Abstract

We have examined graphene absorption in a range of graphene-based infrared devices that combine either monolayer or bilayer graphene with three different gate dielectrics. Electromagnetic simulations show that the optical absorption in graphene in these devices, an important factor in a functional graphene-based detector, is strongly dielectric-dependent. These simulations reveal that plasmonic excitation in graphene can significantly influence the percentage of light absorbed in the entire device, as well as the graphene layer itself, with graphene absorption exceeding 25% in regions where plasmonic excitation occurs. Notably, the dielectric environment of graphene has a dramatic influence on the strength and wavelength range over which the plasmons can be excited, making dielectric choice paramount to final detector tunability and sensitivity.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  30. S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, V. M. Galitski, and S. Das Sarma, “A self-consistent theory for graphene transport,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(47), 18392–18397 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, S. M. A. C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO(2) interface,” Nano Lett. 11, 4701–4705 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. Y. Hao, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, X. Wang, C. Tan, S. Nie, J. W. Suk, T. Jiang, T. Liang, J. Xiao, W. Ye, C. R. Dean, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxygen-activated growth and bandgap tunability of large single-crystal bilayer graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(5), 426–431 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

F. Léonard, C. D. Spataru, M. Goldflam, D. W. Peters, and T. E. Beechem, “Dynamic Wavelength-Tunable Photodetector Using Subwavelength Graphene Field-Effect Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 8, 45873 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Aznakayeva, F. J. Rodriguez, O. P. Marshall, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene light modulators working at near-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10255–10260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

Y. Hao, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, X. Wang, C. Tan, S. Nie, J. W. Suk, T. Jiang, T. Liang, J. Xiao, W. Ye, C. R. Dean, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxygen-activated growth and bandgap tunability of large single-crystal bilayer graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(5), 426–431 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Su, Z. Guo, W. Huang, Z. Liu, T. Gong, Y. He, and B. Yu, “Ultra-sensitive graphene photodetector with plasmonic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 173107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, J. Niu, M. Danesh, J. Liu, Y. Chen, L. Ke, C. Qiu, and H. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon resonance in graphene nanomesh with Au nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 041106 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Z. Fei, E. G. Iwinski, G. X. Ni, L. M. Zhang, W. Bao, A. S. Rodin, Y. Lee, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, S. Dai, M. D. Goldflam, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, C. N. Lau, A. H. Castro-Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4973–4978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jablan and D. E. Chang, “Multiplasmon Absorption in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(23), 236801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Goldflam, G. X. Ni, K. W. Post, Z. Fei, Y. Yeo, J. Y. Tan, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Castro Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tuning and Persistent Switching of Graphene Plasmons on a Ferroelectric Substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4859–4864 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. H. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 780–793 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Li, L.-L. Wang, B. Sun, Z.-R. Huang, and X. Zhai, “Tunable mid-infrared plasmonic band-pass filter based on a single graphene sheet with cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(22), 224505 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. Yota, H. Shen, and R. Ramanathan, “Characterization of atomic layer deposition HfO2, Al2O3, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 as metal-insulator-metal capacitor dielectric for GaAs HBT technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(1), 01A134 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined tunable mid-infrared plasmonics in graphene nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. Yan, T. Low, W. J. Zhu, Y. Q. Wu, M. Freitag, X. S. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. N. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. F. Mak, L. Ju, F. Wang, and T. F. Heinz, “Optical spectroscopy of graphene: From the far infrared to the ultraviolet,” Solid State Commun. 152(15), 1341–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

F. H. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, S. M. A. C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO(2) interface,” Nano Lett. 11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Echtermeyer, L. Britnell, P. K. Jasnos, A. Lombardo, R. V. Gorbachev, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong plasmonic enhancement of photovoltage in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 458 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

V. Ryzhii and M. Ryzhii, “Graphene bilayer field-effect phototransistor for terahertz and infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 245311 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, D. N. Basov, M. M. Fogler, Z. Hao, and M. C. Martin, “Determination of the electronic structure of bilayer graphene from infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 235408 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129, 012004 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205418 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, V. M. Galitski, and S. Das Sarma, “A self-consistent theory for graphene transport,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(47), 18392–18397 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

B. Wunsch, T. Stauber, F. Sols, and F. Guinea, “Dynamical polarization of graphene at finite doping,” New J. Phys. 8(12), 318 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Robertson, “High dielectric constant oxides,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 28(3), 265–291 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, and J. M. Anthony, “High-κ gate dielectrics: Current status and materials properties considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5243–5275 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

N. Gat, “Imaging spectroscopy using tunable filters: A review,” Proc. SPIE 4056, 50–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

M. A. Subramanian, R. D. Shannon, B. H. T. Chai, M. M. Abraham, and M. C. Wintersgill, “Dielectric constants of BeO, MgO, and CaO using the two-terminal method,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 16(8), 741–746 (1989).
[Crossref]

Abraham, M. M.

M. A. Subramanian, R. D. Shannon, B. H. T. Chai, M. M. Abraham, and M. C. Wintersgill, “Dielectric constants of BeO, MgO, and CaO using the two-terminal method,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 16(8), 741–746 (1989).
[Crossref]

Adam, S.

S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, V. M. Galitski, and S. Das Sarma, “A self-consistent theory for graphene transport,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(47), 18392–18397 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-González, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, S. M. A. C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO(2) interface,” Nano Lett. 11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anthony, J. M.

G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, and J. M. Anthony, “High-κ gate dielectrics: Current status and materials properties considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5243–5275 (2001).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined tunable mid-infrared plasmonics in graphene nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

F. H. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 780–793 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. Yan, T. Low, W. J. Zhu, Y. Q. Wu, M. Freitag, X. S. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. N. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aznakayeva, D. E.

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bai, J.

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, W.

Z. Fei, E. G. Iwinski, G. X. Ni, L. M. Zhang, W. Bao, A. S. Rodin, Y. Lee, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, S. Dai, M. D. Goldflam, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, C. N. Lau, A. H. Castro-Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4973–4978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, S. M. A. C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO(2) interface,” Nano Lett. 11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

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Y. Wu, J. Niu, M. Danesh, J. Liu, Y. Chen, L. Ke, C. Qiu, and H. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon resonance in graphene nanomesh with Au nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 041106 (2016).
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Y. Hao, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, X. Wang, C. Tan, S. Nie, J. W. Suk, T. Jiang, T. Liang, J. Xiao, W. Ye, C. R. Dean, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxygen-activated growth and bandgap tunability of large single-crystal bilayer graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(5), 426–431 (2016).
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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
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F. H. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 780–793 (2014).
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F. H. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
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Z. Fei, E. G. Iwinski, G. X. Ni, L. M. Zhang, W. Bao, A. S. Rodin, Y. Lee, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, S. Dai, M. D. Goldflam, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, C. N. Lau, A. H. Castro-Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4973–4978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, S. M. A. C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO(2) interface,” Nano Lett. 11, 4701–4705 (2011).
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Z. Fei, E. G. Iwinski, G. X. Ni, L. M. Zhang, W. Bao, A. S. Rodin, Y. Lee, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, S. Dai, M. D. Goldflam, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, C. N. Lau, A. H. Castro-Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4973–4978 (2015).
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H.-J. Li, L.-L. Wang, B. Sun, Z.-R. Huang, and X. Zhai, “Tunable mid-infrared plasmonic band-pass filter based on a single graphene sheet with cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(22), 224505 (2014).
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H. G. Yan, T. Low, W. J. Zhu, Y. Q. Wu, M. Freitag, X. S. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. N. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 394–399 (2013).
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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
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F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
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Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
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Y. Wu, J. Niu, M. Danesh, J. Liu, Y. Chen, L. Ke, C. Qiu, and H. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon resonance in graphene nanomesh with Au nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 041106 (2016).
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Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
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Z. Fei, E. G. Iwinski, G. X. Ni, L. M. Zhang, W. Bao, A. S. Rodin, Y. Lee, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, S. Dai, M. D. Goldflam, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, C. N. Lau, A. H. Castro-Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4973–4978 (2015).
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Y. Hao, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, X. Wang, C. Tan, S. Nie, J. W. Suk, T. Jiang, T. Liang, J. Xiao, W. Ye, C. R. Dean, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxygen-activated growth and bandgap tunability of large single-crystal bilayer graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(5), 426–431 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
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Y. Su, Z. Guo, W. Huang, Z. Liu, T. Gong, Y. He, and B. Yu, “Ultra-sensitive graphene photodetector with plasmonic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 173107 (2016).
[Crossref]

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T. J. Echtermeyer, L. Britnell, P. K. Jasnos, A. Lombardo, R. V. Gorbachev, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong plasmonic enhancement of photovoltage in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 458 (2011).
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V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined tunable mid-infrared plasmonics in graphene nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. G. Yan, T. Low, W. J. Zhu, Y. Q. Wu, M. Freitag, X. S. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. N. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, L. Ju, F. Wang, and T. F. Heinz, “Optical spectroscopy of graphene: From the far infrared to the ultraviolet,” Solid State Commun. 152(15), 1341–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Marshall, O. P.

Martin, M. C.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, D. N. Basov, M. M. Fogler, Z. Hao, and M. C. Martin, “Determination of the electronic structure of bilayer graphene from infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 235408 (2008).
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Y. Hao, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, X. Wang, C. Tan, S. Nie, J. W. Suk, T. Jiang, T. Liang, J. Xiao, W. Ye, C. R. Dean, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxygen-activated growth and bandgap tunability of large single-crystal bilayer graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(5), 426–431 (2016).
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Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
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F. H. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 780–793 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. D. Goldflam, G. X. Ni, K. W. Post, Z. Fei, Y. Yeo, J. Y. Tan, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Castro Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tuning and Persistent Switching of Graphene Plasmons on a Ferroelectric Substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4859–4864 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, E. G. Iwinski, G. X. Ni, L. M. Zhang, W. Bao, A. S. Rodin, Y. Lee, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, S. Dai, M. D. Goldflam, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, C. N. Lau, A. H. Castro-Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4973–4978 (2015).
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Nie, S.

Y. Hao, L. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Chen, X. Wang, C. Tan, S. Nie, J. W. Suk, T. Jiang, T. Liang, J. Xiao, W. Ye, C. R. Dean, B. I. Yakobson, K. F. McCarty, P. Kim, J. Hone, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxygen-activated growth and bandgap tunability of large single-crystal bilayer graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(5), 426–431 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niu, J.

Y. Wu, J. Niu, M. Danesh, J. Liu, Y. Chen, L. Ke, C. Qiu, and H. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon resonance in graphene nanomesh with Au nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 041106 (2016).
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Novoselov, K. S.

T. J. Echtermeyer, L. Britnell, P. K. Jasnos, A. Lombardo, R. V. Gorbachev, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong plasmonic enhancement of photovoltage in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 458 (2011).
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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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M. D. Goldflam, G. X. Ni, K. W. Post, Z. Fei, Y. Yeo, J. Y. Tan, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Castro Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tuning and Persistent Switching of Graphene Plasmons on a Ferroelectric Substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4859–4864 (2015).
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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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F. Léonard, C. D. Spataru, M. Goldflam, D. W. Peters, and T. E. Beechem, “Dynamic Wavelength-Tunable Photodetector Using Subwavelength Graphene Field-Effect Transistors,” Sci. Rep. 8, 45873 (2017).
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F. H. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 780–793 (2014).
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M. D. Goldflam, G. X. Ni, K. W. Post, Z. Fei, Y. Yeo, J. Y. Tan, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Castro Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tuning and Persistent Switching of Graphene Plasmons on a Ferroelectric Substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4859–4864 (2015).
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Y. Wu, J. Niu, M. Danesh, J. Liu, Y. Chen, L. Ke, C. Qiu, and H. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon resonance in graphene nanomesh with Au nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(4), 041106 (2016).
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J. Yota, H. Shen, and R. Ramanathan, “Characterization of atomic layer deposition HfO2, Al2O3, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 as metal-insulator-metal capacitor dielectric for GaAs HBT technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(1), 01A134 (2013).
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M. D. Goldflam, G. X. Ni, K. W. Post, Z. Fei, Y. Yeo, J. Y. Tan, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Castro Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tuning and Persistent Switching of Graphene Plasmons on a Ferroelectric Substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 4859–4864 (2015).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Definition of optimization metric variables with graphene absorption plots for Fermi levels of EF = 0.3 and 0.6 eV (black and red respectively) on an MgO gate dielectric. (Inset) Schematic of one period of the simulated device. Graphene is represented by a surface current on the top surface of dielectric.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Comparison of the total (solid) and MLG (dotted) absorption in the simulated device at two different graphene Fermi levels of 0 and 0.4 eV. (b) Percent change in total absorption in the device for data shown in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maps of the variation in MLG (a)-(c) and BLG (d)-(f) absorption as a function of wavelength and Fermi level with three gate dielectrics: SiO2, HfO2, and MgO. Horizontal white dotted lines show the range of Fermi levels which are expected to be achievable with a given dielectric. Bright features seen in each image are indicative of graphene plasmon excitation and a resulting increase in graphene absorption. Gray dots in the MLG plots indicate the wavelength of plasmon excitation for EF = 0.5 eV corresponding to the plots of the reflection coefficient in the figure below.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cuts of MLG (a)-(c) or BLG (d)-(f) absorption taken horizontally across maps in Fig. 3 demonstrating the resonance wavelength tuning that is achievable when coupling into the graphene plasmon. Differences in magnitude and spectral range are due to the effects of the dielectric on the plasmon excitation wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured real part of the optical permittivity of the three dielectrics used in our simulations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Real optical conductivity for MLG (a) and BLG (b). Imaginary optical conductivity for MLG (c) and BLG (d).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maps of the reflection coefficient for (a) SiO2, (b) HfO2, and (c) MgO with maxima corresponding to graphene plasmon excitation with graphene EF = 0.5 eV. The vertical dotted lines indicate the momentum excited in our system due to graphene’s finite width. Gray dots correspond to the wavelength of plasmon excitation expected for a device with a graphene channel width of 200 nm where qp = 2π/wg where wg is the graphene channel width.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Zero-frequency dielectric properties employed in our simulations [26–29]

Equations (2)

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A g= 1 P inc 1 2 σ 1 (ω)| E (ω) | 2 da
n= κ ε 0 qd V= κ ε 0 q E= E F 2 π 2 v F 2

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