Abstract

We propose a cladding-free, efficiently tunable, high-quality factor (Q) nanobeam cavity with subwavelength-period nanotentacles (NT), adequately investigate the performance of the cavity, and study the directional heat transfer. By virtue of the excellent heat transfer of Si nanotentacles, a tuning range of more than 6 nm wavelength, with 24mW and 10 KHz switching rate, and 13 μs raising time is experimentally obtained. This result is about twentyfold better than the previous work by Fegadolli [ACS Photon. 2, 470-474 (2015)]. A potential 12nm tuning range with identical power is also theoretically suggested by modifying the silicon structure. With an optimized design, these nanotentacles are demonstrated to have a minimal effect to the cavity and are available to serve as photonic waveguides. This cladding-free design, with a simple fabrication process, is comparable to other proposals in which deep etching, suspended treatment, and troublesome heterogeneous-integration may be needed. Finally but importantly, this smart design can be applied to other photonic cavities, particularly cavities such as ring/disk resonators, in which we reasonably predict a better tuning efficiency due to the thermal circulation. We believe this design is fairly suitable for applications in which light-matter interaction is of primary importance, such as sensing, particle trapping, cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), and III-V/Si hybrid lasers with external cavities.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

2015 (2)

W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 470–474 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

Q. Quan and M. Loncar, “Deterministic design of wavelength scale, ultra-high Q photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18529–18542 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband Silicon Photonic Electrooptic Switch for Photonic Interconnection Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

2009 (1)

H. S. Lee, S. Kiravittaya, S. Kumar, J. D. Plumhof, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

2007 (2)

Aers, G. C.

Almeida, V. R.

W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 470–474 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. S. Fegadolli, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Compact and low power consumption tunable photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3861–3871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Baets, R.

Balet, L.

H. S. Lee, S. Kiravittaya, S. Kumar, J. D. Plumhof, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband Silicon Photonic Electrooptic Switch for Photonic Interconnection Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband Silicon Photonic Electrooptic Switch for Photonic Interconnection Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bock, P. J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband Silicon Photonic Electrooptic Switch for Photonic Interconnection Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dai, D.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Deotare, P. B.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

Dong, P.

Fan, P.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

Fegadolli, W. S.

W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 470–474 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. S. Fegadolli, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Compact and low power consumption tunable photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3861–3871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Ferraro, M. S.

Fiore, A.

H. S. Lee, S. Kiravittaya, S. Kumar, J. D. Plumhof, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Francardi, M.

H. S. Lee, S. Kiravittaya, S. Kumar, J. D. Plumhof, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ge, X.

Gerardino, A.

H. S. Lee, S. Kiravittaya, S. Kumar, J. D. Plumhof, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hall, T. J.

Hasman, E.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S.

Hvam, J. M.

Janz, S.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiravittaya, S.

H. S. Lee, S. Kiravittaya, S. Kumar, J. D. Plumhof, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kumar, S.

H. S. Lee, S. Kiravittaya, S. Kumar, J. D. Plumhof, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D. L.

Lapointe, J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B. G.

Lee, H. S.

H. S. Lee, S. Kiravittaya, S. Kumar, J. D. Plumhof, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, L. H.

H. S. Lee, S. Kiravittaya, S. Kumar, J. D. Plumhof, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Lin, D.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L. R.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband Silicon Photonic Electrooptic Switch for Photonic Interconnection Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Lo, G. Q.

Loncar, M.

Q. Quan and M. Loncar, “Deterministic design of wavelength scale, ultra-high Q photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18529–18542 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Mekis, A.

Molina-Fernández, Í.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Njoroge, S.

W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 470–474 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, P.

W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 470–474 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oliveira, J. E. B.

Ophir, N.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband Silicon Photonic Electrooptic Switch for Photonic Interconnection Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ortega-Moñux, A.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ou, H.

Padmaraju, K.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband Silicon Photonic Electrooptic Switch for Photonic Interconnection Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pavarelli, N.

W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 470–474 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

Plumhof, J. D.

H. S. Lee, S. Kiravittaya, S. Kumar, J. D. Plumhof, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pruessner, M. W.

Pu, M.

Qian, W.

Quan, Q.

Q. Quan and M. Loncar, “Deterministic design of wavelength scale, ultra-high Q photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18529–18542 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rabinovich, W. S.

Raj, K.

Rastelli, A.

H. S. Lee, S. Kiravittaya, S. Kumar, J. D. Plumhof, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

W. S. Fegadolli, N. Pavarelli, P. O’Brien, S. Njoroge, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Thermally controllable silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavity without surface cladding for sensing applications,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 470–474 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. S. Fegadolli, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Compact and low power consumption tunable photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3861–3871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, J. H.

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R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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ACS Photonics (1)

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Nat. Photonics (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic for the entire device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Details of the nanotentacle (NT)-assisted PhC waveguide in the proposed cavity. (b) Relation between the effective index of boundary and the NT width. (c) Transmission loss and insertion loss of the nanotentacle (NT)-assisted waveguide. (d) - (f) Cross-section mode distribution at the strip waveguide, steady-state position and unsteady-state position, respectively. (g) Schematic of selecting threes positions for mode overlap. (h) Mode overlap with strip mode for unsteady-state mode and steady-state mode, red and blue curves, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Band diagram of the NT-assisted photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide with different hole radii. Solid and dashed lines are for 120 nm and 70 nm radii, respectively. (b) Relation between quality factor (Q) and mirror length. Black, red, blue, green and violet curves are for cases without NT, 20 nm NT, 40 nm NT, 60 nm NT, and 80 nm NT, respectively. (c) Energy in the waveguide and NT array, black and red, respectively. (d) Energy distribution of the resonant mode in a raw nanobeam cavity and NT-assisted nanobeam cavity. (e) Quality factor and energy confinement in waveguide of different NT period, depicted by blue and red lines, respectively. Lines with triangles and circles are for the case fixed filling factor (varying NT width) and the case fixed NT width (varying NT width), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Relation between the index change and wavelength by calculation. Red, blue and black indicate changes solely in waveguide, solely in nanotentacles and in both, respectively. (b) Temperature distribution of thermal model. Heat flux are labeled by black arrows.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Micrograph for the fabricated devices. (b), (c) and (d) Scanning electron microscope for different scopes. The light grey area is the electrode and heater.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic for transmission and switching measurement. (b) Transmission of resonant modes with different applied power. (c) Relation between the wavelength shift and applied power. Measured and fitting data are denoted by circle and line, respectively. (d) Switching response with 10 kHz rate detected by photodetector and caught by digital oscilloscope analyzer. (e) The zoomed-in raising edge of switching response.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Relation between NT width and energy efficiency in waveguide and NT, black circle and red circle, respectively. A reference efficiency calculated in a heater-on-insulator model. (b) Relation between the slab width and energy efficiency in waveguide and total silicon structure, black circle and red circle, respectively. Solid line is for the case where the heater is on the center, while the dashed line for the case where the heater is on the edge. (c), (d) and (e) are the temperature distributions for cases where the heater is on the center of a 4 μm slab, on the edge of a 4 μm slab, and on the 1.6 μm slab. The heater width is fixed at 1.5μm. (e) Variation of energy efficiency in waveguide (blue curve) and nanotentacles (red curve) with different electrode thickness. (f) Variation of energy efficiency in waveguide and nanotentacles (NTs) with different NT period depicted by blue and red lines, respectively. Lines with triangles and circles are for the case with a fixed filling factor (varying NT width) and the case with a fixed NT width (varying NT width), respectively.