Abstract

Selective Laser Melting (SLM) of metal powder bed layers, whereby 3D metal objects can be printed from a digital file with unprecedented design flexibility, is spurring manufacturing innovations in medical, automotive, aerospace and textile industries. Because SLM is based on raster-scanning a laser beam over each layer, the process is relatively slow compared to most traditional manufacturing methods (hours to days), thus limiting wider spread use. Here we demonstrate the use of a large area, photolithographic method for 3D metal printing, using an optically-addressable light valve (OALV) as the photomask, to print entire layers of metal powder at once. An optical sheet of multiplexed ~5 kW, 20 ms laser diode and ~1 MW, 7 ns Q-switched laser pulses are used to selectively melt each layer. The patterning of near infrared light is accomplished by imaging 470 nm light onto the transmissive OALV, which consists of polarization-selective nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between a photoconductor and transparent conductor for switching.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

T. T. Roehling, S. S. Q. Wu, S. A. Khairallah, J. D. Roehling, S. S. Soezeri, M. F. Crumb, and M. J. Matthews, “Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing,” Acta Mater. 128, 197–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

K. Shcherbin, I. Gvozdovskyy, and D. R. Evans, “Infrared sensitive liquid crystal light valve with semiconductor substrate,” Appl. Opt. 55(5), 1076–1081 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sanders, C. Elangeswaran, and J. Wulfsberg, “Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing,” J. Ind. Eng. Manag. 9, 811–833 (2016).

M. Markl and C. Körner, “Multiscale modeling of powder bed–based additive manufacturing,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 46(1), 93–123 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. Khairallah, A. T. Anderson, A. Rubenchik, and W. E. King, “Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones,” Acta Mater. 108, 36–45 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Matthews, G. Guss, S. A. Khairallah, A. M. Rubenchik, P. J. Depond, and W. E. King, “Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes,” Acta Mater. 114, 33–42 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, W. Smith, J. Jackson, B. Moran, H. Cui, D. Chen, J. Ye, N. Fang, N. Rodriguez, T. Weisgraber, and C. M. Spadaccini, “Multiscale metallic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 15(10), 1100–1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

W. E. King, A. T. Anderson, R. M. Ferencz, N. E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S. A. Khairallah, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 041304 (2015).

2013 (2)

L. Rickenbacher, T. Etter, S. Hövel, and K. Wegener, “High temperature material properties of IN738LC processed by selective laser melting (SLM) technology,” Rapid Prototyping J. 19(4), 282–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Strano, L. Hao, R. M. Everson, and K. E. Evans, “Surface roughness analysis, modelling and prediction in selective laser melting,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 213(4), 589–597 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Thijs, F. Verhaeghe, T. Craeghs, J. V. Humbeeck, and J.-P. Kruth, “A study of the micro structural evolution during selective laser melting of Ti-6Al-4V,” Acta Mater. 58(9), 3303–3312 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

P. Mercelis and J. P. Kruth, “Residual stresses in selective laser sintering and selective laser melting,” Rapid Prototyping J. 12(5), 254–265 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. P. Kruth, L. Froyen, J. Van Vaerenbergh, P. Mercelis, M. Rombouts, and B. Lauwers, “Selective laser melting of iron-based powder,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 149(1-3), 616–622 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

V. Gapontsev and W. Krupke, “Fiber lasers grow in power,” Laser Focus World 38, 83–87 (2002).

1998 (1)

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wieneravnear, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, and B. V. Markevitch, “Application of liquid-crystal light valve to real-time optical data-processing,” Opt. Eng. 17(4), 371–384 (1978).
[Crossref]

Anderson, A. T.

S. A. Khairallah, A. T. Anderson, A. Rubenchik, and W. E. King, “Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones,” Acta Mater. 108, 36–45 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. E. King, A. T. Anderson, R. M. Ferencz, N. E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S. A. Khairallah, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 041304 (2015).

Asahara, T.

Aubourg, P.

Awwal, A.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Baldis, H.

Bleha, W. P.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wieneravnear, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, and B. V. Markevitch, “Application of liquid-crystal light valve to real-time optical data-processing,” Opt. Eng. 17(4), 371–384 (1978).
[Crossref]

Borden, M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Brown, H. B.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wieneravnear, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, and B. V. Markevitch, “Application of liquid-crystal light valve to real-time optical data-processing,” Opt. Eng. 17(4), 371–384 (1978).
[Crossref]

Brunton, G.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Bude, J.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Bude, J. D.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Budge, T.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Casasent, D.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wieneravnear, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, and B. V. Markevitch, “Application of liquid-crystal light valve to real-time optical data-processing,” Opt. Eng. 17(4), 371–384 (1978).
[Crossref]

Chanteloup, J. C.

Chen, D.

X. Zheng, W. Smith, J. Jackson, B. Moran, H. Cui, D. Chen, J. Ye, N. Fang, N. Rodriguez, T. Weisgraber, and C. M. Spadaccini, “Multiscale metallic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 15(10), 1100–1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christensen, K.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Conder, A. D.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Craeghs, T.

L. Thijs, F. Verhaeghe, T. Craeghs, J. V. Humbeeck, and J.-P. Kruth, “A study of the micro structural evolution during selective laser melting of Ti-6Al-4V,” Acta Mater. 58(9), 3303–3312 (2010).
[Crossref]

Crumb, M. F.

T. T. Roehling, S. S. Q. Wu, S. A. Khairallah, J. D. Roehling, S. S. Soezeri, M. F. Crumb, and M. J. Matthews, “Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing,” Acta Mater. 128, 197–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cui, H.

X. Zheng, W. Smith, J. Jackson, B. Moran, H. Cui, D. Chen, J. Ye, N. Fang, N. Rodriguez, T. Weisgraber, and C. M. Spadaccini, “Multiscale metallic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 15(10), 1100–1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Depond, P. J.

M. J. Matthews, G. Guss, S. A. Khairallah, A. M. Rubenchik, P. J. Depond, and W. E. King, “Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes,” Acta Mater. 114, 33–42 (2016).
[Crossref]

DiNicola, J. M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Dixit, S.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Elangeswaran, C.

A. Sanders, C. Elangeswaran, and J. Wulfsberg, “Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing,” J. Ind. Eng. Manag. 9, 811–833 (2016).

Etter, T.

L. Rickenbacher, T. Etter, S. Hövel, and K. Wegener, “High temperature material properties of IN738LC processed by selective laser melting (SLM) technology,” Rapid Prototyping J. 19(4), 282–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

Evans, D. R.

Evans, K. E.

G. Strano, L. Hao, R. M. Everson, and K. E. Evans, “Surface roughness analysis, modelling and prediction in selective laser melting,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 213(4), 589–597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Everson, R. M.

G. Strano, L. Hao, R. M. Everson, and K. E. Evans, “Surface roughness analysis, modelling and prediction in selective laser melting,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 213(4), 589–597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fang, N.

X. Zheng, W. Smith, J. Jackson, B. Moran, H. Cui, D. Chen, J. Ye, N. Fang, N. Rodriguez, T. Weisgraber, and C. M. Spadaccini, “Multiscale metallic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 15(10), 1100–1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferencz, R. M.

W. E. King, A. T. Anderson, R. M. Ferencz, N. E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S. A. Khairallah, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 041304 (2015).

Folta, J. A.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Franks, M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Froyen, L.

J. P. Kruth, L. Froyen, J. Van Vaerenbergh, P. Mercelis, M. Rombouts, and B. Lauwers, “Selective laser melting of iron-based powder,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 149(1-3), 616–622 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gapontsev, V.

V. Gapontsev and W. Krupke, “Fiber lasers grow in power,” Laser Focus World 38, 83–87 (2002).

Grinberg, J.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wieneravnear, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, and B. V. Markevitch, “Application of liquid-crystal light valve to real-time optical data-processing,” Opt. Eng. 17(4), 371–384 (1978).
[Crossref]

Guss, G.

M. J. Matthews, G. Guss, S. A. Khairallah, A. M. Rubenchik, P. J. Depond, and W. E. King, “Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes,” Acta Mater. 114, 33–42 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gvozdovskyy, I.

Hao, L.

G. Strano, L. Hao, R. M. Everson, and K. E. Evans, “Surface roughness analysis, modelling and prediction in selective laser melting,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 213(4), 589–597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hareng, M.

Haynam, C.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Heebner, J.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Heebner, J. E.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Henesian, M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Hermann, M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Hodge, N. E.

W. E. King, A. T. Anderson, R. M. Ferencz, N. E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S. A. Khairallah, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 041304 (2015).

Hövel, S.

L. Rickenbacher, T. Etter, S. Hövel, and K. Wegener, “High temperature material properties of IN738LC processed by selective laser melting (SLM) technology,” Rapid Prototyping J. 19(4), 282–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huignard, J. P.

Humbeeck, J. V.

L. Thijs, F. Verhaeghe, T. Craeghs, J. V. Humbeeck, and J.-P. Kruth, “A study of the micro structural evolution during selective laser melting of Ti-6Al-4V,” Acta Mater. 58(9), 3303–3312 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hunter, S.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Jackson, J.

X. Zheng, W. Smith, J. Jackson, B. Moran, H. Cui, D. Chen, J. Ye, N. Fang, N. Rodriguez, T. Weisgraber, and C. M. Spadaccini, “Multiscale metallic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 15(10), 1100–1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamath, C.

W. E. King, A. T. Anderson, R. M. Ferencz, N. E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S. A. Khairallah, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 041304 (2015).

Kegelmeyer, L. M.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khairallah, S. A.

T. T. Roehling, S. S. Q. Wu, S. A. Khairallah, J. D. Roehling, S. S. Soezeri, M. F. Crumb, and M. J. Matthews, “Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing,” Acta Mater. 128, 197–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Khairallah, A. T. Anderson, A. Rubenchik, and W. E. King, “Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones,” Acta Mater. 108, 36–45 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Matthews, G. Guss, S. A. Khairallah, A. M. Rubenchik, P. J. Depond, and W. E. King, “Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes,” Acta Mater. 114, 33–42 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. E. King, A. T. Anderson, R. M. Ferencz, N. E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S. A. Khairallah, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 041304 (2015).

King, W. E.

S. A. Khairallah, A. T. Anderson, A. Rubenchik, and W. E. King, “Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones,” Acta Mater. 108, 36–45 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Matthews, G. Guss, S. A. Khairallah, A. M. Rubenchik, P. J. Depond, and W. E. King, “Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes,” Acta Mater. 114, 33–42 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. E. King, A. T. Anderson, R. M. Ferencz, N. E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S. A. Khairallah, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 041304 (2015).

Körner, C.

M. Markl and C. Körner, “Multiscale modeling of powder bed–based additive manufacturing,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 46(1), 93–123 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krupke, W.

V. Gapontsev and W. Krupke, “Fiber lasers grow in power,” Laser Focus World 38, 83–87 (2002).

Kruth, J. P.

P. Mercelis and J. P. Kruth, “Residual stresses in selective laser sintering and selective laser melting,” Rapid Prototyping J. 12(5), 254–265 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kruth, L. Froyen, J. Van Vaerenbergh, P. Mercelis, M. Rombouts, and B. Lauwers, “Selective laser melting of iron-based powder,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 149(1-3), 616–622 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kruth, J.-P.

L. Thijs, F. Verhaeghe, T. Craeghs, J. V. Humbeeck, and J.-P. Kruth, “A study of the micro structural evolution during selective laser melting of Ti-6Al-4V,” Acta Mater. 58(9), 3303–3312 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lauwers, B.

J. P. Kruth, L. Froyen, J. Van Vaerenbergh, P. Mercelis, M. Rombouts, and B. Lauwers, “Selective laser melting of iron-based powder,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 149(1-3), 616–622 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lipton, L. T.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wieneravnear, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, and B. V. Markevitch, “Application of liquid-crystal light valve to real-time optical data-processing,” Opt. Eng. 17(4), 371–384 (1978).
[Crossref]

Loiseaux, B.

MacGowan, B. J.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Markevitch, B. V.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wieneravnear, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, and B. V. Markevitch, “Application of liquid-crystal light valve to real-time optical data-processing,” Opt. Eng. 17(4), 371–384 (1978).
[Crossref]

Markl, M.

M. Markl and C. Körner, “Multiscale modeling of powder bed–based additive manufacturing,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 46(1), 93–123 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marley, E.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Mason, D. C.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Matthews, M. J.

T. T. Roehling, S. S. Q. Wu, S. A. Khairallah, J. D. Roehling, S. S. Soezeri, M. F. Crumb, and M. J. Matthews, “Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing,” Acta Mater. 128, 197–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Matthews, G. Guss, S. A. Khairallah, A. M. Rubenchik, P. J. Depond, and W. E. King, “Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes,” Acta Mater. 114, 33–42 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

McCarty, K.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Mercelis, P.

P. Mercelis and J. P. Kruth, “Residual stresses in selective laser sintering and selective laser melting,” Rapid Prototyping J. 12(5), 254–265 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kruth, L. Froyen, J. Van Vaerenbergh, P. Mercelis, M. Rombouts, and B. Lauwers, “Selective laser melting of iron-based powder,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 149(1-3), 616–622 (2004).
[Crossref]

Migus, A.

Miller, P.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Monticelli, M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Moran, B.

X. Zheng, W. Smith, J. Jackson, B. Moran, H. Cui, D. Chen, J. Ye, N. Fang, N. Rodriguez, T. Weisgraber, and C. M. Spadaccini, “Multiscale metallic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 15(10), 1100–1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Mullen, R. A.

Nagaya, T.

Nara, S.

Nostrand, M. C.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Reif, P. G.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wieneravnear, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, and B. V. Markevitch, “Application of liquid-crystal light valve to real-time optical data-processing,” Opt. Eng. 17(4), 371–384 (1978).
[Crossref]

Residori, S.

Rickenbacher, L.

L. Rickenbacher, T. Etter, S. Hövel, and K. Wegener, “High temperature material properties of IN738LC processed by selective laser melting (SLM) technology,” Rapid Prototyping J. 19(4), 282–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, N.

X. Zheng, W. Smith, J. Jackson, B. Moran, H. Cui, D. Chen, J. Ye, N. Fang, N. Rodriguez, T. Weisgraber, and C. M. Spadaccini, “Multiscale metallic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 15(10), 1100–1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roehling, J. D.

T. T. Roehling, S. S. Q. Wu, S. A. Khairallah, J. D. Roehling, S. S. Soezeri, M. F. Crumb, and M. J. Matthews, “Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing,” Acta Mater. 128, 197–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Roehling, T. T.

T. T. Roehling, S. S. Q. Wu, S. A. Khairallah, J. D. Roehling, S. S. Soezeri, M. F. Crumb, and M. J. Matthews, “Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing,” Acta Mater. 128, 197–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rombouts, M.

J. P. Kruth, L. Froyen, J. Van Vaerenbergh, P. Mercelis, M. Rombouts, and B. Lauwers, “Selective laser melting of iron-based powder,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 149(1-3), 616–622 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rubenchik, A.

S. A. Khairallah, A. T. Anderson, A. Rubenchik, and W. E. King, “Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones,” Acta Mater. 108, 36–45 (2016).
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Rubenchik, A. M.

M. J. Matthews, G. Guss, S. A. Khairallah, A. M. Rubenchik, P. J. Depond, and W. E. King, “Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes,” Acta Mater. 114, 33–42 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. E. King, A. T. Anderson, R. M. Ferencz, N. E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S. A. Khairallah, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 041304 (2015).

Sanders, A.

A. Sanders, C. Elangeswaran, and J. Wulfsberg, “Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing,” J. Ind. Eng. Manag. 9, 811–833 (2016).

Scanlan, M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Seppala, L.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Shcherbin, K.

Smith, W.

X. Zheng, W. Smith, J. Jackson, B. Moran, H. Cui, D. Chen, J. Ye, N. Fang, N. Rodriguez, T. Weisgraber, and C. M. Spadaccini, “Multiscale metallic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 15(10), 1100–1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soezeri, S. S.

T. T. Roehling, S. S. Q. Wu, S. A. Khairallah, J. D. Roehling, S. S. Soezeri, M. F. Crumb, and M. J. Matthews, “Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing,” Acta Mater. 128, 197–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Spadaccini, C. M.

X. Zheng, W. Smith, J. Jackson, B. Moran, H. Cui, D. Chen, J. Ye, N. Fang, N. Rodriguez, T. Weisgraber, and C. M. Spadaccini, “Multiscale metallic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 15(10), 1100–1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaeth, M. L.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stolz, C.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Strano, G.

G. Strano, L. Hao, R. M. Everson, and K. E. Evans, “Surface roughness analysis, modelling and prediction in selective laser melting,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 213(4), 589–597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T. I.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thijs, L.

L. Thijs, F. Verhaeghe, T. Craeghs, J. V. Humbeeck, and J.-P. Kruth, “A study of the micro structural evolution during selective laser melting of Ti-6Al-4V,” Acta Mater. 58(9), 3303–3312 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tse, E.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Van Vaerenbergh, J.

J. P. Kruth, L. Froyen, J. Van Vaerenbergh, P. Mercelis, M. Rombouts, and B. Lauwers, “Selective laser melting of iron-based powder,” J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 149(1-3), 616–622 (2004).
[Crossref]

Verhaeghe, F.

L. Thijs, F. Verhaeghe, T. Craeghs, J. V. Humbeeck, and J.-P. Kruth, “A study of the micro structural evolution during selective laser melting of Ti-6Al-4V,” Acta Mater. 58(9), 3303–3312 (2010).
[Crossref]

Walmer, D.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Wegener, K.

L. Rickenbacher, T. Etter, S. Hövel, and K. Wegener, “High temperature material properties of IN738LC processed by selective laser melting (SLM) technology,” Rapid Prototyping J. 19(4), 282–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wegner, P.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Wegner, P. J.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Weisgraber, T.

X. Zheng, W. Smith, J. Jackson, B. Moran, H. Cui, D. Chen, J. Ye, N. Fang, N. Rodriguez, T. Weisgraber, and C. M. Spadaccini, “Multiscale metallic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 15(10), 1100–1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitman, P. K.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics recycle loop strategy for NIF operations above UV laser-induced damage threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Widmayer, C.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Wieneravnear, E.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wieneravnear, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, and B. V. Markevitch, “Application of liquid-crystal light valve to real-time optical data-processing,” Opt. Eng. 17(4), 371–384 (1978).
[Crossref]

Williams, K.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Wolfe, J.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Wong, N.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. S. Q.

T. T. Roehling, S. S. Q. Wu, S. A. Khairallah, J. D. Roehling, S. S. Soezeri, M. F. Crumb, and M. J. Matthews, “Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing,” Acta Mater. 128, 197–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wulfsberg, J.

A. Sanders, C. Elangeswaran, and J. Wulfsberg, “Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing,” J. Ind. Eng. Manag. 9, 811–833 (2016).

Yamamoto, T.

Ye, J.

X. Zheng, W. Smith, J. Jackson, B. Moran, H. Cui, D. Chen, J. Ye, N. Fang, N. Rodriguez, T. Weisgraber, and C. M. Spadaccini, “Multiscale metallic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 15(10), 1100–1106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, X.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Diode-based Additive Manufacturing (DiAM) optical layout. Four 1007 nm, high power, laser diode arrays (~1.25 kW each) are spatially-multiplexed through a set of turning mirrors and a cylindrical lens (L1) before being re-imaged through a pair of lenses (L2, L3) and directed into a beam homogenizer. Flat-fielded light then continues through a second set of telescopic re-imaging optics (L4, L5) and on to a polarizer-compensator pair before being temporally- and wavelength-multiplexed with a 7 ns pulsed 1064 nm laser beam using a (IR) dichroic mirror. This horizontally-polarized hybrid IR laser pulse then passes through the optically-addressable light valve (OALV) where a 470 nm patterned light emitting diode (LED) beam selectively addresses a polarization (non-)rotation in the IR beam: IR light that is addressed as ‘on’ pixel passes through both the OALV and subsequent polarizer with a horizontal polarization while IR light that is unaddressed as ‘off’ pixels experience a polarization rotation to vertical at the OALV and is directed out of the optical system with a polarizer and into a beam dump. The remaining patterned IR beam is then directed onto the build plane via turning mirrors and imaging optics (L6-L8) to print a metal layer at once by melting the powder bed. (b) Expanded view of the OALV displaying the individual components responsible for selectively addressing the high power hybrid laser beam. “ARx” refers to anti-reflection coatings. Note that for clarity, the 470 nm LED light source in (b) is displayed as counter-propagating relative to the 1007/1064 nm beam; in the actual system, both 1007 and 470 nm beams are co-propagating as shown in (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of (a) original digital (binary) file, (b) 470 nm wavelength projected light pattern incident on the OALV and (c) ~1 μm wavelength hybrid beam pattern projected onto the sample plane (false color). Images shown in (b) and (c) were collected at the OALV and sample planes respectively using a 12-bit digital camera. (d) Transmission and extinction (1/leakage) performance of the OALV, demonstrating the optical response and potential for grayscale operation at intermediate 470 nm intensities, e.g. 0-10 and ~5-35 mW/cm2 for 500 and 1500 Hz drive frequencies respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Confocal scanning laser profilometry of processed powder layers. As shown, a row of 500 μm diameter laser weld spots are visible, before and after the metal powder is removed. The short pulse energy ranged from ~1.8 to 2.6 J/cm2 from left to right in 0.5 J/cm2 increments while the longer diode pulse was fixed at ~45 J/cm2. Weld spots initially visible from 0 to 7 mm along the x-axis did not adhere to the surface upon removal of the residual powder and are omitted in the after image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Montage of optical micrographs showing 500 µm-wide pillars following the deposition of three layers. The surface roughness (Ra) as a function of long and short pulse fluence is indicated as insets. Only pillars that were confirmed to have 3 complete welded layers after removing the powder are labeled with roughness measurements. Optimal operating conditions for full builds is highlighted in the Fig. (2.1, 30.7 J/cm2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Split confocal image with optical micrograph on top and height map on bottom. A 30.7 J/cm2 long pulse and 2.1 J/cm2 short pulse were used to produce the deposition shown, and corresponds to the lowest roughness from Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3D rendering of an impeller part, being sliced and sub-sectioned for printing. Green indicates the substrate plate. Red is the impeller geometry. Blue indicates the area that will be illuminated. White lines outline the individual sub-sections that are stitched together.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wide area optical image captured during demonstration of the stitching control software. Long pulse diode light is incident on a deep powder bed, which enhances the contrast in the overlap region. The bright area corresponds to incandescence due to laser heating of the powder and molten material.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

First demonstration of DiAM wide area photolithographic printing of metal layers using an optically-addressable light valve. For each build (impeller and LLNL logo) successive layers were built using a stitching approach which allowed additional efficiency to be achieved. Alternatively, scaling up overall dimension can be achieved by simply adding diodes and expanding optics, up to the energy limit of the Q-switched system (2 J).

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