

M. Sawano, “Demonstration and quantification of the redistribution and oxidation of carbon monoxide in the human body by tracer analysis,” Med. Gas Res. 6(2), 59–63 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, Y. Yu, C. Li, S. So, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level formaldehyde detection using a CW room-temperature interband cascade laser and a miniature dense pattern multipass gas cell,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19821–19830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, M. Mangold, H. Looser, A. Manninen, and L. Emmenegger, “Compact multipass optical cell for laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 257–259 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. W. Ryter and A. M. K. Choi, “Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics,” J. Breath Res. 7(1), 017111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Li, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, and H. Fischer, “Real-time measurements of atmospheric CO using a continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser based spectrometer,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7590–7601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. O. Owens, “Endogenous carbon monoxide production in disease,” Clin. Biochem. 43(15), 1183–1188 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gajdócsy and I. Horváth, “Exhaled carbon monoxide in airway diseases: from research findings to clinical relevance,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 047102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

A. S. Modak, “Stable isotope breath tests in clinical medicine: a review,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

W. Miekisch and J. K. Schubert, “From highly sophisticated analytical techniques to life-saving diagnostics: Technical developments in breath analysis,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. 25(7), 665–673 (2006).

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 421–426 (2006).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abell, J.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. G.

Axner, O.

J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bewley, W.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bütz, D. E.

D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Canedy, C.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Casperson, S. L.

D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, A. M. K.

S. W. Ryter and A. M. K. Choi, “Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics,” J. Breath Res. 7(1), 017111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ciaffoni, L.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clerici, C.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Conny, J. M.

J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Couper, J. H.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cristescu, S.

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cristescu, S. M.

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Currie, L. A.

J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
[Crossref]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, L.

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ebert, V.

J. A. Nwaboh, Z. Qu, O. Werhahn, and V. Ebert, “Interband cascade laser-based optical transfer standard for atmospheric carbon monoxide measurements,” Appl. Opt. 56(11), E84–E93 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehehalt, R.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emmenegger, L.

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, H.

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fritsch, T.

T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gajdócsy, R.

R. Gajdócsy and I. Horváth, “Exhaled carbon monoxide in airway diseases: from research findings to clinical relevance,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 047102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ganz, A. M.

Ghorbani, R.

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ghorbanzadeh, A.

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G. M.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gonthiez, T.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Greule, M.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halonen, L.

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hancock, G.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harren, F.

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

Harren, F. J.

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hering, P.

T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Höfling, S.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Horváth, I.

R. Gajdócsy and I. Horváth, “Exhaled carbon monoxide in airway diseases: from research findings to clinical relevance,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 047102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kamp, M.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Keppler, F.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Klein, A.

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Königstedt, R.

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, P. S.

P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Long, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Longbottom, C.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Looser, H.

Lyulin, O. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Majkowski, R. F.

P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandon, J.

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Manfred Schmidt, F.

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mangold, M.

Manninen, A.

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

McManus, J. B.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMillan, L. C.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Merritt, C.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Metsala, M.

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Metsälä, M.

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, J.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miekisch, W.

W. Miekisch and J. K. Schubert, “From highly sophisticated analytical techniques to life-saving diagnostics: Technical developments in breath analysis,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. 25(7), 665–673 (2006).

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Milton, D. K.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Modak, A. S.

A. S. Modak, “Stable isotope breath tests in clinical medicine: a review,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moeskops, B.

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

Müller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mürtz, M.

T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naus, H.

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nelson, D. D.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nwaboh, J. A.

O’Neill, D. P.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Owens, E. O.

E. O. Owens, “Endogenous carbon monoxide production in disease,” Clin. Biochem. 43(15), 1183–1188 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pakmanesh, N.

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Parameswaran, K. R.

Parchatka, U.

Patterson, C. S.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perry, T. A.

P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polag, D.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qu, Z.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Risby, T. H.

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 421–426 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, G. A.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robbins, P. A.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romanini, D.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, D. I.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ryter, S. W.

S. W. Ryter and A. M. K. Choi, “Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics,” J. Breath Res. 7(1), 017111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahay, P.

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sama, S. R.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawano, M.

M. Sawano, “Demonstration and quantification of the redistribution and oxidation of carbon monoxide in the human body by tracer analysis,” Med. Gas Res. 6(2), 59–63 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schiller, A.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, F. M.

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, J. K.

W. Miekisch and J. K. Schubert, “From highly sophisticated analytical techniques to life-saving diagnostics: Technical developments in breath analysis,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. 25(7), 665–673 (2006).

Shorter, J. H.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skeldon, K. D.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Skyttä, M.

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

So, S.

Solga, S. F.

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 421–426 (2006).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tuzson, B.

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vaittinen, O.

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ventrillard-Courtillot, I.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verkouteren, R. M.

J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weih, R.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Werhahn, O.

Westberg, J.

J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
[Crossref]

Whigham, L. D.

D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
[Crossref]

Witzel, O.

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Zahniser, M. S.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 421–426 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

Clin. Biochem. (1)

E. O. Owens, “Endogenous carbon monoxide production in disease,” Clin. Biochem. 43(15), 1183–1188 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Anal. Chem. (1)

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Breath Res. (7)

A. S. Modak, “Stable isotope breath tests in clinical medicine: a review,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gajdócsy and I. Horváth, “Exhaled carbon monoxide in airway diseases: from research findings to clinical relevance,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 047102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Ryter and A. M. K. Choi, “Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics,” J. Breath Res. 7(1), 017111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (1)

J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. (1)

J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Med. Gas Res. (1)

M. Sawano, “Demonstration and quantification of the redistribution and oxidation of carbon monoxide in the human body by tracer analysis,” Med. Gas Res. 6(2), 59–63 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sci. Adv. (1)

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (2)

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. (1)

W. Miekisch and J. K. Schubert, “From highly sophisticated analytical techniques to life-saving diagnostics: Technical developments in breath analysis,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. 25(7), 665–673 (2006).

Other (1)

A. Amann and D. Smith, Volatile Biomarkers: Non-invasive Diagnosis in Physiology and Medicine (Elsevier, 2013).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

HITRAN2012 simulation of absorption spectra expected from a breath sample containing 2 ppmv CO, 5% CO2 and 5% H2O at 100 Torr and 296 K. (a) Around the P(3) 12CO transition, (b) for a 50 GHz ICL current tuning range, also covering 13C16O and 12C18O.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawings of the experimental TDLAS setup (a) and the breath sampler (b). ICL – interband cascade laser, MPC – multi-pass cell, PD - photodetector, PT – pressure transducer, LDC – laser diode controller, FGen – function generator, LiA – lock-in amplifier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured DAS (a) and background-corrected 2f-WMS (b) signals (markers) of the P(3) 12CO transition recorded at 0.07 s integration time (10 averages), with least-squares Voigt fits (blue, solid line) and fit residuals. The sample was a 2.76 ppmv gas standard at 100 Torr. For clarity, only every 10th and 30th data point is shown in the DAS and WMS spectra, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Allan-Werle deviation plots for DAS at 2.2 ppmv and 2f-WMS at 510 ppbv, (b) calibration curve for DAS (blue, triangular markers) and 2f-WMS (red, circular markers) obtained by dilution of a 28.24 ppmv CO gas standard. Solid line – linear fit to DAS response.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured DAS spectra over the full ICL current tuning range from a breath sample collected during smoking (black line) and from a 28.24 ppmv CO gas standard (inverted, red line), (b) Measured 2f-WMS signal (markers) from 13CO in the gas standard diluted to 2 ppmv 12CO, together with Voigt fit and residual. For both spectra, the sample pressure was 100 Torr.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical 2f-WMS signals (markers) recorded during online sampling at 100 Torr, with least-squares Voigt fits (blue solid lines) and residuals (a) 12CO in indoor air, (b) e12CO in alveolar breath of a healthy non-smoker, (c) e13CO in alveolar breath of a healthy smoker after smoking. For clarity, only every 40th (a, b) and 20th (c) data point is shown in the raw spectra.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sequences of e12CO expirograms obtained from two healthy non-smokers during tidal plus expiratory reserve volume breathing (a) and tidal breathing (b). No data smoothing was applied. (a) Each data point corresponds to a raw spectrum. (b) CO2 exhalation profiles simultaneously obtained by capnography are shown for comparison.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sequences of eCO expirograms from a healthy occasional smoker before smoking (19 h after the last cigarette) and 15 s after smoking; (a) e12CO profiles, (b) e13CO expirograms recorded 30 s after e12CO. Gray – raw data, colored lines – smoothed raw data.

Metrics