Abstract

We experimentally investigate mode-division multiplexing in an elliptical ring core fiber (ERCF) that supports linearly polarized vector modes (LPV). Characterization show that the ERCF exhibits good polarization maintaining properties over eight LPV modes with effective index difference larger than 1 × 10−4. The ERCF further displays stable mode power and polarization extinction ratio when subjected to external perturbations. Crosstalk between the LPV modes, after propagating through 0.9 km ERCF, is below −14 dB. By using six LPV modes as independent data channels, we achieved the transmission of 32 Gbaud QPSK over 0.9 km ERCF without any multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) or polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) signal processing.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

H. Yan, S. Li, Z. Xie, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Design of PANDA ring-core fiber with 10 polarization-maintaining modes,” Photonics Res. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

1978 (1)

S. Kawakami and M. Ikeda, “Transmission characteristics of a two-mode optical waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(8), 608–614 (1978).
[Crossref]

Allahverdyan, K.

Amiralizadeh, S.

Arrizón, V.

Bai, N.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Control of orbital angular momentum of light with optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2451–2453 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brunet, C.

Carrada, R.

Corsi, A.

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “MIMO-Free transmission over six vector modes in a polarization maintaining elliptical ring core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2017), paper Tu2J.2.
[Crossref]

Cvijetic, N.

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Golowich, S.

González, L. A.

Gregg, P.

Han, S. R.

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, M.

S. Kawakami and M. Ikeda, “Transmission characteristics of a two-mode optical waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(8), 608–614 (1978).
[Crossref]

Ip, E.

Jung, Y.

Kanonakis, K.

Kawakami, S.

S. Kawakami and M. Ikeda, “Transmission characteristics of a two-mode optical waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(8), 608–614 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

Kristensen, P.

LaRochelle, S.

Li, G.

Li, M.-J.

Li, S.

H. Yan, S. Li, Z. Xie, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Design of PANDA ring-core fiber with 10 polarization-maintaining modes,” Photonics Res. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “MIMO-Free transmission over six vector modes in a polarization maintaining elliptical ring core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2017), paper Tu2J.2.
[Crossref]

Liñares, J.

Messaddeq, Y.

Milione, G.

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Nejad, R. M.

R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode division multiplexing using orbital angular momentum modes over 1.4-km ring core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(18), 4252–4258 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “MIMO-Free transmission over six vector modes in a polarization maintaining elliptical ring core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2017), paper Tu2J.2.
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oh, K.

Paek, U. C.

Peng, G.

Prieto, X.

Ramachandran, S.

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ruiz, U.

Rusch, L. A.

Stone, J.

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ung, B.

Vaity, P.

Wang, L.

Wang, T.

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 345–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z.

H. Yan, S. Li, Z. Xie, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Design of PANDA ring-core fiber with 10 polarization-maintaining modes,” Photonics Res. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yaman, F.

Yan, H.

H. Yan, S. Li, Z. Xie, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Design of PANDA ring-core fiber with 10 polarization-maintaining modes,” Photonics Res. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

H. Yan, S. Li, Z. Xie, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Design of PANDA ring-core fiber with 10 polarization-maintaining modes,” Photonics Res. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

H. Yan, S. Li, Z. Xie, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Design of PANDA ring-core fiber with 10 polarization-maintaining modes,” Photonics Res. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, B.

H. Yan, S. Li, Z. Xie, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Design of PANDA ring-core fiber with 10 polarization-maintaining modes,” Photonics Res. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Kawakami and M. Ikeda, “Transmission characteristics of a two-mode optical waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(8), 608–614 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 345–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Photonics Res. (1)

H. Yan, S. Li, Z. Xie, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, and B. Zhou, “Design of PANDA ring-core fiber with 10 polarization-maintaining modes,” Photonics Res. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

G. Milione, E. Ip, M.-J. Li, J. Stone, G. Peng, and T. Wang, “Spatial mode analysis of an elliptical-core, few-mode, optical fiber for MIMO-less space-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016), paper W1F.3.
[Crossref]

C. Simonneau, A. D’amato, P. Jian, G. Labroille, J.-F. Morizur, and G. Charlet, “4x50Gb/s transmission over 4.4 km of multimode OM2 fiber with direct detection using mode group multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “MIMO-Free transmission over six vector modes in a polarization maintaining elliptical ring core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2017), paper Tu2J.2.
[Crossref]

G. Milione, P. N. Ji, E. Ip, M.-J. Li, J. Stone, and G. Peng, “Real-time Bi-directional 10GbE Transmission using MIMO-less Space-division-multiplexing with Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016), paper W1F.2.
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (2516 KB)      LPV01 field profile upon perturbation
» Visualization 2: MP4 (614 KB)      LPV11a field profile upon perturbation
» Visualization 3: MP4 (1182 KB)      LPV11b field profile upton perturbation
» Visualization 4: MP4 (3411 KB)      LPV21a field profile upon perturbation

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Fiber geometry and parameter definition, b) design parameters, c) photograph of the fabricated ERCF.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) Measured mode intensity profiles at the output of a 5 m long ERCF (top row) compared to numerically calculated ones (both amplitude and phase). b) Reflection spectrum of a uniform FBG written in the ERCF.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental techniques used for excitation of linearly polarized vector modes in ERCF showing (a) a setup with a phase only spatial light modulator (SLM) (1st coupling technique), (b) the holograms programmed on the SLM in a) (see [17] for details), c) a setup with a regular optical phase plate (2nd coupling technique) and d) a schematic of the used phase plates in c). The collimator is F240APC-1550 (Thorlabs) and the SLM is PLUTO-TELCO (HOLOEYE).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the setup for the filtering and detection of the vector modes coming out from the ERCF.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic diagram for the test of mode stability in 5 m ERCF.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Power fluctuations (∆P) and examples of measured mode intensity profiles in a 5 m ERCF under external perturbations for one polarization of each mode (a) LPV01 (see Visualization 1), (b) LPV11a (see Visualization 2), (c) LPV11b (see Visualization 3) and (d) LPV21a (see Visualization 4). Polarization extinction ratios for each mode are also indicated on the graphs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental setup for the time-of-flight measurement.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Channel impulse response measurements obtained when sending and receiving the same mode: a) LPVy11a, b) LPVx11b, and c) LPVx21a. Impulse response measurement when receiving the orthogonal polarization: d) sending LPVy11a, receiving LPVx11a, e) sending LPVx11b, receiving LPVy11a, and f) sending LPVx21a, receiving LPVy21a.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental setup of MIMO-free transmission of QPSK signals over six vector modes in 0.9 km ERCF. BPG: bit pattern generator; PBC: fiber-based polarization beam combiner; PBS: free-space polarization beam splitter; BS: free-space beam splitter; HWP: half-wave plate; QWP: quarter-wave plate; ATT: optical attenuator; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; OBF: optical bandpass filter; CR: coherent receiver; LO: optical local oscillator; RTO: real-time oscilloscope.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The mode patterns measured after the SLM in the DeMUX according to the different combinations of the MUX and DeMUX phase patterns.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 a) BER vs OSNR transmission curves at 24 Gbaud; b) BER at different baud rate (the six vector mode channels are all on); c) the best and the worst constellation diagrams at 16 Gbaud and 32 Gbaud respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of design and measured Δneff.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the mode stability in ERCF.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Power transfer matrix (in dB) of the MDM system.

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