Abstract

High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources–in particular, particle contamination–for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm2 of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm2 to 9.5 J/cm2 of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (7)

R. N. Raman, S. G. Demos, N. Shen, E. Feigenbaum, R. A. Negres, S. Elhadj, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. J. Matthews, “Damage on fused silica optics caused by laser ablation of surface-bound microparticles,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2634–2647 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, M. W. Bowers, J. D. Bude, C. W. Carr, A. D. Conder, D. A. Cross, S. G. Semos, and J. M. Di Nicola, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos and R. A. Negres, “Morphology of ejected particles and impact sites on intercepting substrates following exit-surface laser damage with nanosecond pulses in silica,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011016 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (4)

2013 (2)

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Matthews, N. Shen, J. Honig, J. J. Bude, and A. Rubenchik, “Phase modulation and morphological evolution associated with surface-bound particle ablation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30(12), 3233–3242 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Identification of laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

W. Zheng, “Status of the SG-III solid-state laser facility,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(3), 032009 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

N. Fleurot, C. Cavailler, and J. Bourgade, “The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Project dedicated to inertial confinement fusion: Development and construction states,” Fusion Eng. Des. 74(1-4), 147–154 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Honig, M. Norton, W. Hollingsworth, E. Donohue, and M. Johnson, “Experimental study of 351-nm and 527-nm laser initiated surface damage on fused silica surfaces due to typical contaminants,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 129–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J. C. Birolleau, “Polishing-induced contamination of fused silica optics and laser induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10163–10171 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, T. A. Biesiada, S. N. Dixit, J. K. Lawson, J. A. Menapace, T. G. Parham, D. W. Swift, P. K. Whitman, and W. H. Williams, “NIF Final Optics System: Frequency Conversion and Beam Conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, E. L. Miller, P. Whitman, I. Thomas, P. Ehrmann, R. Maxwell, and A. Burnham, “Surface chemistry and trimethysilyl functionalization of Stober Silica Sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2-3), 349–361 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, and R. Brusasco, “Catastrophic failure of contaminated fused silica optics at 255 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 987–995 (1997).

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

W. Zapka, W. Ziemlich, and A. C. Tam, “Efficient pulsed laser removal of 0.2um sized particles for a solid surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(20), 2217–2219 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abdulla, G. M.

Adams, J. J.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, M. W. Bowers, J. D. Bude, C. W. Carr, A. D. Conder, D. A. Cross, S. G. Semos, and J. M. Di Nicola, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atherton, L. J.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

Auerbach, J. M.

Auerback, J.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Awwal, A.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Baisden, P. A.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baxamusa, S.

Bercegol, H.

Biesiada, T. A.

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, T. A. Biesiada, S. N. Dixit, J. K. Lawson, J. A. Menapace, T. G. Parham, D. W. Swift, P. K. Whitman, and W. H. Williams, “NIF Final Optics System: Frequency Conversion and Beam Conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180 (2004).
[Crossref]

Birolleau, J. C.

Bliss, E. S.

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boley, C. D.

Borden, M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Bourgade, J.

N. Fleurot, C. Cavailler, and J. Bourgade, “The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Project dedicated to inertial confinement fusion: Development and construction states,” Fusion Eng. Des. 74(1-4), 147–154 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bousquet, B.

Bowers, M. W.

Brunton, G.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Brusasco, R.

F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, and R. Brusasco, “Catastrophic failure of contaminated fused silica optics at 255 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 987–995 (1997).

Bude, J.

S. Baxamusa, P. E. Miller, L. Wong, R. Steele, N. Shen, and J. Bude, “Mitigation of organic laser damage precursors from chemical processing of fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29568–29577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Identification of laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Bude, J. D.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, M. W. Bowers, J. D. Bude, C. W. Carr, A. D. Conder, D. A. Cross, S. G. Semos, and J. M. Di Nicola, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Shen, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “Model laser damage precursors for high quality optical materials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3393–3404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bude, J. J.

M. Matthews, N. Shen, J. Honig, J. J. Bude, and A. Rubenchik, “Phase modulation and morphological evolution associated with surface-bound particle ablation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30(12), 3233–3242 (2013).
[Crossref]

Budge, T.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Burnham, A.

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, E. L. Miller, P. Whitman, I. Thomas, P. Ehrmann, R. Maxwell, and A. Burnham, “Surface chemistry and trimethysilyl functionalization of Stober Silica Sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2-3), 349–361 (2003).
[Crossref]

Carr, C.

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

Carr, C. W.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, M. W. Bowers, J. D. Bude, C. W. Carr, A. D. Conder, D. A. Cross, S. G. Semos, and J. M. Di Nicola, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Shen, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “Model laser damage precursors for high quality optical materials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3393–3404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Negres, G. M. Abdulla, D. A. Cross, Z. M. Liao, and C. W. Carr, “Probability of growth of small damage sites on the exit surface of fused silica optics,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13030–13039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carr, W.

Cavailler, C.

N. Fleurot, C. Cavailler, and J. Bourgade, “The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Project dedicated to inertial confinement fusion: Development and construction states,” Fusion Eng. Des. 74(1-4), 147–154 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chambonneau, M.

Chanal, M.

Christensen, K.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Conder, A. D.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, M. W. Bowers, J. D. Bude, C. W. Carr, A. D. Conder, D. A. Cross, S. G. Semos, and J. M. Di Nicola, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cormont, P.

Cross, D.

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

Cross, D. A.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, M. W. Bowers, J. D. Bude, C. W. Carr, A. D. Conder, D. A. Cross, S. G. Semos, and J. M. Di Nicola, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. A. Negres, G. M. Abdulla, D. A. Cross, Z. M. Liao, and C. W. Carr, “Probability of growth of small damage sites on the exit surface of fused silica optics,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13030–13039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, P.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos and R. A. Negres, “Morphology of ejected particles and impact sites on intercepting substrates following exit-surface laser damage with nanosecond pulses in silica,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011016 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. N. Raman, S. G. Demos, N. Shen, E. Feigenbaum, R. A. Negres, S. Elhadj, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. J. Matthews, “Damage on fused silica optics caused by laser ablation of surface-bound microparticles,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2634–2647 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Nicola, J. M.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, M. W. Bowers, J. D. Bude, C. W. Carr, A. D. Conder, D. A. Cross, S. G. Semos, and J. M. Di Nicola, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

DiNicola, J. M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Dixit, S.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Dixit, S. N.

Donohue, E.

J. Honig, M. Norton, W. Hollingsworth, E. Donohue, and M. Johnson, “Experimental study of 351-nm and 527-nm laser initiated surface damage on fused silica surfaces due to typical contaminants,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 129–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

Donohue, E. E.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Duchateau, G.

Dussauze, M.

Ehrmann, P.

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, E. L. Miller, P. Whitman, I. Thomas, P. Ehrmann, R. Maxwell, and A. Burnham, “Surface chemistry and trimethysilyl functionalization of Stober Silica Sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2-3), 349–361 (2003).
[Crossref]

Elhadj, S.

Erbert, G. V.

Fargin, E.

Feigenbaum, E.

Feit, M.

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feit, M. D.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Identification of laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feldman, T.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fleurot, N.

N. Fleurot, C. Cavailler, and J. Bourgade, “The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Project dedicated to inertial confinement fusion: Development and construction states,” Fusion Eng. Des. 74(1-4), 147–154 (2005).
[Crossref]

Folta, J.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Folta, J. A.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Franks, M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Geng, F.

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genin, F. Y.

F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, and R. Brusasco, “Catastrophic failure of contaminated fused silica optics at 255 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 987–995 (1997).

Geraghty, P.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guss, G.

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

Hackel, R. P.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hanna, M. L.

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, E. L. Miller, P. Whitman, I. Thomas, P. Ehrmann, R. Maxwell, and A. Burnham, “Surface chemistry and trimethysilyl functionalization of Stober Silica Sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2-3), 349–361 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hawley, R. A.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haynam, C.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Haynam, C. A.

Heebner, J.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Heebner, J. E.

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heestand, G. M.

Henesian, M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Henesian, M. A.

Hermann, M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Hermann, M. R.

Hollingsworth, W.

J. Honig, M. Norton, W. Hollingsworth, E. Donohue, and M. Johnson, “Experimental study of 351-nm and 527-nm laser initiated surface damage on fused silica surfaces due to typical contaminants,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 129–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hollingsworth, W. G.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Honig, J.

M. Matthews, N. Shen, J. Honig, J. J. Bude, and A. Rubenchik, “Phase modulation and morphological evolution associated with surface-bound particle ablation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30(12), 3233–3242 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Honig, M. Norton, W. Hollingsworth, E. Donohue, and M. Johnson, “Experimental study of 351-nm and 527-nm laser initiated surface damage on fused silica surfaces due to typical contaminants,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 129–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huner, S.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Jancaitis, K. S.

Jiang, X.

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, G.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johnson, M.

J. Honig, M. Norton, W. Hollingsworth, E. Donohue, and M. Johnson, “Experimental study of 351-nm and 527-nm laser initiated surface damage on fused silica surfaces due to typical contaminants,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 129–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kalantar, D. H.

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kegelmeyer, L. M.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kozlowski, M. R.

F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, and R. Brusasco, “Catastrophic failure of contaminated fused silica optics at 255 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 987–995 (1997).

Lamaignere, L.

Lamaignère, L.

Lambert, S.

Land, T. A.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

Larkin, G.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laurence, T.

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laurence, T. A.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Identification of laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Lawson, J. K.

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, T. A. Biesiada, S. N. Dixit, J. K. Lawson, J. A. Menapace, T. G. Parham, D. W. Swift, P. K. Whitman, and W. H. Williams, “NIF Final Optics System: Frequency Conversion and Beam Conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liao, Z. M.

Liu, H.

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luthi, R. L.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ly, S.

MacGowan, B. J.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Manes, K. R.

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, M. W. Bowers, J. D. Bude, C. W. Carr, A. D. Conder, D. A. Cross, S. G. Semos, and J. M. Di Nicola, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. Haynam, P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, E. Moses, J. R. Murray, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, R. Patterson, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, M. Spaeth, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. Van Wonterghem, “National Ignition Facility laser performance status,” Appl. Opt. 46(16), 3276–3303 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marley, E.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Marshall, C. D.

Mason, D. C.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Matthews, M.

M. Matthews, N. Shen, J. Honig, J. J. Bude, and A. Rubenchik, “Phase modulation and morphological evolution associated with surface-bound particle ablation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30(12), 3233–3242 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matthews, M. J.

Maxwell, R.

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, E. L. Miller, P. Whitman, I. Thomas, P. Ehrmann, R. Maxwell, and A. Burnham, “Surface chemistry and trimethysilyl functionalization of Stober Silica Sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2-3), 349–361 (2003).
[Crossref]

McCarty, K.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Mehta, N. C.

Menapace, J.

Menapace, J. A.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Identification of laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, T. A. Biesiada, S. N. Dixit, J. K. Lawson, J. A. Menapace, T. G. Parham, D. W. Swift, P. K. Whitman, and W. H. Williams, “NIF Final Optics System: Frequency Conversion and Beam Conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miller, E. L.

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, E. L. Miller, P. Whitman, I. Thomas, P. Ehrmann, R. Maxwell, and A. Burnham, “Surface chemistry and trimethysilyl functionalization of Stober Silica Sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2-3), 349–361 (2003).
[Crossref]

Miller, P.

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Miller, P. E.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Baxamusa, P. E. Miller, L. Wong, R. Steele, N. Shen, and J. Bude, “Mitigation of organic laser damage precursors from chemical processing of fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29568–29577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Identification of laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Mirkarimi, P. B.

Monticelli, M.

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Monticelli, M. V.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moses, E.

Murray, J. R.

Natoli, J. Y.

Neauport, J.

Néauport, J.

Negres, R. A.

Nielsen, N.

Norton, M.

J. Honig, M. Norton, W. Hollingsworth, E. Donohue, and M. Johnson, “Experimental study of 351-nm and 527-nm laser initiated surface damage on fused silica surfaces due to typical contaminants,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 129–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

Norton, M. A.

S. R. Qiu, M. A. Norton, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, C. D. Boley, A. Rigatti, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. J. Stolz, and M. J. Matthews, “Impact of laser-contaminant interaction on the performance of the protective capping layer of 1 ω high-reflection mirror coatings,” Appl. Opt. 54(29), 8607–8616 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nostrand, M.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nostrand, M. C.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. Haynam, P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, E. Moses, J. R. Murray, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, R. Patterson, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, M. Spaeth, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. Van Wonterghem, “National Ignition Facility laser performance status,” Appl. Opt. 46(16), 3276–3303 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Orth, C. D.

Parham, T. G.

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, T. A. Biesiada, S. N. Dixit, J. K. Lawson, J. A. Menapace, T. G. Parham, D. W. Swift, P. K. Whitman, and W. H. Williams, “NIF Final Optics System: Frequency Conversion and Beam Conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180 (2004).
[Crossref]

Patterson, R.

Peterson, J.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfiffer, M.

Pilon, F.

Qiao, L.

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, S. R.

Raman, R. N.

Ravizza, D.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ravizza, F.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reyné, S.

Rigatti, A.

Rubenchik, A.

M. Matthews, N. Shen, J. Honig, J. J. Bude, and A. Rubenchik, “Phase modulation and morphological evolution associated with surface-bound particle ablation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30(12), 3233–3242 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rubenchik, A. M.

R. N. Raman, S. G. Demos, N. Shen, E. Feigenbaum, R. A. Negres, S. Elhadj, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. J. Matthews, “Damage on fused silica optics caused by laser ablation of surface-bound microparticles,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2634–2647 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Qiu, M. A. Norton, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, C. D. Boley, A. Rigatti, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. J. Stolz, and M. J. Matthews, “Impact of laser-contaminant interaction on the performance of the protective capping layer of 1 ω high-reflection mirror coatings,” Appl. Opt. 54(29), 8607–8616 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Runkel, M. J.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sacks, R. A.

Scanlan, M.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Sell, W. D.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Semos, S. G.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, M. W. Bowers, J. D. Bude, C. W. Carr, A. D. Conder, D. A. Cross, S. G. Semos, and J. M. Di Nicola, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Seppala, L.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Shaw, M. J.

Shen, N.

R. N. Raman, S. G. Demos, N. Shen, E. Feigenbaum, R. A. Negres, S. Elhadj, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. J. Matthews, “Damage on fused silica optics caused by laser ablation of surface-bound microparticles,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2634–2647 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Baxamusa, P. E. Miller, L. Wong, R. Steele, N. Shen, and J. Bude, “Mitigation of organic laser damage precursors from chemical processing of fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29568–29577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shen, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “Model laser damage precursors for high quality optical materials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3393–3404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Matthews, N. Shen, J. Honig, J. J. Bude, and A. Rubenchik, “Phase modulation and morphological evolution associated with surface-bound particle ablation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30(12), 3233–3242 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Identification of laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spaeth, M.

Spaeth, M. L.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, M. W. Bowers, J. D. Bude, C. W. Carr, A. D. Conder, D. A. Cross, S. G. Semos, and J. M. Di Nicola, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Speck, D. R.

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Standly, J. A.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Steele, R.

S. Baxamusa, P. E. Miller, L. Wong, R. Steele, N. Shen, and J. Bude, “Mitigation of organic laser damage precursors from chemical processing of fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29568–29577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Steele, W.

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

Steele, W. A.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Identification of laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Stolz, C.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Stolz, C. J.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. R. Qiu, M. A. Norton, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, C. D. Boley, A. Rigatti, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. J. Stolz, and M. J. Matthews, “Impact of laser-contaminant interaction on the performance of the protective capping layer of 1 ω high-reflection mirror coatings,” Appl. Opt. 54(29), 8607–8616 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, L.

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suratwala, T.

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Identification of laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, E. L. Miller, P. Whitman, I. Thomas, P. Ehrmann, R. Maxwell, and A. Burnham, “Surface chemistry and trimethysilyl functionalization of Stober Silica Sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2-3), 349–361 (2003).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T. I.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutton, S. B.

Swift, D. W.

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, T. A. Biesiada, S. N. Dixit, J. K. Lawson, J. A. Menapace, T. G. Parham, D. W. Swift, P. K. Whitman, and W. H. Williams, “NIF Final Optics System: Frequency Conversion and Beam Conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tam, A. C.

W. Zapka, W. Ziemlich, and A. C. Tam, “Efficient pulsed laser removal of 0.2um sized particles for a solid surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(20), 2217–2219 (1991).
[Crossref]

Taranowski, M.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thomas, I.

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, E. L. Miller, P. Whitman, I. Thomas, P. Ehrmann, R. Maxwell, and A. Burnham, “Surface chemistry and trimethysilyl functionalization of Stober Silica Sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2-3), 349–361 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thomas, I. M.

Trenholme, J. B.

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tse, E.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

Vickers, J. L.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Walmer, D.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wegner, P.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Wegner, P. J.

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. Haynam, P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, E. Moses, J. R. Murray, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, R. Patterson, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, M. Spaeth, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. Van Wonterghem, “National Ignition Facility laser performance status,” Appl. Opt. 46(16), 3276–3303 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, T. A. Biesiada, S. N. Dixit, J. K. Lawson, J. A. Menapace, T. G. Parham, D. W. Swift, P. K. Whitman, and W. H. Williams, “NIF Final Optics System: Frequency Conversion and Beam Conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weiland, T. L.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Welday, B.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

White, R. K.

Whitman, P.

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, E. L. Miller, P. Whitman, I. Thomas, P. Ehrmann, R. Maxwell, and A. Burnham, “Surface chemistry and trimethysilyl functionalization of Stober Silica Sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2-3), 349–361 (2003).
[Crossref]

Whitman, P. K.

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, T. A. Biesiada, S. N. Dixit, J. K. Lawson, J. A. Menapace, T. G. Parham, D. W. Swift, P. K. Whitman, and W. H. Williams, “NIF Final Optics System: Frequency Conversion and Beam Conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180 (2004).
[Crossref]

Widmayer, C.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Widmayer, C. C.

Williams, K.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Williams, W. H.

Wolfe, J.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Wong, L.

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Baxamusa, P. E. Miller, L. Wong, R. Steele, N. Shen, and J. Bude, “Mitigation of organic laser damage precursors from chemical processing of fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29568–29577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wong, L. L.

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Identification of laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Wong, N.

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, W.

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S. T.

Ye, X.

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zapka, W.

W. Zapka, W. Ziemlich, and A. C. Tam, “Efficient pulsed laser removal of 0.2um sized particles for a solid surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(20), 2217–2219 (1991).
[Crossref]

Zheng, W.

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zheng, “Status of the SG-III solid-state laser facility,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(3), 032009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ziemlich, W.

W. Zapka, W. Ziemlich, and A. C. Tam, “Efficient pulsed laser removal of 0.2um sized particles for a solid surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(20), 2217–2219 (1991).
[Crossref]

Zu, X.

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. Zapka, W. Ziemlich, and A. C. Tam, “Efficient pulsed laser removal of 0.2um sized particles for a solid surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(20), 2217–2219 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fus. Sci. Technol. (4)

M. L. Spaeth, P. J. Wegner, T. I. Suratwala, M. C. Nostrand, J. D. Bude, A. D. Conder, J. A. Folta, J. E. Heebner, L. M. Kegelmeyer, B. J. MacGowan, D. C. Mason, M. J. Matthews, and P. K. Whitman, “Optics Recycle Loop Strategy for NIF Operations Above UV Laser-induced Damage Threshold,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 265–294 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Spaeth, K. R. Manes, D. H. Kalantar, P. E. Miller, J. E. Heebner, E. S. Bliss, D. R. Speck, T. G. Parham, P. K. Whitman, and P. J. Wegner, “Description of the NIF laser,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 25–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, J. J. Adams, M. W. Bowers, J. D. Bude, C. W. Carr, A. D. Conder, D. A. Cross, S. G. Semos, and J. M. Di Nicola, “Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 146–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. A. Baisden, L. J. Atherton, R. A. Hawley, T. A. Land, J. A. Menapace, P. E. Miller, M. J. Runkel, M. L. Spaeth, C. J. Stolz, T. I. Suratwala, P. J. Wegner, and L. L. Wong, “Large Optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69(1), 295–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fusion Eng. Des. (1)

N. Fleurot, C. Cavailler, and J. Bourgade, “The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Project dedicated to inertial confinement fusion: Development and construction states,” Fusion Eng. Des. 74(1-4), 147–154 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, E. L. Miller, P. Whitman, I. Thomas, P. Ehrmann, R. Maxwell, and A. Burnham, “Surface chemistry and trimethysilyl functionalization of Stober Silica Sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2-3), 349–361 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

M. Matthews, N. Shen, J. Honig, J. J. Bude, and A. Rubenchik, “Phase modulation and morphological evolution associated with surface-bound particle ablation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30(12), 3233–3242 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

W. Zheng, “Status of the SG-III solid-state laser facility,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(3), 032009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. G. Demos and R. A. Negres, “Morphology of ejected particles and impact sites on intercepting substrates following exit-surface laser damage with nanosecond pulses in silica,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

N. Shen, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “Model laser damage precursors for high quality optical materials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3393–3404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Negres, G. M. Abdulla, D. A. Cross, Z. M. Liao, and C. W. Carr, “Probability of growth of small damage sites on the exit surface of fused silica optics,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13030–13039 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Raman, S. G. Demos, N. Shen, E. Feigenbaum, R. A. Negres, S. Elhadj, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. J. Matthews, “Damage on fused silica optics caused by laser ablation of surface-bound microparticles,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2634–2647 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Baxamusa, P. E. Miller, L. Wong, R. Steele, N. Shen, and J. Bude, “Mitigation of organic laser damage precursors from chemical processing of fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29568–29577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J. C. Birolleau, “Polishing-induced contamination of fused silica optics and laser induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10163–10171 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pfiffer, P. Cormont, E. Fargin, B. Bousquet, M. Dussauze, S. Lambert, and J. Néauport, “Effects of deep wet etching in HF/HNO3 and KOH solutions on the laser damage resistance and surface quality of fused silica optics at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4607–4620 (2017).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (10)

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Identification of laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Bude, P. Miller, T. Suratwala, T. Laurence, W. Steele, S. Baxamusa, L. Wong, C. Carr, D. Cross, M. Monticelli, M. Feit, and G. Guss, “Silica laser damage mechanisms, precursors and their mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92307S (2014).

J. Folta, M. Nostrand, J. Honig, N. Wong, F. Ravizza, P. Geraghty, M. Taranowski, G. Johnson, G. Larkin, D. Ravizza, J. Peterson, B. Welday, and P. Wegner, “Mitigation of laser damage on National Ignition Facility Optics in Volume Production,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 88850 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, M. Henesian, C. Haynam, S. Huner, K. Christensen, N. Wong, L. Seppala, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, M. Scanlan, T. Budge, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “A programmable beam shaping system for tailoring the profile of high fluence laser beams,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421C (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, and R. Brusasco, “Catastrophic failure of contaminated fused silica optics at 255 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 987–995 (1997).

J. Honig, M. Norton, W. Hollingsworth, E. Donohue, and M. Johnson, “Experimental study of 351-nm and 527-nm laser initiated surface damage on fused silica surfaces due to typical contaminants,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 129–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, T. A. Biesiada, S. N. Dixit, J. K. Lawson, J. A. Menapace, T. G. Parham, D. W. Swift, P. K. Whitman, and W. H. Williams, “NIF Final Optics System: Frequency Conversion and Beam Conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 180 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Standly, J. Honig, J. Auerback, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A larger aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

X. Ye, J. Huang, H. Liu, F. Geng, L. Sun, X. Jiang, W. Wu, L. Qiao, X. Zu, and W. Zheng, “Advanced mitigation process (AMP) for improving laser damage threshold of fused silica optics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

P. E. Miller, T. Suratwala, J. Bude, N. Shen, W. Steele, T. Laurence, M. Feit, and L. Wong, “Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage,” US Patent 8,313,662, 4/7/2011.

P. Vinini and M. Nicolaizeua, “LMJ: overview of recent advancements and very first experiments,” Photonics West 2015 – LASE, Feb 12 (2015).

Borofloat glass: Schott North America, Duryea Pa. 18642 http://www.us.schott.com/d/borofloat/23052e97-2e03-43e9-996b-267978964942/1.2/borofloat33_broschure_us_web_ds.pdf

Supergrey absorbing glass: supergrey is a highly absorptive soda lime glass doped with several transition metals (Fe,Ti) http://www.pilkington.com/north-america/usa/english/products/bp/byben .

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic beam-line layout for the Final Optics Assembly (FOA) of the NIF laser as shown in cross-section. Starting from the left, 527 nm light and 1053 nm light are frequency combined to 351 nm (UV) light by the Third Harmonic Generator crystal (THG) made of DKDP (Deuterated Potassium DiHydrogen Phosphate). UV light proceeds through the wedged focusing lens (WFL), through the Grating Debris Shield (GDS), and exits the FOA through the disposable debris shield (DDS), focusing at the center of the target chamber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Damage density versus 351nm, 3nsG fluence as measured on a series of 5 cm diameter silica samples using the off-line (OSL) laser test facility. Three series of samples are shown including a typical AMP2 Optics Processing Facility (OPF) witness sample, a typical AMP3 OPF witness sample, and an AMP3 sample processed using a small optics laboratory process (the data point at 21 J/cm2 is taken from the tests in (b).) The process variability observed between the production scale OPF AMP2 process and the highest quality AMP3 laboratory scale process is shaded. (b) Fluence histogram (area tested per unit fluence) of shots on multiple OPF AMP3 samples totaling 110 cm2. The mean fluence is about 15 J/cm2 and a total of two sites were initiated for these shots. The mean fluence of a 2 MJ NIF shot and a 3 MJ NIF shot are shown for reference. A plot of high fluence damage density for a single OPF AMP3 witness sample is shown along with an extrapolation to low fluence which yields 2 damage sites over 110 cm2. This damage density corresponding to one site per large optic (GDS) is also indicated in the figure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Plot of locations on a GDS corresponding to sites of pre-existing particles detected pre-shot with color codes corresponding to their fate. Yellow: particle removed by a single laser shot; green: particle unchanged (outside of the beam area as shown by the black square outline); cyan: a “splat” of a pre-existing particle as defined in the text. Blue points: new splats (no pre-existing particle) after the laser shot; red points: new particles after the laser shot. (b) Particle locations observed after 20 additional shots at approximately 6 J/cm2 – beam area indicated on the figure along with an arrow pointing in the gravity down direction. Particle accumulation occurs below the beam area with a relatively constant density inside the beam area.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scanning optical images of ISBEs found on the input surface of a laser exposed DDS. Those on the upper left and lower right have completely vented to the input surface. The other two ISBEs have only partially erupted.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Laser driven deposition, sample A: geometry for ISBE particle damage experiment performed in OSL. 351 nm light propagates from right to left through the Sample A to the ISBE damage site on the input surface of the DDS sample. Particles ejected from the ISBE at high velocity form a cone with approximately a 45-degree angle directly striking the collector Sample A 4 cm away. (b) Cold particle deposition, Sample B: loosely bound particles deposited on Sample A are mechanically dislodged and collected at low velocity on Sample B. (c) Damage test geometry for particles from samples of type A and B.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) ISBE generated particle size histograms from a 650 μm ISBE produced at 11 J/cm2 and 7 J/cm2; (b) Probability of damage after two shots at 9 J/cm2 for particles deposited directly by laser-driven line-of-sight sources (samples of type A, 1 and 2) compared to the probability of damage for cold transferred particles (samples of type B, 3 and 4).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of ISBEs particles on catcher optics: (a) before laser damage shot; (b) after laser damage shot
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Etch of substrate near ISBE particles on a fused silica catcher reveals small closed fractures proximate to the particle impacts: (a) pre-etch scanning optical microscope image; (b) post-etch scanning optical microscope image; (c) post-etch SEM image.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Use of a Fused Silica Debris Screen (FSDS) in four beam-lines of on-line damage Experiment 1 to block ISBE particles from reaching the GDS optic under test.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Scanning optical microscope images of particles on the GDS optics in the eight beam-lines employed in on-line damage Experiment 1 shown before clean and rinse processes. Beam-lines are grouped into quads – here quad 14 top (Q14T) and quad 14 bottom (Q14B); beam-lines in Q14T have their exit surfaces facing down with respect to gravity and Q14B beam-line face up. Fused silica debris screens (FSDS) were employed on the top four beam-lines to block ISBEs. Numbers on each beam-line indicate the total number of particle above 10 μm.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Post-clean scanning optical microscope images for the optics shown in Fig. 10 for on-line damage Experiment 1. The black symbols denote growing damage sites. The total number of growing sites (NG) are labelled in blue on each optic, and the number of ISBEs detected for each beam-line and their approximate volume are labelled in green.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Armor glass damage and ISBE particle sources.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Mitigations for armor glass damage and ISBE particle sources tested in on-line damage experiment 2.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Summary of environmental particle experiments (non-shot) performed on NIF beamlines compared with data from optics observed after 20 laser shots. Multiple numbers for a given experiment (row in the table) correspond to multiple experiments.

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Table 2 Orientation dependence on particle number and its relationship to GDS damage (both sites likely to grow and sites obviously growing are given).

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Table 3 Table summarizing the results from on-line damage Experiment 2.

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Table 4 Summary of the results from on-line damage Experiment 2 by mitigation type.

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