Abstract

Two-dimensional black phosphorus is a new material that has gained widespread interest as an active material for optoelectronic applications. It features high carrier mobility that allows for efficient free-carrier absorption of terahertz radiation, even though the photon energy is far below the bandgap energy. Here we present an efficient and ultrafast terahertz detector, based on exfoliated multilayer flakes of black phosphorus. The device responsivity is about 1 mV/W for a 2.5 THz beam with a diameter of 200 μm, and is primarily limited by the small active area of the device in comparison to the incident beam area. The intrinsic responsivity is determined by Joule heating experiments to be about 44 V/W, which is in agreement with predictions from the Drude conductivity model. Time resolved measurements at a frequency of 0.5 THz reveal an ultrafast response time of 20 ps, making black phosphorus a candidate for high performance THz detection at room temperature.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Optical properties of black phosphorus

Xiaomu Wang and Shoufeng Lan
Adv. Opt. Photon. 8(4) 618-655 (2016)

Localized plasmon resonances for black phosphorus bowtie nanoantennas at terahertz frequencies

Cizhe Fang, Yan Liu, Genquan Han, Yao Shao, Jincheng Zhang, and Yue Hao
Opt. Express 26(21) 27683-27693 (2018)

Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser

Zhi-Chao Luo, Meng Liu, Zhi-Nan Guo, Xiao-Fang Jiang, Ai-Ping Luo, Chu-Jun Zhao, Xue-Feng Yu, Wen-Cheng Xu, and Han Zhang
Opt. Express 23(15) 20030-20039 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. W. Bridgman, “Two new modifications of phosphorus,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 36(7), 1344–1363 (1914).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Materials 1, 025001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).
  10. M. Huang, M. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Ma, X. Li, J. Han, and Y. Wu, “Broadband black-phosphorus photodetectors with high responsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(18), 3481–3485 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Suess, E. Leong, J. L. Garrett, T. Zhou, R. Salem, J. N. Munday, T. E. Murphy, and M. Mittendorff, “Mid-infrared time-resolved photoconduction in black phosphorus,” 2D Materials 3, 041006 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Efficient Terahertz detection in black-phosphorus nano-transistors with selective and controllable plasma-wave, bolometric and thermoelectric response,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20474 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Huo, G. W. Taylor, and R. Bansal, “Planar log-periodic antennas on extended hemispherical silicon lenses for millimeter/submillimeter wave detection applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 23(6), 819–839 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Y. Illarionov, M. Waltl, G. Rzepa, J.-S. Kim, S. Kim, A. Dodabalapur, D. Akinwande, and T. Grasser, “Long-term stability and reliability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9543–9549 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Q. Wei, J. He, S. Yang, H. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Liu, and T. Li, “Investigation of black phosphorus field-effect transistors and its stability,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 344 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Na, Y. T. Lee, J. A. Lim, D. K. Hwang, G.-T. Kim, W. K. Choi, and Y.-W. Song, “Few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors with reduced current fluctuation,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11753–11762 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. N. Gillgren, D. Wickramaratne, Y. Shi, T. Espiritu, J. Yang, J. Hu, J. Wei, X. Liu, Z. Mao, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Bockrath, Y. Barlas, R. K. Lake, and C. N. Lau, ”Gate tunable quantum oscillations in air-stable and high mobility few-layer phosphorene heterostructures,” 2D Mater. 2, 011001 (2015).
  21. S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T. Hong, B. Chamlagain, W. Lin, H.-J. Chuang, M. Pan, Z. Zhou, and Y.-Q. Xu, “Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8978–8983 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. M. W. Graham, S.-F. Shi, D. C. Ralph, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Photocurrent measurements of supercollision cooling in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(2), 103–108 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021113 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. Mittendorff, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, C. Drexler, S. D. Ganichev, J. Kerbusch, A. Erbe, R. J. Suess, T. E. Murphy, S. Chatterjee, K. Kolata, J. Ohser, J. C. König-Otto, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Universal ultrafast detector for short optical pulses based on graphene,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28728–28735 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. Y. Liu, T. Low, and P. P. Ruden, “Mobility anisotropy in monolayer black phosphorus due to scattering by charged impurities,” Phys. Rev. B 93(16), 165402 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. T. Low, M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Origin of photoresponse in black phosphorus phototransistors,” Phys. Rev. B 90(8), 081408 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. Y. Saito, T. Iizuka, T. Koretsune, R. Arita, S. Shimizu, and Y. Iwasa, “Gate-tuned thermoelectric power in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 4819–4824 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. E. Flores, J. R. Ares, A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Barawi, I. J. Ferrer, and C. Sánchez, “Thermoelectric power of bulk black-phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 022102 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  37. K. Li, K.-W. Ang, Y. Lv, and X. Liu, “Effects of Al2O3 capping layers on the thermal properties of thin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(26), 261901 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  38. S. Li, G. Kumar, and T. E. Murphy, “Terahertz nonlinear conduction and absorption saturation in silicon waveguides,” Optica 2(6), 553–557 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. J. Hebling, G. Almasi, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1161–1166 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, T. E. Murphy, and M. Mittendorff, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081103 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Efficient Terahertz detection in black-phosphorus nano-transistors with selective and controllable plasma-wave, bolometric and thermoelectric response,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20474 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Illarionov, M. Waltl, G. Rzepa, J.-S. Kim, S. Kim, A. Dodabalapur, D. Akinwande, and T. Grasser, “Long-term stability and reliability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9543–9549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, J. He, S. Yang, H. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Liu, and T. Li, “Investigation of black phosphorus field-effect transistors and its stability,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, M. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Ma, X. Li, J. Han, and Y. Wu, “Broadband black-phosphorus photodetectors with high responsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(18), 3481–3485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Low, and P. P. Ruden, “Mobility anisotropy in monolayer black phosphorus due to scattering by charged impurities,” Phys. Rev. B 93(16), 165402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Saito, T. Iizuka, T. Koretsune, R. Arita, S. Shimizu, and Y. Iwasa, “Gate-tuned thermoelectric power in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 4819–4824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Li, K.-W. Ang, Y. Lv, and X. Liu, “Effects of Al2O3 capping layers on the thermal properties of thin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(26), 261901 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

S. Li, G. Kumar, and T. E. Murphy, “Terahertz nonlinear conduction and absorption saturation in silicon waveguides,” Optica 2(6), 553–557 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mittendorff, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, C. Drexler, S. D. Ganichev, J. Kerbusch, A. Erbe, R. J. Suess, T. E. Murphy, S. Chatterjee, K. Kolata, J. Ohser, J. C. König-Otto, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Universal ultrafast detector for short optical pulses based on graphene,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28728–28735 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, T. E. Murphy, and M. Mittendorff, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081103 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Flores, J. R. Ares, A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Barawi, I. J. Ferrer, and C. Sánchez, “Thermoelectric power of bulk black-phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

2014 (10)

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hong, B. Chamlagain, W. Lin, H.-J. Chuang, M. Pan, Z. Zhou, and Y.-Q. Xu, “Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8978–8983 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Na, Y. T. Lee, J. A. Lim, D. K. Hwang, G.-T. Kim, W. K. Choi, and Y.-W. Song, “Few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors with reduced current fluctuation,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11753–11762 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Low, M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Origin of photoresponse in black phosphorus phototransistors,” Phys. Rev. B 90(8), 081408 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021113 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. W. Graham, S.-F. Shi, D. C. Ralph, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Photocurrent measurements of supercollision cooling in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(2), 103–108 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. Hebling, G. Almasi, I. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1161–1166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huo, G. W. Taylor, and R. Bansal, “Planar log-periodic antennas on extended hemispherical silicon lenses for millimeter/submillimeter wave detection applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 23(6), 819–839 (2002).
[Crossref]

1914 (1)

P. W. Bridgman, “Two new modifications of phosphorus,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 36(7), 1344–1363 (1914).
[Crossref]

Afshinmanesh, F.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akinwande, D.

Y. Y. Illarionov, M. Waltl, G. Rzepa, J.-S. Kim, S. Kim, A. Dodabalapur, D. Akinwande, and T. Grasser, “Long-term stability and reliability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9543–9549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almasi, G.

Ang, K.-W.

K. Li, K.-W. Ang, Y. Lv, and X. Liu, “Effects of Al2O3 capping layers on the thermal properties of thin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(26), 261901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ares, J. R.

E. Flores, J. R. Ares, A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Barawi, I. J. Ferrer, and C. Sánchez, “Thermoelectric power of bulk black-phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arita, R.

Y. Saito, T. Iizuka, T. Koretsune, R. Arita, S. Shimizu, and Y. Iwasa, “Gate-tuned thermoelectric power in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 4819–4824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

T. Low, M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Origin of photoresponse in black phosphorus phototransistors,” Phys. Rev. B 90(8), 081408 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bansal, R.

Y. Huo, G. W. Taylor, and R. Bansal, “Planar log-periodic antennas on extended hemispherical silicon lenses for millimeter/submillimeter wave detection applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 23(6), 819–839 (2002).
[Crossref]

Barawi, M.

E. Flores, J. R. Ares, A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Barawi, I. J. Ferrer, and C. Sánchez, “Thermoelectric power of bulk black-phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blanter, S. I.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bridgman, P. W.

P. W. Bridgman, “Two new modifications of phosphorus,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 36(7), 1344–1363 (1914).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buscema, M.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, X.

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carvalho, A.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

Castellanos-Gomez, A.

E. Flores, J. R. Ares, A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Barawi, I. J. Ferrer, and C. Sánchez, “Thermoelectric power of bulk black-phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chamlagain, B.

T. Hong, B. Chamlagain, W. Lin, H.-J. Chuang, M. Pan, Z. Zhou, and Y.-Q. Xu, “Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8978–8983 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chatterjee, S.

Chen, C.

M. Huang, M. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Ma, X. Li, J. Han, and Y. Wu, “Broadband black-phosphorus photodetectors with high responsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(18), 3481–3485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

Chen, H.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W. K.

J. Na, Y. T. Lee, J. A. Lim, D. K. Hwang, G.-T. Kim, W. K. Choi, and Y.-W. Song, “Few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors with reduced current fluctuation,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11753–11762 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, H.-J.

T. Hong, B. Chamlagain, W. Lin, H.-J. Chuang, M. Pan, Z. Zhou, and Y.-Q. Xu, “Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8978–8983 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coquillat, D.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Efficient Terahertz detection in black-phosphorus nano-transistors with selective and controllable plasma-wave, bolometric and thermoelectric response,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20474 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curto, A. G.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dodabalapur, A.

Y. Y. Illarionov, M. Waltl, G. Rzepa, J.-S. Kim, S. Kim, A. Dodabalapur, D. Akinwande, and T. Grasser, “Long-term stability and reliability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9543–9549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doganov, R. A.

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Drew, H. D.

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, C.

Eda, G.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engel, M.

T. Low, M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Origin of photoresponse in black phosphorus phototransistors,” Phys. Rev. B 90(8), 081408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Erbe, A.

Eroms, J.

Feng, D.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrer, I. J.

E. Flores, J. R. Ares, A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Barawi, I. J. Ferrer, and C. Sánchez, “Thermoelectric power of bulk black-phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Flores, E.

E. Flores, J. R. Ares, A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Barawi, I. J. Ferrer, and C. Sánchez, “Thermoelectric power of bulk black-phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Freitag, M.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuhrer, M. S.

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabor, N. M.

N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, S.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ganichev, S. D.

Gaskill, D. K.

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, Q.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golizadeh-Mojarad, R.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graham, M. W.

M. W. Graham, S.-F. Shi, D. C. Ralph, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Photocurrent measurements of supercollision cooling in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(2), 103–108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grasser, T.

Y. Y. Illarionov, M. Waltl, G. Rzepa, J.-S. Kim, S. Kim, A. Dodabalapur, D. Akinwande, and T. Grasser, “Long-term stability and reliability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9543–9549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groenendijk, D. J.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, C.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

M. Huang, M. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Ma, X. Li, J. Han, and Y. Wu, “Broadband black-phosphorus photodetectors with high responsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(18), 3481–3485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J.

Q. Wei, J. He, S. Yang, H. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Liu, and T. Li, “Investigation of black phosphorus field-effect transistors and its stability,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hebling, J.

Helm, M.

Hikita, Y.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, T.

T. Hong, B. Chamlagain, W. Lin, H.-J. Chuang, M. Pan, Z. Zhou, and Y.-Q. Xu, “Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8978–8983 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, Z.

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Efficient Terahertz detection in black-phosphorus nano-transistors with selective and controllable plasma-wave, bolometric and thermoelectric response,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20474 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, M. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Ma, X. Li, J. Han, and Y. Wu, “Broadband black-phosphorus photodetectors with high responsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(18), 3481–3485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huo, N.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huo, Y.

Y. Huo, G. W. Taylor, and R. Bansal, “Planar log-periodic antennas on extended hemispherical silicon lenses for millimeter/submillimeter wave detection applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 23(6), 819–839 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D. K.

J. Na, Y. T. Lee, J. A. Lim, D. K. Hwang, G.-T. Kim, W. K. Choi, and Y.-W. Song, “Few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors with reduced current fluctuation,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11753–11762 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, H. Y.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iizuka, T.

Y. Saito, T. Iizuka, T. Koretsune, R. Arita, S. Shimizu, and Y. Iwasa, “Gate-tuned thermoelectric power in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 4819–4824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Illarionov, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Illarionov, M. Waltl, G. Rzepa, J.-S. Kim, S. Kim, A. Dodabalapur, D. Akinwande, and T. Grasser, “Long-term stability and reliability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9543–9549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwasa, Y.

Y. Saito, T. Iizuka, T. Koretsune, R. Arita, S. Shimizu, and Y. Iwasa, “Gate-tuned thermoelectric power in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 4819–4824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jadidi, M. M.

R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, T. E. Murphy, and M. Mittendorff, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081103 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jarillo-Herrero, P.

N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jenkins, G. S.

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, H.

Q. Wei, J. He, S. Yang, H. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Liu, and T. Li, “Investigation of black phosphorus field-effect transistors and its stability,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jia, Y.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y.

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jones, A. M.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamann, J.

Kerbusch, J.

Kim, G.-T.

J. Na, Y. T. Lee, J. A. Lim, D. K. Hwang, G.-T. Kim, W. K. Choi, and Y.-W. Song, “Few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors with reduced current fluctuation,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11753–11762 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-S.

Y. Y. Illarionov, M. Waltl, G. Rzepa, J.-S. Kim, S. Kim, A. Dodabalapur, D. Akinwande, and T. Grasser, “Long-term stability and reliability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9543–9549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

Y. Y. Illarionov, M. Waltl, G. Rzepa, J.-S. Kim, S. Kim, A. Dodabalapur, D. Akinwande, and T. Grasser, “Long-term stability and reliability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9543–9549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knap, W.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Efficient Terahertz detection in black-phosphorus nano-transistors with selective and controllable plasma-wave, bolometric and thermoelectric response,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20474 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koenig, S. P.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koester, S. J.

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

Kolata, K.

König-Otto, J. C.

Koon, G. K. W.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koretsune, T.

Y. Saito, T. Iizuka, T. Koretsune, R. Arita, S. Shimizu, and Y. Iwasa, “Gate-tuned thermoelectric power in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 4819–4824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozma, I.

Kuhl, J.

Kulkarni, E. S.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, G.

Lai, K.

J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. T.

J. Na, Y. T. Lee, J. A. Lim, D. K. Hwang, G.-T. Kim, W. K. Choi, and Y.-W. Song, “Few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors with reduced current fluctuation,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11753–11762 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levitov, L. S.

N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, K.

K. Li, K.-W. Ang, Y. Lv, and X. Liu, “Effects of Al2O3 capping layers on the thermal properties of thin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(26), 261901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

Li, S.

S. Li, G. Kumar, and T. E. Murphy, “Terahertz nonlinear conduction and absorption saturation in silicon waveguides,” Optica 2(6), 553–557 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, T.

Q. Wei, J. He, S. Yang, H. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Liu, and T. Li, “Investigation of black phosphorus field-effect transistors and its stability,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

M. Huang, M. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Ma, X. Li, J. Han, and Y. Wu, “Broadband black-phosphorus photodetectors with high responsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(18), 3481–3485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lian, B.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, Y.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, J. A.

J. Na, Y. T. Lee, J. A. Lim, D. K. Hwang, G.-T. Kim, W. K. Choi, and Y.-W. Song, “Few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors with reduced current fluctuation,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11753–11762 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, W.

T. Hong, B. Chamlagain, W. Lin, H.-J. Chuang, M. Pan, Z. Zhou, and Y.-Q. Xu, “Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8978–8983 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. M.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, E.

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Q. Wei, J. He, S. Yang, H. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Liu, and T. Li, “Investigation of black phosphorus field-effect transistors and its stability,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

K. Li, K.-W. Ang, Y. Lv, and X. Liu, “Effects of Al2O3 capping layers on the thermal properties of thin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(26), 261901 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Q. Wei, J. He, S. Yang, H. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Liu, and T. Li, “Investigation of black phosphorus field-effect transistors and its stability,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wei, J. He, S. Yang, H. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Liu, and T. Li, “Investigation of black phosphorus field-effect transistors and its stability,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, T. Low, and P. P. Ruden, “Mobility anisotropy in monolayer black phosphorus due to scattering by charged impurities,” Phys. Rev. B 93(16), 165402 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Low, T.

Y. Liu, T. Low, and P. P. Ruden, “Mobility anisotropy in monolayer black phosphorus due to scattering by charged impurities,” Phys. Rev. B 93(16), 165402 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Low, M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Origin of photoresponse in black phosphorus phototransistors,” Phys. Rev. B 90(8), 081408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, W.

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lv, Y.

K. Li, K.-W. Ang, Y. Lv, and X. Liu, “Effects of Al2O3 capping layers on the thermal properties of thin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(26), 261901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, Q.

N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

M. Huang, M. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Ma, X. Li, J. Han, and Y. Wu, “Broadband black-phosphorus photodetectors with high responsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(18), 3481–3485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McEuen, P. L.

M. W. Graham, S.-F. Shi, D. C. Ralph, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Photocurrent measurements of supercollision cooling in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(2), 103–108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mittendorff, M.

R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, T. E. Murphy, and M. Mittendorff, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081103 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mittendorff, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, C. Drexler, S. D. Ganichev, J. Kerbusch, A. Erbe, R. J. Suess, T. E. Murphy, S. Chatterjee, K. Kolata, J. Ohser, J. C. König-Otto, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Universal ultrafast detector for short optical pulses based on graphene,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28728–28735 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mueller, T.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murphy, T. E.

S. Li, G. Kumar, and T. E. Murphy, “Terahertz nonlinear conduction and absorption saturation in silicon waveguides,” Optica 2(6), 553–557 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mittendorff, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, C. Drexler, S. D. Ganichev, J. Kerbusch, A. Erbe, R. J. Suess, T. E. Murphy, S. Chatterjee, K. Kolata, J. Ohser, J. C. König-Otto, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Universal ultrafast detector for short optical pulses based on graphene,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28728–28735 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, T. E. Murphy, and M. Mittendorff, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081103 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myers-Ward, R. L.

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Na, J.

J. Na, Y. T. Lee, J. A. Lim, D. K. Hwang, G.-T. Kim, W. K. Choi, and Y.-W. Song, “Few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors with reduced current fluctuation,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11753–11762 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nair, N. L.

N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neto, A. H.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nyakiti, L. O.

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohser, J.

Ou, X.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Özyilmaz, B.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pan, M.

T. Hong, B. Chamlagain, W. Lin, H.-J. Chuang, M. Pan, Z. Zhou, and Y.-Q. Xu, “Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8978–8983 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

M. W. Graham, S.-F. Shi, D. C. Ralph, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Photocurrent measurements of supercollision cooling in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(2), 103–108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Perebeinos, V.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Politano, A.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Efficient Terahertz detection in black-phosphorus nano-transistors with selective and controllable plasma-wave, bolometric and thermoelectric response,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20474 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ralph, D. C.

M. W. Graham, S.-F. Shi, D. C. Ralph, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Photocurrent measurements of supercollision cooling in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(2), 103–108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rodin, A. S.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ruden, P. P.

Y. Liu, T. Low, and P. P. Ruden, “Mobility anisotropy in monolayer black phosphorus due to scattering by charged impurities,” Phys. Rev. B 93(16), 165402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rzepa, G.

Y. Y. Illarionov, M. Waltl, G. Rzepa, J.-S. Kim, S. Kim, A. Dodabalapur, D. Akinwande, and T. Grasser, “Long-term stability and reliability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9543–9549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, Y.

Y. Saito, T. Iizuka, T. Koretsune, R. Arita, S. Shimizu, and Y. Iwasa, “Gate-tuned thermoelectric power in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 4819–4824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sánchez, C.

E. Flores, J. R. Ares, A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Barawi, I. J. Ferrer, and C. Sánchez, “Thermoelectric power of bulk black-phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, H.

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schneider, H.

Seyler, K. L.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, S.-F.

M. W. Graham, S.-F. Shi, D. C. Ralph, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Photocurrent measurements of supercollision cooling in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(2), 103–108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, S.

Y. Saito, T. Iizuka, T. Koretsune, R. Arita, S. Shimizu, and Y. Iwasa, “Gate-tuned thermoelectric power in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 4819–4824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soklaski, R.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, J. C. W.

N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y.-W.

J. Na, Y. T. Lee, J. A. Lim, D. K. Hwang, G.-T. Kim, W. K. Choi, and Y.-W. Song, “Few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors with reduced current fluctuation,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11753–11762 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steele, G. A.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steiner, M.

T. Low, M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Origin of photoresponse in black phosphorus phototransistors,” Phys. Rev. B 90(8), 081408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Suess, R. J.

R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, T. E. Murphy, and M. Mittendorff, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081103 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mittendorff, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, C. Drexler, S. D. Ganichev, J. Kerbusch, A. Erbe, R. J. Suess, T. E. Murphy, S. Chatterjee, K. Kolata, J. Ohser, J. C. König-Otto, H. Schneider, M. Helm, and S. Winnerl, “Universal ultrafast detector for short optical pulses based on graphene,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28728–28735 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sushkov, A. B.

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, W.

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, T.

N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, L.

J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taychatanapat, T.

N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, G. W.

Y. Huo, G. W. Taylor, and R. Bansal, “Planar log-periodic antennas on extended hemispherical silicon lenses for millimeter/submillimeter wave detection applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 23(6), 819–839 (2002).
[Crossref]

Toh, C. T.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, V.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsang, J.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Zant, H. S. J.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verzhbitskiy, I.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viti, L.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Efficient Terahertz detection in black-phosphorus nano-transistors with selective and controllable plasma-wave, bolometric and thermoelectric response,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20474 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitiello, M. S.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Efficient Terahertz detection in black-phosphorus nano-transistors with selective and controllable plasma-wave, bolometric and thermoelectric response,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20474 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waltl, M.

Y. Y. Illarionov, M. Waltl, G. Rzepa, J.-S. Kim, S. Kim, A. Dodabalapur, D. Akinwande, and T. Grasser, “Long-term stability and reliability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9543–9549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

M. Huang, M. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Ma, X. Li, J. Han, and Y. Wu, “Broadband black-phosphorus photodetectors with high responsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(18), 3481–3485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.-W.

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.

Q. Wei, J. He, S. Yang, H. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Liu, and T. Li, “Investigation of black phosphorus field-effect transistors and its stability,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weiss, D.

Winnerl, S.

Wu, D.

J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, G.

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

M. Huang, M. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Ma, X. Li, J. Han, and Y. Wu, “Broadband black-phosphorus photodetectors with high responsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(18), 3481–3485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, X.

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, D.

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G.

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.-Q.

T. Hong, B. Chamlagain, W. Lin, H.-J. Chuang, M. Pan, Z. Zhou, and Y.-Q. Xu, “Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8978–8983 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, J.

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Q. Wei, J. He, S. Yang, H. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Liu, and T. Li, “Investigation of black phosphorus field-effect transistors and its stability,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ye, G.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, G. J.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youngblood, N.

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

Yu, A.

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Z.

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.-C.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

T. Hong, B. Chamlagain, W. Lin, H.-J. Chuang, M. Pan, Z. Zhou, and Y.-Q. Xu, “Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8978–8983 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, W.

J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (3)

Y. Y. Illarionov, M. Waltl, G. Rzepa, J.-S. Kim, S. Kim, A. Dodabalapur, D. Akinwande, and T. Grasser, “Long-term stability and reliability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9543–9549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Na, Y. T. Lee, J. A. Lim, D. K. Hwang, G.-T. Kim, W. K. Choi, and Y.-W. Song, “Few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors with reduced current fluctuation,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11753–11762 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, G. K. W. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal ultraviolet photoresponsivity of few-layer black phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

L. Wang, C. Liu, X. Chen, J. Zhou, W. Hu, X. Wang, J. Li, W. Tang, A. Yu, S.-W. Wang, and W. Lu, “Toward sensitive room-temperature broadband detection from infrared to terahertz with antenna-integrated black phosphorus photoconductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(7), 1604414 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. Huang, M. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Ma, X. Li, J. Han, and Y. Wu, “Broadband black-phosphorus photodetectors with high responsivity,” Adv. Mater. 28(18), 3481–3485 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, G. Xu, Z. Hou, B. Yang, X. Zhang, E. Liu, X. Xi, Z. Liu, Z. Zeng, W. Wang, and G. Wu, “Large anisotropic thermal transport properties observed in bulk single crystal black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 092102 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021113 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Flores, J. R. Ares, A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Barawi, I. J. Ferrer, and C. Sánchez, “Thermoelectric power of bulk black-phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Li, K.-W. Ang, Y. Lv, and X. Liu, “Effects of Al2O3 capping layers on the thermal properties of thin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(26), 261901 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, T. E. Murphy, and M. Mittendorff, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

Y. Huo, G. W. Taylor, and R. Bansal, “Planar log-periodic antennas on extended hemispherical silicon lenses for millimeter/submillimeter wave detection applications,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 23(6), 819–839 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

P. W. Bridgman, “Two new modifications of phosphorus,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 36(7), 1344–1363 (1914).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

S. Liu, N. Huo, S. Gan, Y. Li, Z. Wei, B. Huang, J. Liu, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Thickness-dependent Raman spectra, transport properties and infrared photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 10974–10980 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Saito, T. Iizuka, T. Koretsune, R. Arita, S. Shimizu, and Y. Iwasa, “Gate-tuned thermoelectric power in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 4819–4824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

T. Hong, B. Chamlagain, W. Lin, H.-J. Chuang, M. Pan, Z. Zhou, and Y.-Q. Xu, “Polarized photocurrent response in black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8978–8983 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (4)

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 517–521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, A. B. Sushkov, R. J. Suess, M. M. Jadidi, G. S. Jenkins, L. O. Nyakiti, R. L. Myers-Ward, S. Li, J. Yan, D. K. Gaskill, T. E. Murphy, H. D. Drew, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9, 247–252 (2015).

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. W. Graham, S.-F. Shi, D. C. Ralph, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Photocurrent measurements of supercollision cooling in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(2), 103–108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

Q. Wei, J. He, S. Yang, H. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Liu, and T. Li, “Investigation of black phosphorus field-effect transistors and its stability,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

Y. Liu, T. Low, and P. P. Ruden, “Mobility anisotropy in monolayer black phosphorus due to scattering by charged impurities,” Phys. Rev. B 93(16), 165402 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Low, M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Origin of photoresponse in black phosphorus phototransistors,” Phys. Rev. B 90(8), 081408 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

J.-S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, A. Politano, W. Knap, and M. S. Vitiello, “Efficient Terahertz detection in black-phosphorus nano-transistors with selective and controllable plasma-wave, bolometric and thermoelectric response,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20474 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

N. M. Gabor, J. C. W. Song, Q. Ma, N. L. Nair, T. Taychatanapat, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. S. Levitov, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene,” Science 334(6056), 648–652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

N. Gillgren, D. Wickramaratne, Y. Shi, T. Espiritu, J. Yang, J. Hu, J. Wei, X. Liu, Z. Mao, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Bockrath, Y. Barlas, R. K. Lake, and C. N. Lau, ”Gate tunable quantum oscillations in air-stable and high mobility few-layer phosphorene heterostructures,” 2D Mater. 2, 011001 (2015).

R. J. Suess, E. Leong, J. L. Garrett, T. Zhou, R. Salem, J. N. Munday, T. E. Murphy, and M. Mittendorff, “Mid-infrared time-resolved photoconduction in black phosphorus,” 2D Materials 3, 041006 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. Narasimha-Acharya, S. I Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. van der Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Materials 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketch of the device structure including the electrical connections. The curves in the lower right part of the figure show the conductivity of the black phosphorus flake as a function of the gate voltage at various temperatures.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Raman spectrum of a typical flake of black phosphorus after Al2O3 deposition. (b) Polarization dependence of the photovoltage measured at 1.55 μm (red) and 120 μm (black). The yellow shape in the background represents the logarithmic- periodic antenna.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Photocurrent measured at 2.5 THz as a function of the applied source-drain bias. (b) Photocurrent measured at a wavelength of 1.55 μm as a function of the focus position in the black phosphorus channel (cf. inset).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Photothermoelectric voltage generated in the black phosphorus flake as a function of the electrical power. The inset shows the schematic of the measurement setup to determine the intrinsic responsivity. (b) Photovoltage as a function of the incident THz power (lower axis), the red axis shows the estimated absorbed power via the Drude model.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Sketch of the setup for the THz pulse generation. (b) Time resolved measurement of the photovoltage signal obtained at a frequency of 0.5 THz and a pulse duration of about 1 ps. (c) Time resolved signal obtained at a wavelength of 1.55 μm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v(t)= v 0 R 0 Rcos(ωt)+α R v 0 2 2 R 0 2 [1+cos(2ωt)].
S= π 2 k B 2 T 3 C Ox ( 1 σ dσ d V g ) dn d E F .

Metrics