Abstract

We demonstrate that a broadband terahertz absorber with near-unity absorption can be realized using a net-shaped periodically sinusoidally-patterned graphene sheet, placed on a dielectric spacer supported on a metallic reflecting plate. Because of the gradient width modulation of the unit graphene sheet, continuous plasmon resonances can be excited, and therefore broadband terahertz absorption can be achieved. The results show that the absorber’s normalized bandwidth of 90% terahertz absorbance is over 65% under normal incidence for both TE and TM polarizations when the graphene chemical potential is set as 0.7 eV. And the broadband absorption is insensitive to the incident angles and the polarizations. The peak absorbance remains more than 70% over a wide range of the incident angles up to 60° for both polarizations. Furthermore, this absorber also has the advantage of flexible tunability via electrostatic doping of graphene sheet, which peak absorbance can be continuously tuned from 14% to 100% by controlling the chemical potential from 0 eV to 0.8 eV. The design scheme is scalable to develop various graphene-based tunable broadband absorbers at other terahertz, infrared, and visible frequencies, which may have promising applications in sensing, detecting, and optoelectronic devices.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

J. Grant, J. Gough, and D. Cumming, “Terahertz metamaterial absorbers implemented in CMOS technology for imaging applications: scaling to large format focal plane arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 4700508 (2017).

2016 (5)

J. Liu, L. Fan, J. Ku, and L. Mao, “Absorber: a novel terahertz sensor in the application of substance identification,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 80 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26024 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yao, F. Ling, J. Yue, C. Luo, J. Ji, and J. Yao, “Dual-band tunable perfect metamaterial absorber in the THz range,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1518–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shi, L. Ge, X. Wen, D. Han, and Y. Yang, “Broadband light absorption in graphene ribbons by canceling strong coupling at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26357–26362 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, J. Zhang, N. Liu, Y. Wang, P. A. Hu, and Z. Wang, “Fast patterned graphene ribbons via soft–lithography,” Procedia CIRP 42, 428–432 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6559 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Xu, Z. H. Zhu, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, X. D. Yuan, Q. S. Lu, and S. Q. Qin, “Toward integrated electrically controllable directional coupling based on dielectric loaded graphene plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1603–1606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yi, M. Zhou, X. Shi, Q. Gan, J. Zi, and Z. Yu, “A multiple-resonator approach for broadband light absorption in a single layer of nanostructured graphene,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10081–10090 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ke, B. Wang, H. Huang, H. Long, K. Wang, and P. Lu, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in periodic cross-shaped graphene arrays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8888–8900 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Faraji, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and L. Yousefi, “Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 355, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, Q. Ma, S. Yan, F. Wu, X. He, and J. Jiang, “Tunable terahertz absorption in graphene-based metamaterial,” Opt. Commun. 353, 70–75 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, W. Liu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Towards photodetection with high efficiency and tunable spectral selectivity: graphene plasmonics for light trapping and absorption engineering,” Nanoscale 7(32), 13530–13536 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Phare, Y. H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Withayachumnankul and C. Fumeaux, “Terahertz absorption: Photonic crystal traps THz waves,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 586–587 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. F. Guo, T. Sun, F. Cao, Q. Liu, and Z. Ren, “Metallic nanostructures for light trapping in energy-harvesting devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically controlling the polarizing direction of a graphene polarizer,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(10), 104304 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, J. F. Zhang, K. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Broadband single-layered graphene absorber using periodic arrays of graphene ribbons with gradient width,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(1), 015102 (2014).

R. Ning, S. Liu, H. Zhang, B. Bian, and X. Kong, “A wide-angle broadband absorber in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 68(2), 20401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (10)

C. Pai-Yen and A. Alu, “Terahertz metamaterial devices based on graphene nanostructures,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 748–756 (2013).

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Bağcı, “An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29938–29948 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. He and T. Chen, “Broadband THz absorbers with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterial films,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 757–763 (2013).

J. S. Gómez-Díaz and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Graphene-based plasmonic switches at near infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15490–15504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gómez-Díaz, M. Esquius-Morote, and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Plane wave excitation-detection of non-resonant plasmons along finite-width graphene strips,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24856–24872 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, J. Kamann, J. Eroms, D. Weiss, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021113 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Alves, D. Grbovic, B. Kearney, N. V. Lavrik, and G. Karunasiri, “Bi-material terahertz sensors using metamaterial structures,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13256–13271 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wilbert, M. P. Hokmabadi, J. Martinez, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Terahertz metamaterials perfect absorbers for sensing and imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8585, 85850Y (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Graphene-based tunable broadband hyperlens for far-field subdiffraction imaging at mid-infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20888–20899 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9144–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 047401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Graphene-antenna sandwich photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3808–3813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081405 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Lee, G. Jo, S. J. Kang, G. Wang, M. Choe, W. Park, D. Y. Kim, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Enhanced charge injection in pentacene field-effect transistors with graphene electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 100–105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Dutta and S. K. Pati, “Novel properties of graphene nanoribbons: a review,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(38), 8207–8223 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Jo, M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, T. W. Kim, S. J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 21(17), 175201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions for an anisotropic, non-local model of biased graphene,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 56(3), 747–757 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

Ahn, J. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. Fang, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Graphene-antenna sandwich photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3808–3813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alaee, R.

Alexander, R. W.

Alu, A.

C. Pai-Yen and A. Alu, “Terahertz metamaterial devices based on graphene nanostructures,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 748–756 (2013).

Alves, F.

Amin, M.

Andryieuski, A.

Bagci, H.

Bao, J.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6559 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bian, B.

R. Ning, S. Liu, H. Zhang, B. Bian, and X. Kong, “A wide-angle broadband absorber in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 68(2), 20401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

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M. Faraji, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and L. Yousefi, “Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 355, 352–355 (2015).
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J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, W. Liu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Towards photodetection with high efficiency and tunable spectral selectivity: graphene plasmonics for light trapping and absorption engineering,” Nanoscale 7(32), 13530–13536 (2015).
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W. Xu, Z. H. Zhu, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, X. D. Yuan, Q. S. Lu, and S. Q. Qin, “Toward integrated electrically controllable directional coupling based on dielectric loaded graphene plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1603–1606 (2015).
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Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically controlling the polarizing direction of a graphene polarizer,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(10), 104304 (2014).
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R. Ning, S. Liu, H. Zhang, B. Bian, and X. Kong, “A wide-angle broadband absorber in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 68(2), 20401 (2014).
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L. Wang, J. Zhang, N. Liu, Y. Wang, P. A. Hu, and Z. Wang, “Fast patterned graphene ribbons via soft–lithography,” Procedia CIRP 42, 428–432 (2016).
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J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, W. Liu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Towards photodetection with high efficiency and tunable spectral selectivity: graphene plasmonics for light trapping and absorption engineering,” Nanoscale 7(32), 13530–13536 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6559 (2015).
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W. Xu, Z. H. Zhu, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, X. D. Yuan, Q. S. Lu, and S. Q. Qin, “Toward integrated electrically controllable directional coupling based on dielectric loaded graphene plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1603–1606 (2015).
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Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, J. F. Zhang, K. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Broadband single-layered graphene absorber using periodic arrays of graphene ribbons with gradient width,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(1), 015102 (2014).

Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically controlling the polarizing direction of a graphene polarizer,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(10), 104304 (2014).
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Q. Zhang, Q. Ma, S. Yan, F. Wu, X. He, and J. Jiang, “Tunable terahertz absorption in graphene-based metamaterial,” Opt. Commun. 353, 70–75 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6559 (2015).
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Zhang, Y.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the proposed graphene-based broadband terahertz absorber, where the net-shaped periodically sinusoidally-patterned graphene sheet is placed on a dielectric spacer supported on a metallic reflecting plate. A thin polysilicon layer is placed beneath the graphene sheet as a gating layer to control the graphene conductivity via a DC votage Vg. (b) Schematic of the unit cell of the absorber, where θ is the incident angle, φ is azimuth angle, k is the wavevector. The initial values of the structure parameters are set to be px = 32 µm, py = 60 µm, td = 26 µm, tm = 0.5 µm, Wmax = 32 µm, Wmin = 1 µm, t = tp = 20 nm, and the single-layered graphene sheet is modeled as an equivalent 2D surface impedance layer without thikness in numerical simulation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The numerically simulated absorption spectra of the proposed absorber with the graphene chemical potential μc = 0.7 eV under normal incidence are displayed, where the red solid curve represents the absorption spectra in TE polarization and the blue block curve represents the absorption in TM polarization. It is observed that the proposed absorber has the 90% absorbance bandwidth of 1.32 THz with a central frequency of 1.93 THz for TE polarization, and the 90% absorbance bandwidth of 1.23 THz with a central frequency of 1.78 THz for TM polarization. The normalized bandwidth with respect to the central frequency is greater than 65% for both polarizations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The simulated electric field amplitude (|E|) distributions of the proposed absorber with the graphene chemical potential μc = 0.7 eV under normal incidence: (a) the |E| distributions in TE polarization on xoz plane with y = 0 and yoz plane with x = 0 at 2 THz; (b) the |E| distributions in TM polarization on xoz plane with y = 0 μm and yoz plane with x = 0 μm at 2 THz; the |E| distributions (c) in TE polarization and (d) in TM polarization on the xoy plane with z = 0 at the interface between the graphene and the spacer at 0.6 THz, 2 THz, and 3.5 THz, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorbance of the proposed absorber as a function of operating frequency and incident angle with the graphene chemical potential μc = 0.7 eV for (a) the TE polarization and (b) TM polarization. The absorber exhibits excellent performances with relatively stable absorbance and bandwidth over a wide range of oblique incidence angles for both polarizations. Its peak absorbance remains more than 70% with a sufficient broadband of 1.4 THz over a wide range of incident angle up to 60° for both polarizations.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normal-incidence absorbance in TE polarization of the graphene-based absorber as a function of operating frequency and dielectric thickness td with the graphene chemical potential μc = 0.7 eV. The normal-incidence absorbance is sensitive to the spacer thickness td. As td increases from 16 µm to 34 µm, the absorbance enhances, the bandwidth decreases, and the central frequency red-shifts from 2.2 THz to 1.6 THz.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normal-incidence absorbance in the TE polarization of the graphene-based absorber for various values of the graphene chemical potential μc with td = 26 μm, where the peak absorbance increases from 14% to nearly 100% when the chemical potential is tuned from 0 to 0.8 eV.

Equations (3)

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W( y )= 1 2 ( W max + W min )+ 1 2 ( W max W min )cos( 2πy p y ),
σ intra (ω, μ c ,Γ,T)= j e 2 π 2 ( ωj2Γ ) 0 ( f d ( ξ, μ c ,T ) ξ f d ( ξ, μ c ,T ) ξ )ξdξ,
σ inter (ω, μ c ,Γ,T)= j e 2 ( ωj2Γ ) π 2 0 f d ( ξ, μ c ,T ) f d ( ξ, μ c ,T ) ( ωj2Γ ) 2 4ξ/ 2 dξ,

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