Abstract

We report an electrically-switchable two-dimensional liquid crystal (LC) phase grating device for window display applications. The device consists of the top and bottom substrates with crossed interdigitated electrodes and vertically-aligned LCs sandwiched between the two substrates. The device, switchable between the transparent and translucent states by applying an electric field, can provide high haze by the strong diffraction effect thanks to a large spatial phase difference with little dependence on the azimuth angle. We found that the device has outstanding features, such as a low operating voltage, high transparency, and wide viewing angle characteristics in the transparent state and high haze in the translucent state. Moreover, we achieved submillisecond switching between transparent and translucent states by employing the overdrive scheme and a vertical trigger pulse.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  3. M. Honma, K. Yamamoto, and T. Nose, “Periodic reverse-twist nematic domains obtained by microrubbing patterns,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5415–5419 (2004).
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  4. V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J.-T. Sun, X.-W. Lin, H.-Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  22. D. Xu, L. Rao, C.-D. Tu, and S.-T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Sub-millisecond switching of hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(12), 1088–1092 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

L. Weng, A. Varanytsia, S. H. Lee, and L.-C. Chien, “High-efficiency and fast-switching field-induced tunable phase grating using polymer-stabilized in-plane switching liquid crystals with vertical alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125504 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Interdigitated pixel electrodes with alternating tilts for fast fringe-field switching of liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27569–27576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

D. Xu, G. Tan, and S.-T. Wu, “Large-angle and high-efficiency tunable phase grating using fringe field switching liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12274–12285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Sub-millisecond switching of hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(12), 1088–1092 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. Xu, L. Rao, C.-D. Tu, and S.-T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. Lin, H. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J.-T. Sun, X.-W. Lin, H.-Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, “Liquid-crystal photonics applications,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 081202 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. Honma, K. Yamamoto, and T. Nose, “Periodic reverse-twist nematic domains obtained by microrubbing patterns,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5415–5419 (2004).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.-I.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beeckman, J.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, “Liquid-crystal photonics applications,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 081202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chien, L.-C.

L. Weng, A. Varanytsia, S. H. Lee, and L.-C. Chien, “High-efficiency and fast-switching field-induced tunable phase grating using polymer-stabilized in-plane switching liquid crystals with vertical alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125504 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

Chigrinov, V. G.

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, T.-H.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Interdigitated pixel electrodes with alternating tilts for fast fringe-field switching of liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27569–27576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Sub-millisecond switching of hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(12), 1088–1092 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

Cui, H.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. Lin, H. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cui, H.-Q.

Dong, C.-Y.

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Honma, M.

M. Honma, K. Yamamoto, and T. Nose, “Periodic reverse-twist nematic domains obtained by microrubbing patterns,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5415–5419 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. Lin, H. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J.-T. Sun, X.-W. Lin, H.-Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, J.-W.

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D. L.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kapoustine, V.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kazakevitch, A.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. C.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-W.

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Sub-millisecond switching of hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(12), 1088–1092 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-H.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

Lee, C. H.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

L. Weng, A. Varanytsia, S. H. Lee, and L.-C. Chien, “High-efficiency and fast-switching field-induced tunable phase grating using polymer-stabilized in-plane switching liquid crystals with vertical alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125504 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. Lin, H. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Lin, X.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. Lin, H. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.-W.

Lu, J.-G.

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. Lin, H. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.-Q.

Manohar, R.

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, “Liquid-crystal photonics applications,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 081202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nose, T.

M. Honma, K. Yamamoto, and T. Nose, “Periodic reverse-twist nematic domains obtained by microrubbing patterns,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5415–5419 (2004).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.-W.

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H. S.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Park, I. C.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Park, J. S.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.-J.

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pozhidaev, E. P.

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiang, J.

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rao, L.

D. Xu, L. Rao, C.-D. Tu, and S.-T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rho, B. G.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

Senyuk, B. I.

Shen, D.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. Lin, H. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H.-P.

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shin, S. T.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smalyukh, I. I.

So, V.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[Crossref]

Souk, J. H.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, A.

Srivastava, A. K.

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Su, Y.

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.-T.

Tam, R.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tan, G.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Xu, G. Tan, and S.-T. Wu, “Large-angle and high-efficiency tunable phase grating using fringe field switching liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12274–12285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, C.-D.

D. Xu, L. Rao, C.-D. Tu, and S.-T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vanbrabant, P. J. M.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, “Liquid-crystal photonics applications,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 081202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Varanytsia, A.

L. Weng, A. Varanytsia, S. H. Lee, and L.-C. Chien, “High-efficiency and fast-switching field-induced tunable phase grating using polymer-stabilized in-plane switching liquid crystals with vertical alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125504 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vithana, H.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. Lin, H. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weng, L.

L. Weng, A. Varanytsia, S. H. Lee, and L.-C. Chien, “High-efficiency and fast-switching field-induced tunable phase grating using polymer-stabilized in-plane switching liquid crystals with vertical alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125504 (2016).
[Crossref]

Weng, Y.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, H. S.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Woo, J.-H.

Wu, S.-T.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Xu, G. Tan, and S.-T. Wu, “Large-angle and high-efficiency tunable phase grating using fringe field switching liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12274–12285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Xu, L. Rao, C.-D. Tu, and S.-T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D.

D. Xu, G. Tan, and S.-T. Wu, “Large-angle and high-efficiency tunable phase grating using fringe field switching liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12274–12285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Xu, L. Rao, C.-D. Tu, and S.-T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

Yamamoto, K.

M. Honma, K. Yamamoto, and T. Nose, “Periodic reverse-twist nematic domains obtained by microrubbing patterns,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5415–5419 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

Ye, Z.-C.

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoon, T.-H.

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Interdigitated pixel electrodes with alternating tilts for fast fringe-field switching of liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27569–27576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Sub-millisecond switching of hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(12), 1088–1092 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. Lin, H. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhong, E.-W.

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. Lin, H. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.-L.

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5(4), 047118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. K. Srivastava, E. P. Pozhidaev, V. G. Chigrinov, and R. Manohar, “Single walled carbon nano-tube, ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: Excellent diffractive tool,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201106 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, I. C. Park, B. G. Rho, J. S. Park, H. S. Park, and C. H. Lee, “Rubbing-free, vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal display controlled by in-plane field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(19), 2851–2853 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Honma, K. Yamamoto, and T. Nose, “Periodic reverse-twist nematic domains obtained by microrubbing patterns,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5415–5419 (2004).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Zhu, J.-G. Lu, J. Qiang, E.-W. Zhong, Z.-C. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C.-Y. Dong, Y. Su, and H.-P. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (3)

D. Xu, L. Rao, C.-D. Tu, and S.-T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Sub-millisecond switching of hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(12), 1088–1092 (2014).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Weng, A. Varanytsia, S. H. Lee, and L.-C. Chien, “High-efficiency and fast-switching field-induced tunable phase grating using polymer-stabilized in-plane switching liquid crystals with vertical alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125504 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. Lin, H. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, “Liquid-crystal photonics applications,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 081202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sci. Rep. (2)

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, G. Tan, Y. Huang, Y. Weng, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-T. Wu, “A low voltage liquid crystal phase grating with switchable diffraction angles,” Sci. Rep. 7, 39923 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, M. Jeon, J. Heo, D. Sagong, J. Kim, and J. Souk, “Reducing gray-level response to one frame dynamic capacitance compensation,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 32(1), 1260–1263 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Device structures and LC director configurations of (a) 1-D and (b) 2-D grating cells.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated phase profiles of the output light along (a) vertical (V), horizontal (H), and (b) diagonal (D) directions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured voltage-dependent diffraction efficiency for the zeroth order of the vertical (V), horizontal (H), and diagonal (D) polarization. Diffraction patterns of (b) 1-D and (c) 2-D grating cells.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for evaluation of the optical performance of the fabricated cells.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The measured haze values of the fabricated 1-D and 2-D grating cells as functions of the applied voltage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured (a) total transmittance (Tt), specular transmittance (Ts), and (b) haze of the fabricated 2-D grating cells as functions of the applied voltage with the cell gap as a parameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Viewing angle dependence of the fabricated 2-D grating cell with a cell gap of 20 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Temporal switching behavior of the fabricated 2-D grating cell driven with (b) the overdrive and a vertical trigger pulse.

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