Abstract

Needs for providing security to end users have brought installation of quantum key distribution (QKD) in one-to-many access networks such as passive optical networks. In the networks, a presence of optical power splitters makes issues for secure key rate more important. However, researches for QKD in access networks have mainly focused on implementation issues rather than protocol development for key rate enhancement. Since secure key rate is theoretically limited by a protocol, researches without protocol development cannot overcome the limit of secure key rate given by a protocol. This brings need of researches for protocol development. In this paper, we provide a new approach which provides secure key rate enhancement over the conventional protocol. Specifically, we propose the secure key rate formula in a passive optical network by extending the secure key rate formula based on the decoy-state BB84 protocol. For a passive optical network, we provide a way that incorporates cooperation across end users. Then, we show that the way can mitigate a photon number splitting (PNS) attack which is crucial in an well known decoy BB84 protocol. Especially, the proposed scheme enables multi-photon states to serve as secure keys unlike the conventional decoy BB84 protocol. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our proposed scheme outperforms the decoy BB84 protocol in secure key rate.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

2015 (6)

K. Takemoto, Y. Nambu, T. Miyazawa, Y. Sakuma, T. Yamamoto, S. Yorozu, and Y. Arakawa, “Quantum key distribution over 120 km using ultrahigh purity single-photon source and superconducting single-photon detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Feng, W. Li, Q. Zheng, J. Han, J. Xiao, Z. He, M. Luo, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Impacts of backscattering noises on upstream signals in full-duplex bidirectional PONs,” Opt. Express 23, 15575–15586 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lim, H. Ko, K. Kim, C. Suh, and J.-K. Rhee, “The error tolerance bound for secure multi-qubit QKD against incoherent attack,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 21, 1–9 (2015).

F. Xu, K. Wei, S. Sajeed, S. Kaiser, S. Sun, Z. Tang, L. Qian, V. Makarov, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with source flaws,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032305 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 052339 (2015).
[Crossref]

W.-Y. Liang, M. Li, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, S. Wang, X.-B. An, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Simple implementation of quantum key distribution based on single-photon Bell-state measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 012319 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

K. Patel, J. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 190503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ciurana, J. Martínez-Mateo, M. Peev, A. Poppe, N. Walenta, H. Zbinden, and V. Martin, “Quantum metropolitan optical network based on wavelength division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22, 1576–1593 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

H. Shim, K. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. Chung, “Correlation-based OTDR for in-service monitoring of 64-split TDM PON,” Opt. Express 20, 4921–4926 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Moroder, M. Curty, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Detector decoy quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045008 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. Renner, “Security of quantum key distribution,” Int. J. Quantum Inf. 6, 1–127 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, “Passive optical network approach to gigahertz-clocked multiuser quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 130–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

P. Curtacci, F. Garzia, R. Cusani, and E. Baccarelli, “Performance analysis of different multi-user optical passive networks for quantum cryptography applications,” Proc. SPIE 6187, 61870U (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

P. W. Shor and J. Preskill, “Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dušek, M. Jahma, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Unambiguous state discrimination in quantum cryptography with weak coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 022306 (2000).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

A. S. Holevo, “Bounds for the quantity of information transmitted by a quantum communication channel,” Probl. Peredachi Inf. 9, 3–11 (1973).

Allacher, A.

Alléaume, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

An, X.-B.

W.-Y. Liang, M. Li, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, S. Wang, X.-B. An, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Simple implementation of quantum key distribution based on single-photon Bell-state measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 012319 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

K. Takemoto, Y. Nambu, T. Miyazawa, Y. Sakuma, T. Yamamoto, S. Yorozu, and Y. Arakawa, “Quantum key distribution over 120 km using ultrahigh purity single-photon source and superconducting single-photon detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asai, T.

Baccarelli, E.

P. Curtacci, F. Garzia, R. Cusani, and E. Baccarelli, “Performance analysis of different multi-user optical passive networks for quantum cryptography applications,” Proc. SPIE 6187, 61870U (2006).
[Crossref]

Barreiro, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benatti, F.

F. Benatti, M. Fannes, R. Floreanini, and D. Petritis, Quantum Information, Computation and Cryptography: An Introductory Survey of Theory, Technology and Experiments, vol. 808 (Springer, 2010).
[Crossref]

Blauensteiner, B.

D. Hrg, A. Poppe, A. Fedrizzi, B. Blauensteiner, H. Hübel, and A. Zeilinger, “Security aspects and simulations of practical QKD platforms,” Quantum physics of nature Theory, experiment and interpretation in collaboration with 6th European QIPC workshop, Austria (2005).

Bouda, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bourgoin, J.-P.

J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 052339 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boxleitner, W.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Buller, G. S.

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, “Passive optical network approach to gigahertz-clocked multiuser quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 130–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Chen, W.

W.-Y. Liang, M. Li, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, S. Wang, X.-B. An, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Simple implementation of quantum key distribution based on single-photon Bell-state measurement,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 012319 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, Y. Zhang, T. Zhang, H.-W. Li, F.-X. Xu, Z. Zhou, Y. Yang, D.-J. Huang, L.-J. Zhang, F.-Y. Li, D. Liu, Y.-G. Wang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Field test of wavelength-saving quantum key distribution network,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2454–2456 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.-B.

H.-L. Yin, Y. Fu, Y. Mao, and Z.-B. Chen, “Detector-decoy quantum key distribution without monitoring signal disturbance,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 022330 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cho, K.

Choi, I.

K. Patel, J. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051123 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum key distribution on a 10Gb/s WDM-PON,” Opt. Express 18, 9600–9612 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, Y.

Ciurana, A.

Collins, R. J.

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, “Passive optical network approach to gigahertz-clocked multiuser quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 130–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

Curtacci, P.

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Kok, P.

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Liu, D.

Lo, H.-K.

F. Xu, K. Wei, S. Sajeed, S. Kaiser, S. Sun, Z. Tang, L. Qian, V. Makarov, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with source flaws,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032305 (2015).
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Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 190503 (2014).
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H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
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X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Lutkenhaus, N.

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Lütkenhaus, N.

J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 052339 (2015).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Dušek, M. Jahma, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Unambiguous state discrimination in quantum cryptography with weak coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 022306 (2000).
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X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
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Makarov, V.

F. Xu, K. Wei, S. Sajeed, S. Kaiser, S. Sun, Z. Tang, L. Qian, V. Makarov, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with source flaws,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032305 (2015).
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H.-L. Yin, Y. Fu, Y. Mao, and Z.-B. Chen, “Detector-decoy quantum key distribution without monitoring signal disturbance,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 022330 (2016).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Martínez-Mateo, J.

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Maurhart, O.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Meyer-Scott, E.

J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 052339 (2015).
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Miki, S.

Milburn, G. J.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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T. Moroder, M. Curty, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Detector decoy quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045008 (2009).
[Crossref]

Munro, W. J.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
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Nambu, Y.

Nauerth, S.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
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Zhang, T.

Zhang, X.

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Zhao, Y.

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H. Shim, K. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. Chung, “Correlation-based OTDR for in-service monitoring of 64-split TDM PON,” Opt. Express 20, 4921–4926 (2012).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 System model for a general down-stream PON system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The possible cases when a pulse having multiple photons is generated.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of secure key rate between QKD system with and without the proposed method under an ideal setup.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of secure key rate between QKD system with and without the proposed method under an implementable setup.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of secure key rate gain depending on detector efficiency

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Secure key rates for different attacks.

Equations (54)

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Pr ( the number of photons = i ) = μ i i ! e μ ,
T ch = T fiber T splitter = 10 α l 10 10 L splitter 10 ,
T ONU = 10 L ONU 10 ,
γ all = γ det T ONU T ch .
γ i = 1 ( 1 γ all ) i .
Y i = Pr ( detection occurs | i photon sate ) .
Y i = γ i + Y 0 γ i Y 0 ,
Q i = Pr ( i -photon sate, detection occurs ) = Y i μ i i ! e μ .
e i = Pr ( erroneous detection occurs | i -photon sate ) Pr ( detection occurs | i -photon sate ) = e 0 Y 0 ( 1 γ i ) + e d γ i ( 1 Y 0 ) + e 0 e d γ i Y 0 Y i .
Q μ = Pr ( detection occurs ) = i = 0 Q i = 1 ( 1 Y 0 ) e γ all μ .
E μ = Pr ( erroneous detection occurs ) Pr ( detection occurs ) = i = 0 e i Q i i = 0 Q i = e 0 Y 0 e γ all μ + e d ( 1 Y 0 ) ( 1 e γ all μ ) 1 ( 1 Y 0 ) e γ all μ .
R 1 2 { Q μ f ( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ ) + Q 1 [ 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) ] } ,
I ( A ; E ) i = H 2 ( 1 + cos i c 2 ) ,
R 1 2 { Q μ f ( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ ) + Q 1 [ 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) ] + i = 2 Q i ( 1 I ( A ; E ) i ) } ,
R 1 2 { Q μ f ( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ ) + Q 1 [ 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) ] + i = 2 Q i ( 1 I ( A ; E ) 2 ) } ,
R 1 2 { Q μ f ( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ ) + ( Q μ P multi ) [ 1 H 2 ( E μ Q μ P multi ) ] } ,
Q i i = μ i i ! e μ ( 1 ) ( i i ) γ all i ( 2 ) 1 n ( n 1 i 1 ) ( i 1 ) ! 1 ! 1 ! ( 1 n ) i 1 ( 3 ) ( 1 Y 0 ) n i ( 4 ) .
R 1 2 { Q μ f ( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ ) + Q 1 [ 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) ] + i = 2 N Bob Q i i ( 1 I ( A ; E ) i ) } = 1 2 { Q μ f ( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ ) + Q μ PA overall } ,
PA overall = Q 0 + Q 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) + i = 2 N Bob Q i i I ( A ; E ) i + i = 2 N Bob ( Q i Q i i ) + i = N Bob + 1 Q i = Q 0 + Q 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) + i = 2 N Bob Q i i I ( A ; E ) i + i = 2 N Bob ( Q i Q i i ) + Q μ i = 0 N Bob Q i = Q μ + Q 1 ( H 2 ( e 1 ) 1 ) + i = 2 N Bob Q i i ( I ( A ; E ) i 1 ) .
R 1 2 { Q μ f ( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ ) + Q 1 [ 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) ] + Q 22 ( 1 I ( A ; E ) 2 ) }
U | Q N | ψ 0 = E { 1 , 2 , N } D E | Q E | ψ E Q N ,
ψ E Q N | ψ E Q N = 0 for E E .
| Q 2 | q b s q b s ,
| ψ Ø q Z 0 q Z 0 = | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 ,
| ψ { 1 } q Z 0 q Z 0 = | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 ,
| ψ { 2 } q Z 0 q Z 0 = | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 ,
| ψ { 1 , 2 } q Z 0 q Z 0 = | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 ,
| ψ Ø q Z 1 q Z 0 = | a 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 ,
| ψ { 1 } q Z 1 q Z 0 = | b 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 ,
| ψ { 2 } q Z 1 q Z 0 = | a 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 ,
| ψ { 1 , 2 } q Z 1 q Z 0 = | b 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 ,
| ψ Ø q Z 0 q Z 1 = | 0 | 0 | a 2 | 0 ,
| ψ { 1 } q Z 0 q Z 1 = | 0 | 1 | a 2 | 0 ,
| ψ { 2 } q Z 0 q Z 1 = | 0 | 0 | b 2 | 1 ,
| ψ { 1 , 2 } q Z     0 q Z     1 = | 0 | 1 | b 2 | 1 ,
| ψ Ø q Z 1 q Z 1 = | a 1 | 0 | a 2 | 0 ,
| ψ { 1 } q Z 1 q Z 1 = | b 1 | 1 | a 2 | 0 ,
| ψ { 2 } q Z 1 q Z 1 = | a 1 | 0 | b 2 | 1 ,
| ψ { 1 , 2 } q Z 1 q Z 1 = | b 1 | 1 | b 2 | 1 ,
D Ø = f 1 f 2 ( 1 + f 1 ) ( 1 + f 2 ) ,
D { 1 } = f 2 ( 1 + f 1 ) ( 1 + f 2 ) ,
D { 2 } = f 1 ( 1 + f 1 ) ( 1 + f 2 ) ,
D { 1 , 2 } = 1 ( 1 + f 1 ) ( 1 + f 2 ) .
I ( A ; E ) 2 S ( ρ E ) s = 0 1 P r ( q Z s q Z s ) S ( ρ E q Z s , q Z s ) ,
ρ E q Z s q Z s = E { 1 , 2 } D E | ψ E q Z s q Z s ψ E q Z s q Z s | .
s = 0 1 P r ( q Z s q Z s ) S ( ρ E q Z s q Z s ) = S ( ρ E q Z 0 q Z 0 ) = E { 1 , 2 } D E log 2 D E .
S ( ρ E ) = D Ø g ( c + ( a 1 , a 2 ) ) + D { 1 } g ( c + ( b 1 , a 2 ) ) + D { 2 } g ( c + ( a 1 , b 2 ) ) + D { 1 , 2 } g ( c + ( b 1 , b 2 ) ) + D Ø g ( c ( a 1 , a 2 ) ) + D { 1 } g ( c ( b 1 , a 2 ) ) + D { 2 } g ( c ( a 1 , b 2 ) ) + D { 1 , 2 } g ( c ( b 1 , b 2 ) ) E { 1 , 2 } D E log 2 D E g ( D Ø c + ( a 1 , a 2 ) + D { 1 } c + ( b 1 , a 2 ) + D { 2 } c + ( a 1 , b 2 ) + D { 1 , 2 } c + ( b 1 , b 2 ) ) + g ( D Ø c ( a 1 , a 2 ) + D { 1 } c ( b 1 , a 2 ) + D { 2 } c ( a 1 , b 2 ) + D { 1 , 2 } c ( b 1 , b 2 ) ) E { 1 , 2 } D E log 2 D E ,
S ( ρ E ) = g ( 1 + cos 2 c 2 ) + g ( 1 cos 2 c 2 ) E { 1 , 2 } D E log 2 D E ,
D Ø = ( 1 + cos c 2 ) 2 = ( 1 D ) 2 ,
D { 1 } = ( 1 cos c 2 ) ( 1 + cos c 2 ) = D ( 1 D ) ,
D { 2 } = ( 1 cos c 2 ) ( 1 + cos c ] 2 ) = ( 1 D ) D ,
D { 1 , 2 } = ( 1 cos c 2 ) 2 = D 2 ,
I ( A ; E ) 2 g ( 1 + cos 2 c 2 ) + g ( 1 cos 2 c 2 ) .
I ( A ; E ) i H 2 ( 1 + cos i c 2 ) .

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