Abstract

We develop a way to hack free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) systems by changing the wavelength of the quantum signal laser using an external laser. Most free-space QKD systems use four distinct lasers for each polarization, thereby making the characteristics of each laser indistinguishable. We also discover a side-channel that can distinguish the lasers by using an external laser. Our hacking scheme identifies the lasers by automatically applying the external laser to each signal laser at different intensities and detecting the wavelength variation according to the amount of incident external laser power. We conduct a proof-of-principle experiment to verify the proposed hacking structure and confirm that the wavelength varies by several gigahertzes to several nanometers, depending on the intensity of the external laser. The risk of hacking is successfully proven through the experimental results. Methods for prevention are also suggested.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  37. F. Xu, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of phase-remapping attack in a practical quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 12, 113026 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  38. S.-H. Sun, M.-S. Jiang, and L.-M. Liang, “Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 062331 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  39. J.-Z. Huang, C. Weedbrook, Z.-Q. Yin, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 062329 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  43. M. S. Lee, B. K. Park, M. K. Woo, C. H. Park, Y.-S. Kim, S.-W. Han, and S. Moon, “Countermeasure against blinding attacks on low-noise detectors with a background-noise-cancellation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 062321 (2016).
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. S. Lee, B. K. Park, M. K. Woo, C. H. Park, Y.-S. Kim, S.-W. Han, and S. Moon, “Countermeasure against blinding attacks on low-noise detectors with a background-noise-cancellation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 062321 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

W. P. Grice, P. G. Evans, B. Lawrie, M. Legre, P. Lougovski, W. Ray, B. P. Williams, B. Qi, and A. M. Smith, “Two-party secret key distribution via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol,” Opt. Express 23, 7300–7311 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 052339 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. C. W. Lim, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Random variation of detector efficiency: a countermeasure against detector blinding attacks for quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 192–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8, 595–604 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Rau, T. Heindel, S. Unsleber, T. Braun, J. Fischer, S. Frick, S. Nauerth, C. Schneider, G. Vest, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Höfling, and H. Weinfurter, “Free space quantum key distribution over 500 meters using electrically driven quantum dot single-photon sources-a proof of principle experiment,” New J. Phys. 16, 043003 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Realization of quantum digital signatures without the requirement of quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 560, 7–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

M. J. Garcia-Martinez, N. Denisenko, D. Soto, D. Arroyo, A. B. Orue, and V. Fernandez, “High-speed free-space quantum key distribution system for urban daylight applications,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3311–3317 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lunghi, J. Kaniewski, F. Bussieres, R. Houlmann, M. Tomamichel, A. Kent, N. Gisin, S. Wehner, and H. Zbinden, “Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-Z. Huang, C. Weedbrook, Z.-Q. Yin, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 062329 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, and E. Diamanti, “Preventing calibration attacks on the local oscillator in continuous-variable quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 062313 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, Y. Liu, H.-L. Yong, T.-Y. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Source attack of decoy-state quantum key distribution using phase information,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 022308 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S.-H. Sun, M.-S. Jiang, and L.-M. Liang, “Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 062331 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Gerhardt, Q. Liu, A. Lamas-Linares, J. Skaar, C. Kurtsiefer, and V. Makarov, “Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 349 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Weier, H. Krauss, M. Rau, M. Fürst, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Quantum eavesdropping without interception: an attack exploiting the dead time of single-photon detectors,” New J. Phys. 13, 073024 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD,” Nat. Photonics 4, 800–801 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Xu, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of phase-remapping attack in a practical quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 12, 113026 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. E. Meyers, A. Tunick, Y. Shih, T. Moore, K. Deacon, K. S. Deacon, and R. Meyers, “Review of representative free-space quantum communications experiments,” Proc. SPIE 7815, 781512 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Y. Arakawa, R. Ursin, M. Sasaki, T. Jennewein, A. Zeilinger, and H. Sotobayashi, “Space-QUEST: quantum physics and quantum communication in space,” Proc. SPIE 7236, 723609 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

J. M. Perdigues Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Erratum: effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems [Phys. Rev. A74, 022313 (2006)],” Phys. Rev. A 78, 019905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems”, Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

N. Gisin, S. Fasel, B. Kraus, H. Zbinden, and G. Ribordy, “Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 022320 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

T. Honjo and K. Inoue, “Plug and play quantum key distribution using modulation sidebands for shifting frequency,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6550–6552 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Gao, M. Zhan, S. Fan, J. Shao, and Z.-X. Fan, “Laser-induced damage of Ta2O5/SiO2 narrow-band interference filters under different 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser modes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 250, 195–202 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug & play sysyem,” New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and user-friendly quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517–531 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated plug play quantum key distribution,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “’Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).
[Crossref]

Andersson, E.

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Realization of quantum digital signatures without the requirement of quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anisimov, A.

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Erratum: effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems [Phys. Rev. A74, 022313 (2006)],” Phys. Rev. A 78, 019905 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

Y. Arakawa, R. Ursin, M. Sasaki, T. Jennewein, A. Zeilinger, and H. Sotobayashi, “Space-QUEST: quantum physics and quantum communication in space,” Proc. SPIE 7236, 723609 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arroyo, D.

Aspelmeyer, M.

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J.-Z. Huang, C. Weedbrook, Z.-Q. Yin, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 062329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weedbrook, C.

J.-Z. Huang, C. Weedbrook, Z.-Q. Yin, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 062329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wehner, S.

T. Lunghi, J. Kaniewski, F. Bussieres, R. Houlmann, M. Tomamichel, A. Kent, N. Gisin, S. Wehner, and H. Zbinden, “Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weier, H.

H. Weier, H. Krauss, M. Rau, M. Fürst, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Quantum eavesdropping without interception: an attack exploiting the dead time of single-photon detectors,” New J. Phys. 13, 073024 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weinfurter, H.

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rau, T. Heindel, S. Unsleber, T. Braun, J. Fischer, S. Frick, S. Nauerth, C. Schneider, G. Vest, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Höfling, and H. Weinfurter, “Free space quantum key distribution over 500 meters using electrically driven quantum dot single-photon sources-a proof of principle experiment,” New J. Phys. 16, 043003 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Weier, H. Krauss, M. Rau, M. Fürst, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Quantum eavesdropping without interception: an attack exploiting the dead time of single-photon detectors,” New J. Phys. 13, 073024 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. M. Perdigues Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wiechers, C.

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD,” Nat. Photonics 4, 800–801 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

Williams, B. P.

Wittmann, C.

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD,” Nat. Photonics 4, 800–801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Woo, M. K.

M. S. Lee, B. K. Park, M. K. Woo, C. H. Park, Y.-S. Kim, S.-W. Han, and S. Moon, “Countermeasure against blinding attacks on low-noise detectors with a background-noise-cancellation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 062321 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.-C.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

F. Xu, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of phase-remapping attack in a practical quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 12, 113026 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z.

J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 052339 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.-J.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, H.-L.

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, Y. Liu, H.-L. Yong, T.-Y. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Source attack of decoy-state quantum key distribution using phase information,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 022308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, J.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, Z.-Q.

J.-Z. Huang, C. Weedbrook, Z.-Q. Yin, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 062329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yong, H.-L.

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, Y. Liu, H.-L. Yong, T.-Y. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Source attack of decoy-state quantum key distribution using phase information,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 022308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zbinden, H.

C. C. W. Lim, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Random variation of detector efficiency: a countermeasure against detector blinding attacks for quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 192–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Lunghi, J. Kaniewski, F. Bussieres, R. Houlmann, M. Tomamichel, A. Kent, N. Gisin, S. Wehner, and H. Zbinden, “Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180504 (2013).
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N. Gisin, S. Fasel, B. Kraus, H. Zbinden, and G. Ribordy, “Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 022320 (2006).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug & play sysyem,” New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
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G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and user-friendly quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517–531 (2000).
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G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated plug play quantum key distribution,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
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A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “’Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
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Zeilinger, A.

Y. Arakawa, R. Ursin, M. Sasaki, T. Jennewein, A. Zeilinger, and H. Sotobayashi, “Space-QUEST: quantum physics and quantum communication in space,” Proc. SPIE 7236, 723609 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Perdigues Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
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Zhan, M.

W. Gao, M. Zhan, S. Fan, J. Shao, and Z.-X. Fan, “Laser-induced damage of Ta2O5/SiO2 narrow-band interference filters under different 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser modes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 250, 195–202 (2005).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
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Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems”, Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
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Acta Astronaut. (1)

J. M. Perdigues Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63, 165–178 (2008).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
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A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “’Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

W. Gao, M. Zhan, S. Fan, J. Shao, and Z.-X. Fan, “Laser-induced damage of Ta2O5/SiO2 narrow-band interference filters under different 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser modes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 250, 195–202 (2005).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated plug play quantum key distribution,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Rau, T. Vogl, G. Corrielli, G. Vest, L. Fuchs, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Spatial mode side channels in free-space QKD implementations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 187–191 (2015).
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C. C. W. Lim, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Random variation of detector efficiency: a countermeasure against detector blinding attacks for quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 192–196 (2015).
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G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and user-friendly quantum key distribution,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517–531 (2000).
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T. Honjo and K. Inoue, “Plug and play quantum key distribution using modulation sidebands for shifting frequency,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6550–6552 (2005).
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I. Gerhardt, Q. Liu, A. Lamas-Linares, J. Skaar, C. Kurtsiefer, and V. Makarov, “Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 349 (2011).
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Nat. Photon. (1)

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 7, 382–386 (2013).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
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H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8, 595–604 (2014).
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L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD,” Nat. Photonics 4, 800–801 (2010).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
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New J. Phys. (7)

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
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D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug & play sysyem,” New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
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F. Xu, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of phase-remapping attack in a practical quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 12, 113026 (2010).
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M. Rau, T. Heindel, S. Unsleber, T. Braun, J. Fischer, S. Frick, S. Nauerth, C. Schneider, G. Vest, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Höfling, and H. Weinfurter, “Free space quantum key distribution over 500 meters using electrically driven quantum dot single-photon sources-a proof of principle experiment,” New J. Phys. 16, 043003 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Weier, H. Krauss, M. Rau, M. Fürst, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Quantum eavesdropping without interception: an attack exploiting the dead time of single-photon detectors,” New J. Phys. 13, 073024 (2011).
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Opt. Express (1)

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Phys. Rev. A (10)

J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 052339 (2015).
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N. Gisin, S. Fasel, B. Kraus, H. Zbinden, and G. Ribordy, “Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 022320 (2006).
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S.-H. Sun, M.-S. Jiang, and L.-M. Liang, “Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 062331 (2011).
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J.-Z. Huang, C. Weedbrook, Z.-Q. Yin, S. Wang, H.-W. Li, W. Chen, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 062329 (2013).
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P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, and E. Diamanti, “Preventing calibration attacks on the local oscillator in continuous-variable quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 062313 (2013).
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Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, Y. Liu, H.-L. Yong, T.-Y. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Source attack of decoy-state quantum key distribution using phase information,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 022308 (2013).
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Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems”, Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
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M. S. Lee, B. K. Park, M. K. Woo, C. H. Park, Y.-S. Kim, S.-W. Han, and S. Moon, “Countermeasure against blinding attacks on low-noise detectors with a background-noise-cancellation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 062321 (2016).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lunghi, J. Kaniewski, F. Bussieres, R. Houlmann, M. Tomamichel, A. Kent, N. Gisin, S. Wehner, and H. Zbinden, “Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 180504 (2013).
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R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Realization of quantum digital signatures without the requirement of quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
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Proc. SPIE (2)

Y. Arakawa, R. Ursin, M. Sasaki, T. Jennewein, A. Zeilinger, and H. Sotobayashi, “Space-QUEST: quantum physics and quantum communication in space,” Proc. SPIE 7236, 723609 (2009).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
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C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” Theor. Comput. Sci. 560, 7–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept of quantum hacking by manipulating laser diodes in Alice’s system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of quantum hacking using external strong laser pulses. (a) Quantum hacking experiment with femtosecond laser and spectrometer. (b) Quantum hacking experiment with Fabry-Perot interferometer. Alice LD: Alice’s laser diode; TECC: thermoelectric cooler controller; DM: dichroic mirror; NDF: neutral-density filter; SP: spectrometer; Eve LD: Eve’s laser diode; FSL: femtosecond laser; FPI: Fabry-Perot interferometer; FPIC: Fabry-Perot interferometer controller; and OSC: oscilloscope.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measurement of wavelength change with increasing internal temperature of Alice’s laser diode. (b) Wavelength change of Alice’s LD according to the laser power generated by Eve’s LD.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Wavelength of the laser diodes versus the incident laser power generated by the femtosecond laser.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Frequency change and wavelength change versus incident laser power measured by Fabry-Perot interferometer.

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