Abstract

We have proposed an optical cavity based biosensor using a differential detection method for point-of-care diagnostics. For experimental demonstration of the proposed device using a two-laser system through refractive index measurements, an optical cavity structure is designed, fabricated, and measured. The differential value calculated with intensities of two different wavelengths has a larger responsivity with respect to the refractive index change as compared with the intesity of an individual wavelength. However, the repeatability test shows that the two-laser system has a tight fabrication tolerance due to its small dynamic range. In this paper, we introduce a three-laser system for an optical cavity sensor with a chained differential detection method and present the experimental measurement results showing a large dynamic range and large fabrication tolerance. The measured dynamic range of this system is more than three times greater than that of the two-laser system. The repeatability test using the three-laser system demonstrates a larger fabrication tolerance as a result of the increased dynamic range.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (1)

R. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. Li, X. Yang, K. Wang, and W. Nie, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of microRNA and cancer cell using multiple signal amplification strategy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 87, 433–438 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. Abayzeed, R. J. Smith, K. F. Webb, M. G. Somekh, and C. W. See, “Responsivity of the differential-intensity surface plasmon resonance instrument,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 235, 627–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2013 (1)

S. D. Gan and K. R. Patel, “Enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(9), e12 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. J. Gruhl, B. E. Rapp, and K. Länge, “Biosensors for diagnostic applications,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 133, 115–148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, D. Duval, J. Osmond, and L. M. Lechuga, “Advanced photonic biosensors for point-of-care diagnostics,” Procedia Eng. 25, 71–75 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. W. Noh, R. R. Anderson, S. Kim, W. Hu, and G. P. Nordin, “Sensitivity enhancement of differential splitter-based transduction for photonic microcantilever arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(15), 155501 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. E. Choi, J. W. Kwak, and J. W. Park, “Nanotechnology for early cancer detection,” Sensors (Basel) 10(1), 428–455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

I. E. Tothill, “Biosensors for cancer markers diagnosis,” Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 20(1), 55–62 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Electrochemical biosensors: towards point-of-care cancer diagnostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1887–1892 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Q. Zhang, S. Boussaad, and N. J. Tao, “High-performance differential surface plasmon resonance sensor using quadrant cell photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 150–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abayzeed, S. A.

S. A. Abayzeed, R. J. Smith, K. F. Webb, M. G. Somekh, and C. W. See, “Responsivity of the differential-intensity surface plasmon resonance instrument,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 235, 627–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Noh, R. R. Anderson, S. Kim, W. Hu, and G. P. Nordin, “Sensitivity enhancement of differential splitter-based transduction for photonic microcantilever arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(15), 155501 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bailey, R. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boussaad, S.

H. Q. Zhang, S. Boussaad, and N. J. Tao, “High-performance differential surface plasmon resonance sensor using quadrant cell photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 150–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boyle, D.

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brake, J. H.

S. Cho, J. H. Brake, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9332, 93320Z (2015).
[Crossref]

Brown, K.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bujana, A.

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

Camerini, D.

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chae, J.

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.

S. Cho, J. H. Brake, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9332, 93320Z (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Rho, S. Cho, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Demonstration of an optical cavity sensor with a differential detection method by refractive index measurements,” in Proc. IEEE Texas Symposium on WMCS (2015), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. E.

Y. E. Choi, J. W. Kwak, and J. W. Park, “Nanotechnology for early cancer detection,” Sensors (Basel) 10(1), 428–455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cowles, P.

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dahlquist, W. C.

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dancil, K. P. S.

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dante, S.

A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, D. Duval, J. Osmond, and L. M. Lechuga, “Advanced photonic biosensors for point-of-care diagnostics,” Procedia Eng. 25, 71–75 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y.

Duval, D.

A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, D. Duval, J. Osmond, and L. M. Lechuga, “Advanced photonic biosensors for point-of-care diagnostics,” Procedia Eng. 25, 71–75 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ellington, A.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Felgner, P.

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

Frazier, B.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, S. D.

S. D. Gan and K. R. Patel, “Enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(9), e12 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Manero, G.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garg, N.

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gau, V.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghadiri, M. R.

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

González-Guerrero, A. B.

A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, D. Duval, J. Osmond, and L. M. Lechuga, “Advanced photonic biosensors for point-of-care diagnostics,” Procedia Eng. 25, 71–75 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goryll, M.

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gruhl, F. J.

F. J. Gruhl, B. E. Rapp, and K. Länge, “Biosensors for diagnostic applications,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 133, 115–148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gustafson, T. M.

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gutman, S. I.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayes, D. F.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Noh, R. R. Anderson, S. Kim, W. Hu, and G. P. Nordin, “Sensitivity enhancement of differential splitter-based transduction for photonic microcantilever arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(15), 155501 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Joy, C.

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Cho, J. H. Brake, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9332, 93320Z (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Rho, S. Cho, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Demonstration of an optical cavity sensor with a differential detection method by refractive index measurements,” in Proc. IEEE Texas Symposium on WMCS (2015), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Cho, J. H. Brake, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9332, 93320Z (2015).
[Crossref]

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Noh, R. R. Anderson, S. Kim, W. Hu, and G. P. Nordin, “Sensitivity enhancement of differential splitter-based transduction for photonic microcantilever arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(15), 155501 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rho, S. Cho, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Demonstration of an optical cavity sensor with a differential detection method by refractive index measurements,” in Proc. IEEE Texas Symposium on WMCS (2015), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Korte, B.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwak, J. W.

Y. E. Choi, J. W. Kwak, and J. W. Park, “Nanotechnology for early cancer detection,” Sensors (Basel) 10(1), 428–455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landers, J. L.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Länge, K.

F. J. Gruhl, B. E. Rapp, and K. Länge, “Biosensors for diagnostic applications,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 133, 115–148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larson, D.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lechuga, L. M.

A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, D. Duval, J. Osmond, and L. M. Lechuga, “Advanced photonic biosensors for point-of-care diagnostics,” Procedia Eng. 25, 71–75 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, A. P.

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

R. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. Li, X. Yang, K. Wang, and W. Nie, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of microRNA and cancer cell using multiple signal amplification strategy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 87, 433–438 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ligler, F.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, V. S. Y.

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. Li, X. Yang, K. Wang, and W. Nie, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of microRNA and cancer cell using multiple signal amplification strategy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 87, 433–438 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majumdar, A.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mascini, M.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazzeo, B. A.

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Motesharei, K.

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanayakkara, I.

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ness, S. J.

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, W.

R. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. Li, X. Yang, K. Wang, and W. Nie, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of microRNA and cancer cell using multiple signal amplification strategy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 87, 433–438 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, J. W.

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Noh, R. R. Anderson, S. Kim, W. Hu, and G. P. Nordin, “Sensitivity enhancement of differential splitter-based transduction for photonic microcantilever arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(15), 155501 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolte, D.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordin, G. P.

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Noh, R. R. Anderson, S. Kim, W. Hu, and G. P. Nordin, “Sensitivity enhancement of differential splitter-based transduction for photonic microcantilever arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(15), 155501 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osmond, J.

A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, D. Duval, J. Osmond, and L. M. Lechuga, “Advanced photonic biosensors for point-of-care diagnostics,” Procedia Eng. 25, 71–75 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pablo, J.

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pang, F.

Park, J. W.

Y. E. Choi, J. W. Kwak, and J. W. Park, “Nanotechnology for early cancer detection,” Sensors (Basel) 10(1), 428–455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, K. R.

S. D. Gan and K. R. Patel, “Enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(9), e12 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

Rapp, B. E.

F. J. Gruhl, B. E. Rapp, and K. Länge, “Biosensors for diagnostic applications,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 133, 115–148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rho, D.

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Rho, S. Cho, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Demonstration of an optical cavity sensor with a differential detection method by refractive index measurements,” in Proc. IEEE Texas Symposium on WMCS (2015), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Richards, D. C.

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenzweig, Z.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sailor, M. J.

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

See, C. W.

S. A. Abayzeed, R. J. Smith, K. F. Webb, M. G. Somekh, and C. W. See, “Responsivity of the differential-intensity surface plasmon resonance instrument,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 235, 627–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sin, L. Y. M.

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. J.

S. A. Abayzeed, R. J. Smith, K. F. Webb, M. G. Somekh, and C. W. See, “Responsivity of the differential-intensity surface plasmon resonance instrument,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 235, 627–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

Somekh, M. G.

S. A. Abayzeed, R. J. Smith, K. F. Webb, M. G. Somekh, and C. W. See, “Responsivity of the differential-intensity surface plasmon resonance instrument,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 235, 627–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

Soper, S. A.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tao, N. J.

H. Q. Zhang, S. Boussaad, and N. J. Tao, “High-performance differential surface plasmon resonance sensor using quadrant cell photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 150–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

Teng, A.

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tothill, I. E.

I. E. Tothill, “Biosensors for cancer markers diagnosis,” Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 20(1), 55–62 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vallejo, D.

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasilantonakis, N.

Wang, J.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Electrochemical biosensors: towards point-of-care cancer diagnostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1887–1892 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

R. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. Li, X. Yang, K. Wang, and W. Nie, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of microRNA and cancer cell using multiple signal amplification strategy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 87, 433–438 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

R. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. Li, X. Yang, K. Wang, and W. Nie, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of microRNA and cancer cell using multiple signal amplification strategy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 87, 433–438 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

Webb, K. F.

S. A. Abayzeed, R. J. Smith, K. F. Webb, M. G. Somekh, and C. W. See, “Responsivity of the differential-intensity surface plasmon resonance instrument,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 235, 627–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wilson, D.

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, P. K.

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Woolley, A. T.

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wurtz, G. A.

Yang, X.

R. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. Li, X. Yang, K. Wang, and W. Nie, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of microRNA and cancer cell using multiple signal amplification strategy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 87, 433–438 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

Zhang, H. Q.

H. Q. Zhang, S. Boussaad, and N. J. Tao, “High-performance differential surface plasmon resonance sensor using quadrant cell photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 150–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

Zou, F.

Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. (1)

F. J. Gruhl, B. E. Rapp, and K. Länge, “Biosensors for diagnostic applications,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 133, 115–148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (3)

S. A. Soper, K. Brown, A. Ellington, B. Frazier, G. Garcia-Manero, V. Gau, S. I. Gutman, D. F. Hayes, B. Korte, J. L. Landers, D. Larson, F. Ligler, A. Majumdar, M. Mascini, D. Nolte, Z. Rosenzweig, J. Wang, and D. Wilson, “Point-of-care biosensor systems for cancer diagnostics/prognostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1932–1942 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Electrochemical biosensors: towards point-of-care cancer diagnostics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(10), 1887–1892 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. Li, X. Yang, K. Wang, and W. Nie, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of microRNA and cancer cell using multiple signal amplification strategy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 87, 433–438 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

S. D. Gan and K. R. Patel, “Enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(9), e12 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (1)

R. R. Anderson, W. Hu, J. W. Noh, W. C. Dahlquist, S. J. Ness, T. M. Gustafson, D. C. Richards, S. Kim, B. A. Mazzeo, A. T. Woolley, and G. P. Nordin, “Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2088–2096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Microfluid. Nanofluidics (1)

S. Choi, M. Goryll, L. Y. M. Sin, P. K. Wong, and J. Chae, “Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 10(2), 231–247 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. W. Noh, R. R. Anderson, S. Kim, W. Hu, and G. P. Nordin, “Sensitivity enhancement of differential splitter-based transduction for photonic microcantilever arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(15), 155501 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Cho, J. H. Brake, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9332, 93320Z (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cowles, C. Joy, A. Bujana, D. Rho, and S. Kim, “Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection,” Proc. SPIE 9725, 972509 (2016).
[Crossref]

Procedia Eng. (2)

N. Garg, D. Vallejo, D. Boyle, I. Nanayakkara, A. Teng, J. Pablo, X. Liang, D. Camerini, A. P. Lee, and P. Felgner, “Integrated on-chip microfluidic immunoassay for rapid biomarker detection,” Procedia Eng. 159, 53–57 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. B. González-Guerrero, S. Dante, D. Duval, J. Osmond, and L. M. Lechuga, “Advanced photonic biosensors for point-of-care diagnostics,” Procedia Eng. 25, 71–75 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. Q. Zhang, S. Boussaad, and N. J. Tao, “High-performance differential surface plasmon resonance sensor using quadrant cell photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 150–153 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

V. S. Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, “A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor,” Science 278(5339), 840–843 (1997).
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D. Rho, S. Cho, C. Joy, and S. Kim, “Demonstration of an optical cavity sensor with a differential detection method by refractive index measurements,” in Proc. IEEE Texas Symposium on WMCS (2015), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the two-laser system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Efficiencies of 780 nm and 850 nm and the differential value of the optimized optical cavity structure for the two-laser system in the refractive index range of 1.3–1.37 (red solid line: efficiencies of 780 nm, blue dashed line: efficiencies of 850 nm, and green dotted line: differential values).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured results of the optical cavity sensor with the two-laser system as a function of refractive index from 1.315 to 1.35 (red solid line: 780 nm, blue dashed line: 850 nm, and green dotted line: differential value).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The repeatability test results. The 1st sample data is from Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of three-laser system using low-cost laser diodes at 780 nm, 808 nm, and 904 nm wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation results for the optimized optical cavity structure for the three-laser system. (a) Efficiencies of 780 nm (red), 808 nm (sky blue), and 904 nm (yellow) as a function of the refractive index from 1.3 to 1.45. (b) Calculated differential values with different sets of two wavelengths in seven different sections. (c) Concatenated differential values.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The measurement setup for the three-laser system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measurement results. (a) Intensities of 780 nm (red), 808 nm (sky blue), and 904 nm (yellow) as a function of the refractive index from 1.3 to 1.395. (b) Calculated differential values in five different sections with selected wavelengths. (c) Concatenated differential values.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The concatenated differential values of three samples using the three-laser system.

Equations (1)

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η= I 1 I 2 I 1 + I 2

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