Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a 4 × 4 microring modulator matrix integrated with the asymmetrical directional couplers based mode multiplexer and de-multiplexer photonic circuit for on-chip optical interconnect. The inter-mode optical crosstalk of the device is less than −20 dB in the wavelength range from 1525 nm to 1565 nm. Data transmission with a throughput capacity of 4 × 4 × 32 Gbps is achieved by utilizing four wavelengths and four spatial modes multiplexing. We envision this structure as a potential solution to increase the communication capacity for on-chip interconnect within limited chip area.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and D. Molin, “Few-mode fibers for mode-division-multiplexed systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2824–2829 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai and J. Wang, “Multi-channel silicon mode (de) multiplexer based on asymmetrical directional couplers for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Soc. News 28(2), 8–14 (2014).

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On‐chip silicon 8‐channel hybrid (de) multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode‐and polarization‐division‐multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 18–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

2006 (2)

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, “Simultaneous dual mode add/drop multiplexers for optical interconnects buses,” Opt. Commun. 266(2), 527–531 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, “Multimode add-drop multiplexing by adiabatic linearly tapered coupling,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9781–9787 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Y. Kawaguchi and K. Tsutsumi, “Mode multiplexing and demultiplexing devices using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1701 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atabaki, A. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bergmen, K.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biberman, A.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigot-Astruc, M.

Bolle, C. A.

Bowers, J. E.

Chang, H. H.

Chen, C. P.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

Chen, Y. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, T.

Cook, H. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Correa, R. A.

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dadap, J. I.

Dai, D.

D. Dai and J. Wang, “Multi-channel silicon mode (de) multiplexer based on asymmetrical directional couplers for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Soc. News 28(2), 8–14 (2014).

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On‐chip silicon 8‐channel hybrid (de) multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode‐and polarization‐division‐multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 18–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H. H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y. H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20355–20364 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Waardt, H.

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, J. B.

Essiambre, R. J.

Fang, A. W.

Fiorentino, M.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Georgas, M. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gnauck, A. H.

Greenberg, M.

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, “Simultaneous dual mode add/drop multiplexers for optical interconnects buses,” Opt. Commun. 266(2), 527–531 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, “Multimode add-drop multiplexing by adiabatic linearly tapered coupling,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9781–9787 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grote, R. R.

He, S.

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On‐chip silicon 8‐channel hybrid (de) multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode‐and polarization‐division‐multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 18–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, T.

Hu, Y.

Huang, W.

Huijskens, F. M.

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ishizaka, Y.

Jiang, G.

Jiang, X.

Kawaguchi, Y.

Koonen, A. M. J.

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koshiba, M.

Kumar, R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y. H.

Lee, Y.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

Leu, J. C.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liang, D.

Lin, S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lingle, R.

Lipson, M.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Preston, Y. H. Lee, M. Zhang, and M. Lipson, “Waveguide-integrated telecom-wavelength photodiode in deposited silicon,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 52–54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, E. A.

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

Luo, L. W.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

McCurdy, A.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1166–1185.
[Crossref]

Molin, D.

Moss, B. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okonkwo, C. M.

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Okumura, T.

Ophir, N.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orcutt, J. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Orenstein, M.

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, “Simultaneous dual mode add/drop multiplexers for optical interconnects buses,” Opt. Commun. 266(2), 527–531 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, “Multimode add-drop multiplexing by adiabatic linearly tapered coupling,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9781–9787 (2005).
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Osgood, R. M.

Ou, A. J.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavanello, F.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Peckham, D. W.

Poitras, C. B.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popovic, M. A.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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Preston, K.

Qiu, H.

Ram, R. J.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Ryf, R.

Saitoh, K.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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Schülzgen, A.

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
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Shah Hosseini, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
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Shainline, J. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Shao, H.

Sierra, A.

Sillard, P.

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
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R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
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Spencer, D. T.

Stojanovic, V. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Kawaguchi and K. Tsutsumi, “Mode multiplexing and demultiplexing devices using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1701 (2002).
[Crossref]

Uematsu, T.

Van Uden, R. G. H.

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wade, M. T.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Wang, J.

D. Dai and J. Wang, “Multi-channel silicon mode (de) multiplexer based on asymmetrical directional couplers for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Soc. News 28(2), 8–14 (2014).

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On‐chip silicon 8‐channel hybrid (de) multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode‐and polarization‐division‐multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 18–22 (2014).
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Waterman, A. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
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Winzer, P. J.

Xia, C.

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

Xiong, K.

Xu, H.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Ye, M.

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

Yu, P.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, X.

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Kawaguchi and K. Tsutsumi, “Mode multiplexing and demultiplexing devices using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1701 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Soc. News (1)

D. Dai and J. Wang, “Multi-channel silicon mode (de) multiplexer based on asymmetrical directional couplers for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Soc. News 28(2), 8–14 (2014).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On‐chip silicon 8‐channel hybrid (de) multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode‐and polarization‐division‐multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 18–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. G. H. Van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, “Simultaneous dual mode add/drop multiplexers for optical interconnects buses,” Opt. Commun. 266(2), 527–531 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

P. J. Winzer, “Scaling optical fiber networks: challenges and solutions,” Opt. Photonics News 26(3), 28–35 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. Bigo, “Coherent optical long-haul system design,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3A.1.
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” in Proceedings of the IEEE (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1166–1185.
[Crossref]

B. Stern and M. Lipson, “High-bandwidth Link with Single Laser Input Using Silicon Modulators and Mode Multiplexing,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2016), paper STu4G.5.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the 4 × 4 microring modulator matrix integrated with mode multiplexer and de-multiplexer for on-chip optical interconnect.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Effective indices for different modes in rib waveguides and channel waveguides with different widths. (b) Simulated mode conversion process from the TE0 mode to the TE1, TE2 and TE3 modes and then back to the TE0 mode. (c) Schematic of the mode multiplexer and de-multiplexer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Micrograph image of the fabricated device and magnified images of microring modulator (b), mode multiplexer (c) and butt-coupling region (d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup (ASE: amplified spontaneous emission, TL: tunable laser, PC: polarization controller, DCPS: direct-current power supply, DUT: device under test, PPG: Pulse pattern generator, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer, DCA: digital communication analyzer, EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Resonance wavelength shift of the microring modulator by thermal tuning. (b) Calculation of the thermal tuning efficiency. (c) Spectral responses under different applied voltages. (d) V π L π under different applied voltages.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transmission spectra measured at the output ports O1 (a), O2 (b), O3 (c) and O4 (d) when a broadband light input from the input ports I1, I2, I3 and I4 respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 32Gbps Eye diagrams of the modulated signals through multiplexing and de-multiplexing.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Structural parameters of the microring modulators.

Equations (1)

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V π L π = V F S R × π R δ λ

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