Abstract

We present a theoretical analysis of the time-gated phase matching (ionization gating) mechanism in high-order harmonic generation for the isolation of attosecond pulses at near-infrared and mid-infrared driver wavelengths, for both few-cycle and multi-cycle driving laser pulses. Results of our high harmonic generation and three-dimensional propagation simulations show that broadband isolated pulses spanning from the extreme-ultraviolet well into the soft X-ray region of the spectrum can be generated for both few-cycle and multi-cycle laser pulses. We demonstrate the key role of absorption and group velocity matching for generating bright, isolated, attosecond pulses using long wavelength multi-cycle pulses. Finally, we show that this technique is robust against carrier-envelope phase and peak intensity variations.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

C. Hernández-García, C. G. Durfee, D. D. Hickstein, T. Popmintchev, A. Meier, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. J. Sola, A. Jaron-Becker, and A. Becker, “Schemes for generation of isolated attosecond pulses of pure circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 043855 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. M. Heyl, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Miranda, M. Louisy, K. Kovacs, V. Tosa, E. Balogh, K. Varjú, A. L’Huillier, A. Couairon, and C. L. Arnold, “Scale-invariant nonlinear optics in gases,” Optica 3, 75–81 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García and L. Plaja, “Resolving multiple rescatterings in high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 023402 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaroń-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 073031 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9, 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P. C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8, 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

H. Mashiko, K. Oguri, and T. Sogawa, “Attosecond pulse generation in carbon K-edge region (284 eV) with sub-250 μ J driving laser using generalized double optical gating method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 171111 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García, I. J. Sola, and L. Plaja, “Signature of the transversal coherence length in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043848 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García, J.A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M.M. Murnane, H.C. Kapteyn, A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond high harmonic keV X-ray waveforms driven by midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses: how to use spatiotemporally coupled light fields to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García and L. Plaja, “Off-axis compensation of attosecond pulse chirp,” J. Phys. B 45, 074021 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kazamias, S. Daboussi, O. Guilbaud, K. Cassou, D. Ros, B. Cros, and G. Maynard, “Pressure-induced phase matching in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063405 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Boutu, T. Auguste, O. Boyko, I. Sola, Ph. Balcou, L. Binazon, O. Gobert, H. Merdji, C. Valentin, E. Constant, E. Mével, and B. Carré, “High-order-harmonic generation in gas with a flat-top laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063406 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, E. Conejero Jarque, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “High-order harmonic propagation in gases within the discrete dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022432 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O.D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Thomann, A. Bahabad, X. Liu, R. Trebino, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Characterizing isolated attosecond pulses from hollow-core waveguides using multi-cycle driving pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4611–4633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the Strong-Field Approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 17, 9891–9903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by spatial shaping of a femtosecond laser beam,” New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A,  74, 061803R (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory,” J. Phys. B 38, R1–R56 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, F. Weihe, C. Valentin, A. Rousse, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, “Global optimization of high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Mevel, E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high order harmonic generation in absorbing gases,” AIP Conf. Proc. 525, 373 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367–1373 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, and E. Mével, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. Gaarde, T. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. R. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X.F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

M. V. Amosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008–2013 (1986).

1984 (1)

R. C. Eckardt and J. Reintjes, “Phase matching limitations of high efficiency second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron,  QE-20, 1178–1187 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

A. M. Weiner, “effect of group velocity mismatch on the measurement of ultrashort optical pulses via second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron,  19, 1276–1283 (1983).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

F. H. M. Faisal, “Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms,” J. Phys. B 6, L89 (1973).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 1945–1957 (1964).

Abel, M. J.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

E. Mevel, E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high order harmonic generation in absorbing gases,” AIP Conf. Proc. 525, 373 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Amosov, M. V.

M. V. Amosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008–2013 (1986).

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9, 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. L.

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Augé, F.

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, F. Weihe, C. Valentin, A. Rousse, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, “Global optimization of high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

W. Boutu, T. Auguste, O. Boyko, I. Sola, Ph. Balcou, L. Binazon, O. Gobert, H. Merdji, C. Valentin, E. Constant, E. Mével, and B. Carré, “High-order-harmonic generation in gas with a flat-top laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063406 (2011).
[Crossref]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Azarm, A.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Backus, S.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. R. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahabad, A.

I. Thomann, A. Bahabad, X. Liu, R. Trebino, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Characterizing isolated attosecond pulses from hollow-core waveguides using multi-cycle driving pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4611–4633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

W. Boutu, T. Auguste, O. Boyko, I. Sola, Ph. Balcou, L. Binazon, O. Gobert, H. Merdji, C. Valentin, E. Constant, E. Mével, and B. Carré, “High-order-harmonic generation in gas with a flat-top laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063406 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, F. Weihe, C. Valentin, A. Rousse, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, “Global optimization of high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367–1373 (1999).
[Crossref]

Balogh, E.

Baltuška, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaroń-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 073031 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García, C. G. Durfee, D. D. Hickstein, T. Popmintchev, A. Meier, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. J. Sola, A. Jaron-Becker, and A. Becker, “Schemes for generation of isolated attosecond pulses of pure circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 043855 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P. C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, J.A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M.M. Murnane, H.C. Kapteyn, A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond high harmonic keV X-ray waveforms driven by midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory,” J. Phys. B 38, R1–R56 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bell, M. J.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bellini, M.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. Gaarde, T. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297–300 (1998).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, J.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9, 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binazon, L.

W. Boutu, T. Auguste, O. Boyko, I. Sola, Ph. Balcou, L. Binazon, O. Gobert, H. Merdji, C. Valentin, E. Constant, E. Mével, and B. Carré, “High-order-harmonic generation in gas with a flat-top laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063406 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boutu, W.

W. Boutu, T. Auguste, O. Boyko, I. Sola, Ph. Balcou, L. Binazon, O. Gobert, H. Merdji, C. Valentin, E. Constant, E. Mével, and B. Carré, “High-order-harmonic generation in gas with a flat-top laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063406 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boyer, K.

Boyko, O.

W. Boutu, T. Auguste, O. Boyko, I. Sola, Ph. Balcou, L. Binazon, O. Gobert, H. Merdji, C. Valentin, E. Constant, E. Mével, and B. Carré, “High-order-harmonic generation in gas with a flat-top laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063406 (2011).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

E. Mevel, E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high order harmonic generation in absorbing gases,” AIP Conf. Proc. 525, 373 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, and E. Mével, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carré, B.

W. Boutu, T. Auguste, O. Boyko, I. Sola, Ph. Balcou, L. Binazon, O. Gobert, H. Merdji, C. Valentin, E. Constant, E. Mével, and B. Carré, “High-order-harmonic generation in gas with a flat-top laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063406 (2011).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P. C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
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Manus, C.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X.F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31 (1988).
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H. Mashiko, K. Oguri, and T. Sogawa, “Attosecond pulse generation in carbon K-edge region (284 eV) with sub-250 μ J driving laser using generalized double optical gating method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 171111 (2013).
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S. Kazamias, S. Daboussi, O. Guilbaud, K. Cassou, D. Ros, B. Cros, and G. Maynard, “Pressure-induced phase matching in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063405 (2011).
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McIntyre, I. A.

McPherson, A.

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C. Hernández-García, C. G. Durfee, D. D. Hickstein, T. Popmintchev, A. Meier, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. J. Sola, A. Jaron-Becker, and A. Becker, “Schemes for generation of isolated attosecond pulses of pure circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 043855 (2016).
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W. Boutu, T. Auguste, O. Boyko, I. Sola, Ph. Balcou, L. Binazon, O. Gobert, H. Merdji, C. Valentin, E. Constant, E. Mével, and B. Carré, “High-order-harmonic generation in gas with a flat-top laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063406 (2011).
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W. Boutu, T. Auguste, O. Boyko, I. Sola, Ph. Balcou, L. Binazon, O. Gobert, H. Merdji, C. Valentin, E. Constant, E. Mével, and B. Carré, “High-order-harmonic generation in gas with a flat-top laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063406 (2011).
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V. V. Strelkov, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses by spatial shaping of a femtosecond laser beam,” New J. Phys. 10, 083040 (2008).
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E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O.D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
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Miranda, M.

Mücke, O.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O.D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
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Murnane, M. M.

C. Hernández-García, C. G. Durfee, D. D. Hickstein, T. Popmintchev, A. Meier, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. J. Sola, A. Jaron-Becker, and A. Becker, “Schemes for generation of isolated attosecond pulses of pure circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 043855 (2016).
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C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaroń-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 073031 (2016).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P. C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
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I. Thomann, A. Bahabad, X. Liu, R. Trebino, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Characterizing isolated attosecond pulses from hollow-core waveguides using multi-cycle driving pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4611–4633 (2009).
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A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A,  74, 061803R (2006).
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C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
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A. R. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
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Murnane, M.M.

C. Hernández-García, J.A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M.M. Murnane, H.C. Kapteyn, A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond high harmonic keV X-ray waveforms driven by midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O.D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nagel, P. M.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[Crossref]

Neumark, D. M.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
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Nisoli, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oguri, K.

H. Mashiko, K. Oguri, and T. Sogawa, “Attosecond pulse generation in carbon K-edge region (284 eV) with sub-250 μ J driving laser using generalized double optical gating method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 171111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Paasch-Colberg, T.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9, 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

Paul, A.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A,  74, 061803R (2006).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Hernández, J. A.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, E. Conejero Jarque, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “High-order harmonic propagation in gases within the discrete dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022432 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Hernández, J.A.

C. Hernández-García, J.A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M.M. Murnane, H.C. Kapteyn, A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond high harmonic keV X-ray waveforms driven by midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the Strong-Field Approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 17, 9891–9903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pervak, V.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9, 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pescher, M.

I. Pupeza, D. Sánchez, J. Zhang, N. Lilienfein, M. Seidel, N. Karpowicz, T. Paasch-Colberg, I. Znakovskaya, M. Pescher, W. Schweinberger, V. Pervak, E. Fill, O. Pronin, Z. Wei, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, and J. Biegert, “High-power sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate,” Nat. Photonics 9, 721–724 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pfeifer, T.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[Crossref]

Plaja, L.

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaroń-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 073031 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García and L. Plaja, “Resolving multiple rescatterings in high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 023402 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P. C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, J.A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M.M. Murnane, H.C. Kapteyn, A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond high harmonic keV X-ray waveforms driven by midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, I. J. Sola, and L. Plaja, “Signature of the transversal coherence length in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043848 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García and L. Plaja, “Off-axis compensation of attosecond pulse chirp,” J. Phys. B 45, 074021 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, E. Conejero Jarque, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “High-order harmonic propagation in gases within the discrete dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022432 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the Strong-Field Approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 17, 9891–9903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Popmintchev, D.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P. C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

C. Hernández-García, C. G. Durfee, D. D. Hickstein, T. Popmintchev, A. Meier, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. J. Sola, A. Jaron-Becker, and A. Becker, “Schemes for generation of isolated attosecond pulses of pure circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 043855 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaroń-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 073031 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P. C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, J.A. Pérez-Hernández, T. Popmintchev, M.M. Murnane, H.C. Kapteyn, A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, and L. Plaja, “Zeptosecond high harmonic keV X-ray waveforms driven by midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
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Pronin, O.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optimal gas pressure, laser wavelength and pulse duration for generating bright isolated attosecond pulses. We show the attosecond pulse yields and temporal profiles as a function of the gas pressure of a 2-mm-helium-gas-cell for driving laser pulses of wavelength (λ) 0.8 μm (a)(d), 1.3 μm (b)(e) and 2 μm (c)(f) and temporal duration (τp) of 1.4 (front row) and 5.8 (back row) cycles FWHM respectively. The laser pulse is modeled by a sin2 envelope with a peak intensity chosen to match optimal phase matching conditions [22]. The yield in each lineout is divided by the gas pressure for the sake of clarity, and normalized to the yield of the attosecond pulse structure obtained at 5 torr.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time gated phase-matching mechanism for the generation of soft X-ray isolated attosecond pulses. The time-frequency analysis of the high-harmonic radiation is shown for laser driving pulses of 0.8 μm (left column) and 2 μm (right column), and 5.8 cycles FWHM pulse duration. The pressure of the generating helium cell increases from (a) 5 torr to (e) 400 torr at 0.8 μm and from (b) 5 torr to (f) 150 torr at 2 μm. The time-frequency yield is normalized in each panel. Note that in agreement with theoretical prediction in Eq. (2), isolation of attosecond pulses occurs at lower pressures for the longer wavelength laser pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Influence of group-velocity matching and absorption on the isolated attosecond pulse yields. We show the integrated yield of the central attosecond pulse as a function of gas pressure for a (a) multi-cycle (5.8) and (b) few-cycle (1.4) driving laser pulse of wavelengths 0.8 μm (red circles), 1.3 μm (green diamonds) and 2.0 μm (purple triangles). In panel (a) the dashed lines correspond to the simulations where absorption is not taken into account in the simulations. The yellow line represents the results of one-dimensional simulations at 2 μm for the sake of comparison. In panel (b), the dashed lines correspond to simulations where group velocity mismatch is not considered (absorption included), showing the relevance of group velocity walk off in the case of few-cycle laser pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Robustness of the time-gated phase-matching isolation technique against carrier-envelope-phase and intensity variations. We present the yields and temporal profile of the harmonic emission generated at a gas pressure of 150 Torr with a λ = 2 μm, τp = 5.8 cycles laser pulse, as a function of (a) the carrier-envelope-phase ϕCEO and (b) the peak intensity of the driving laser pulse. This technique appears to be robust for variations over a rather wide range of carrier-envelope-phases (from ϕCEO = −π/4 to ϕCEO = π/4), and within intensity fluctuations of about ±2.5%.

Equations (4)

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Δ k q = k q ϕ q z Δ k q f r e e + Δ k q n e u t r a l s q P [ λ e 2 m c 2 η ( t ) 4 π 2 χ 0 λ [ 1 η ( t ) ] ]
1 Δ τ Δ k q τ L q P λ L η ( t ) τ λ n P L
E j ( r d , t ) = q j s d c 2 | r d r j | × [ s d × a j ( t | r d r j | c ) ]
L w a l k o f f = t w a l k o f f π | Δ v g 1 |

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