Abstract

In this paper, four-channel cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based wavelength (de)multiplexers in the O-band are demonstrated experimentally by utilizing silicon nitride (SiN) optical waveguides. By reference to the commonly used 100 Gigabit Ethernet standards, two types of (de)multiplexer devices with different channel spacings are designed and fabricated. Both the devices exhibit low insertion loss and flat passbands. The lower thermo-optical coefficient provided by SiN brings benefits of reduction in thermal sensitivity. The fabricated (de)multiplexers show a temperature-dependent wavelength shift of about 18.5 pm/°C, which is reduced by 75% compared to the standard silicon-based devices.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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P. Dong, “Silicon photonic integrated circuits for Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing applications [Invited],” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 6100609 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Deng, L. Liu, R. Zhang, X. Li, J. Michel, and Z. Zhou, “Athermal and flat-topped silicon Mach-Zehnder filters,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29577–29582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

K. Hassan, C. Sciancalepore, J. Harduin, T. Ferrotti, S. Menezo, and B. B. Bakir, “Toward athermal silicon-on-insulator (de)multiplexers in the O-band,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2641–2644 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Turkiewicz, P. Mazurek, and H. de Waardt, “Towards 1 Tbit/s SOA-based 1310 nm transmission for local area network/data centre applications,” IET Optoelectron. 9(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Hai, A. Leinse, T. Veenstra, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A thermally tunable 1 × 4 channel wavelength demultiplexer designed on a low-loss Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Photonics 2(4), 1065–1080 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, Z. Wang, J. F. Bauters, M.-C. Tien, M. J. Heck, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Low-loss Si3N4 arrayed-waveguide grating (de)multiplexer using nano-core optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14130–14136 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(5), 284–286 (2011).

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

C. Cole, D. Allouche, F. Flens, B. Huebner, and T. Nguyen, “100GbE-Optical LAN Technologies [Applications & Practice],” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(12), 12–19 (2007).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: Principles and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 8(6), 948–964 (1990).
[Crossref]

Allouche, D.

C. Cole, D. Allouche, F. Flens, B. Huebner, and T. Nguyen, “100GbE-Optical LAN Technologies [Applications & Practice],” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(12), 12–19 (2007).
[Crossref]

Analui, B.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, and C. Gunn, “A Fully Integrated 4 × 10 Gb/s DWDM Optoelectronic Transceiver in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 42–43.

Aroca, R.

L. Chen, C. Doerr, R. Aroca, S. Park, J. Geyer, T. Nielsen, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Silicon photonics for 100G-and-beyond coherent transmissions,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1B.1.

Aroca, R. A.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(5), 284–286 (2011).

Assefa, S.

Baets, R.

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th3J.1.

Baeyens, Y.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bakir, B. B.

Bauters, J. F.

Bienstman, P.

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th3J.1.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bojko, R.

Bowers, J. E.

Brackett, C. A.

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: Principles and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 8(6), 948–964 (1990).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, C. Doerr, R. Aroca, S. Park, J. Geyer, T. Nielsen, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Silicon photonics for 100G-and-beyond coherent transmissions,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1B.1.

Chrostowski, L.

Clemmen, S.

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th3J.1.

Cole, C.

C. Cole, D. Allouche, F. Flens, B. Huebner, and T. Nguyen, “100GbE-Optical LAN Technologies [Applications & Practice],” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(12), 12–19 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

de Waardt, H.

J. P. Turkiewicz, P. Mazurek, and H. de Waardt, “Towards 1 Tbit/s SOA-based 1310 nm transmission for local area network/data centre applications,” IET Optoelectron. 9(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Deng, Q.

Doerr, C.

L. Chen, C. Doerr, R. Aroca, S. Park, J. Geyer, T. Nielsen, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Silicon photonics for 100G-and-beyond coherent transmissions,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1B.1.

Doerr, C. R.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, “Silicon photonic integrated circuits for Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing applications [Invited],” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 6100609 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(5), 284–286 (2011).

Ferrotti, T.

Flens, F.

C. Cole, D. Allouche, F. Flens, B. Huebner, and T. Nguyen, “100GbE-Optical LAN Technologies [Applications & Practice],” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(12), 12–19 (2007).
[Crossref]

Flueckiger, J.

Fong, J.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(5), 284–286 (2011).

Geyer, J.

L. Chen, C. Doerr, R. Aroca, S. Park, J. Geyer, T. Nielsen, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Silicon photonics for 100G-and-beyond coherent transmissions,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1B.1.

Gondarenko, A.

Green, W. M.

Guha, B.

Gunn, C.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, and C. Gunn, “A Fully Integrated 4 × 10 Gb/s DWDM Optoelectronic Transceiver in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 42–43.

Hai, M. S.

M. S. Hai, A. Leinse, T. Veenstra, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A thermally tunable 1 × 4 channel wavelength demultiplexer designed on a low-loss Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Photonics 2(4), 1065–1080 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harduin, J.

Hassan, K.

Heck, M. J.

Helin, P.

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th3J.1.

Horikawa, T.

Horst, F.

Huebner, B.

C. Cole, D. Allouche, F. Flens, B. Huebner, and T. Nguyen, “100GbE-Optical LAN Technologies [Applications & Practice],” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(12), 12–19 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jaeger, N. A.

Jeong, S.-H.

Kee, J. S.

Kung, C.-C.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(5), 284–286 (2011).

Kuyken, B.

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th3J.1.

Le Thomas, N.

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th3J.1.

Leinse, A.

M. S. Hai, A. Leinse, T. Veenstra, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A thermally tunable 1 × 4 channel wavelength demultiplexer designed on a low-loss Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Photonics 2(4), 1065–1080 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Liang, H.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(5), 284–286 (2011).

Liang, Y.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, and C. Gunn, “A Fully Integrated 4 × 10 Gb/s DWDM Optoelectronic Transceiver in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 42–43.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

M. S. Hai, A. Leinse, T. Veenstra, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A thermally tunable 1 × 4 channel wavelength demultiplexer designed on a low-loss Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Photonics 2(4), 1065–1080 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liow, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

Liu, L.

Lo, G.-Q.

Luff, B. J.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(5), 284–286 (2011).

Mazurek, P.

J. P. Turkiewicz, P. Mazurek, and H. de Waardt, “Towards 1 Tbit/s SOA-based 1310 nm transmission for local area network/data centre applications,” IET Optoelectron. 9(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Menezo, S.

Michel, J.

Mikkelsen, B.

L. Chen, C. Doerr, R. Aroca, S. Park, J. Geyer, T. Nielsen, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Silicon photonics for 100G-and-beyond coherent transmissions,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1B.1.

Morito, K.

Narasimha, A.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, and C. Gunn, “A Fully Integrated 4 × 10 Gb/s DWDM Optoelectronic Transceiver in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 42–43.

Nguyen, T.

C. Cole, D. Allouche, F. Flens, B. Huebner, and T. Nguyen, “100GbE-Optical LAN Technologies [Applications & Practice],” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(12), 12–19 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, T.

L. Chen, C. Doerr, R. Aroca, S. Park, J. Geyer, T. Nielsen, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Silicon photonics for 100G-and-beyond coherent transmissions,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1B.1.

Offrein, B. J.

Park, M. K.

Park, S.

L. Chen, C. Doerr, R. Aroca, S. Park, J. Geyer, T. Nielsen, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Silicon photonics for 100G-and-beyond coherent transmissions,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1B.1.

Qian, W.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Fabrication insensitive echelle grating in silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(5), 284–286 (2011).

Rasmussen, C.

L. Chen, C. Doerr, R. Aroca, S. Park, J. Geyer, T. Nielsen, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Silicon photonics for 100G-and-beyond coherent transmissions,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th1B.1.

Roelkens, G.

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th3J.1.

Sciancalepore, C.

Severi, S.

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th3J.1.

Shank, S. M.

Shi, W.

Shimura, D.

Simoyama, T.

Sleboda, T. J.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, and C. Gunn, “A Fully Integrated 4 × 10 Gb/s DWDM Optoelectronic Transceiver in a standard 0.13 μm CMOS SOI,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 42–43.

Song, J.

Subramanian, A. Z.

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th3J.1.

Tanaka, Y.

Tien, M.-C.

Tu, X.

Turkiewicz, J. P.

J. P. Turkiewicz, P. Mazurek, and H. de Waardt, “Towards 1 Tbit/s SOA-based 1310 nm transmission for local area network/data centre applications,” IET Optoelectron. 9(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2016), paper Th3J.1.

Veenstra, T.

M. S. Hai, A. Leinse, T. Veenstra, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A thermally tunable 1 × 4 channel wavelength demultiplexer designed on a low-loss Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Photonics 2(4), 1065–1080 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Yiying, J. Q.

Yu, M.

Yun, H.

Zhang, R.

Zhou, Z.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

C. Cole, D. Allouche, F. Flens, B. Huebner, and T. Nguyen, “100GbE-Optical LAN Technologies [Applications & Practice],” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(12), 12–19 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (1)

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: Principles and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 8(6), 948–964 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Dong, “Silicon photonic integrated circuits for Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing applications [Invited],” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 6100609 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the 4-channel cascaded MZI-type demultiplexer. The output channels are ordered by increasing wavelength. (b) Cross section of the utilized SiN waveguide. (c) Simulated mode profile of the TE-polarized fundamental mode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SEM image of an apodized grating coupler. (b) Optical microscope image of a completed demultiplexer. (c) Sketch of the characterization setup.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured normalized transmission spectra at room temperature for (a) Type-Ι and (b) Type-ΙΙ devices.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured normalized transmission spectra at different temperatures of 20°C and 50°C for (a) Type-Ι and (b) Type-ΙΙ devices.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temperature-dependent central wavelength shift for the Ch. 1 together with the linear fit: (a) Type-Ι, and (b) Type-ΙΙ.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Room-Temperature Performance of Type-Ι Device

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Table 2 Room-Temperature Performance of Type-ΙΙ Device

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