Abstract

A high-efficient computer-generated integral imaging (CGII) method is presented based on the backward ray-tracing technique. In traditional CGII methods, the total rendering time is long, because a large number of cameras are established in the virtual world. The ray origin and the ray direction for every pixel in elemental image array are calculated with the backward ray-tracing technique, and the total rendering time can be noticeably reduced. The method is suitable to create high quality integral image without the pseudoscopic problem. Real time and non-real time CGII rendering images and optical reconstruction are demonstrated, and the effectiveness is verified with different types of 3D object models. Real time optical reconstruction with 90 × 90 viewpoints and the frame rate above 40 fps for the CGII 3D display are realized without the pseudoscopic problem.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  14. K. Akeley, D. Kirk, L. Seiler, P. Slusallek, and B. Grantham, “When will ray-tracing replace rasterization?” in ACM SIGGRAPH 2002 Conference Abstracts and Applications (2002), pp. 206–207.
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. G. Milnthorpe, M. Mccormick, and N. Davies, “Computer modeling of lens arrays for integral image rendering,” in Proceedings of the Eurographics UK Conference,2002 (2002), pp. 136–141.
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Ashikhmin, Fundamentals of Computer Graphics (AK Peters, 2005), pp. 70–79.
  22. Wikipedia, Ray tracing (graphics), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ray_tracing_(graphics)
  23. S. K. Ray, Tracing from the Ground Up (A. K. Peters, Ltd. 2015), pp. 93–119.
  24. X. Sang, F. C. Fan, C. C. Jiang, S. Choi, W. Dou, C. Yu, and D. Xu, “Demonstration of a large-size real-time full-color three-dimensional display,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3803–3805 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. NVIDIA, SBVH acceleration structure, http://docs.nvidia.com/gameworks/index.html#gameworkslibrary/optix/optix_host_api.htm?Highlight=sbvh

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2010 (3)

Y. H. Jang, P. Chan, J. S. Jung, J. H. Park, N. Kim, J. S. Ha, and K. H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and octree,” Electrophoresis 10, 924–929 (2010).

J. M. Singh and P. J. Narayanan, “Real-time ray tracing of implicit surfaces on the GPU,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(2), 261–272 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

K. Yanaka, “Integral photography using hexagonal fly’s eye lens and fractional view,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68031K (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

K. S. Park, S. W. Min, and Y. Cho, “Viewpoint vector rendering for efficient elemental image generation,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E90-D(1), 233–241 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

S. W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3-D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[Crossref]

1931 (1)

Anderson, J. C.

B. C. Budge, J. C. Anderson, C. Garth, and K. I. Joy, “A straightforward CUDA implementation for interactive ray-tracing,” in IEEE Symposium on Interactive Ray Tracing (IEEE, 2008), pp. 178.
[Crossref]

Athineos, S. S.

S. S. Athineos and P. G. Papageorgas, “Photorealistic integral photography using a ray-traced model of capturing optics,” J. Electron. Imaging 15(4), 043007 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bigler, J.

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Budge, B. C.

B. C. Budge, J. C. Anderson, C. Garth, and K. I. Joy, “A straightforward CUDA implementation for interactive ray-tracing,” in IEEE Symposium on Interactive Ray Tracing (IEEE, 2008), pp. 178.
[Crossref]

Chan, P.

Y. H. Jang, P. Chan, J. S. Jung, J. H. Park, N. Kim, J. S. Ha, and K. H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and octree,” Electrophoresis 10, 924–929 (2010).

Cho, Y.

K. S. Park, S. W. Min, and Y. Cho, “Viewpoint vector rendering for efficient elemental image generation,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E90-D(1), 233–241 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. H.

Choi, S.

Davies, N.

G. Milnthorpe, M. Mccormick, and N. Davies, “Computer modeling of lens arrays for integral image rendering,” in Proceedings of the Eurographics UK Conference,2002 (2002), pp. 136–141.
[Crossref]

Dietrich, A.

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dou, W.

Erdenebat, M. U.

Fan, F. C.

Friedrich, H.

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garth, C.

B. C. Budge, J. C. Anderson, C. Garth, and K. I. Joy, “A straightforward CUDA implementation for interactive ray-tracing,” in IEEE Symposium on Interactive Ray Tracing (IEEE, 2008), pp. 178.
[Crossref]

Ha, J. S.

Y. H. Jang, P. Chan, J. S. Jung, J. H. Park, N. Kim, J. S. Ha, and K. H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and octree,” Electrophoresis 10, 924–929 (2010).

Halle, M.

M. Halle, “Multiple viewpoint rendering,” in Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (2010), pp. 243–254.

Hoberock, J.

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Igarashi, Y.

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3-D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[Crossref]

Ives, H. E.

Jang, Y. H.

Y. H. Jang, P. Chan, J. S. Jung, J. H. Park, N. Kim, J. S. Ha, and K. H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and octree,” Electrophoresis 10, 924–929 (2010).

Javidi, B.

Jeong, J. S.

Jiang, C. C.

Joy, K. I.

B. C. Budge, J. C. Anderson, C. Garth, and K. I. Joy, “A straightforward CUDA implementation for interactive ray-tracing,” in IEEE Symposium on Interactive Ray Tracing (IEEE, 2008), pp. 178.
[Crossref]

Jung, J. S.

Y. H. Jang, P. Chan, J. S. Jung, J. H. Park, N. Kim, J. S. Ha, and K. H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and octree,” Electrophoresis 10, 924–929 (2010).

Kim, D. H.

Kim, D. S.

Kim, J.

S. W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. A.

Kim, N.

Kim, S. K.

Kwack, K. D.

Kwon, K. C.

Lee, B.

S. W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. W.

Lim, Y. T.

Luebke, D.

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

McAllister, D.

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mccormick, M.

G. Milnthorpe, M. Mccormick, and N. Davies, “Computer modeling of lens arrays for integral image rendering,” in Proceedings of the Eurographics UK Conference,2002 (2002), pp. 136–141.
[Crossref]

McGuire, M.

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Milnthorpe, G.

G. Milnthorpe, M. Mccormick, and N. Davies, “Computer modeling of lens arrays for integral image rendering,” in Proceedings of the Eurographics UK Conference,2002 (2002), pp. 136–141.
[Crossref]

Min, S. W.

K. S. Park, S. W. Min, and Y. Cho, “Viewpoint vector rendering for efficient elemental image generation,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E90-D(1), 233–241 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

Morley, K.

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Murata, H.

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3-D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[Crossref]

Narayanan, P. J.

J. M. Singh and P. J. Narayanan, “Real-time ray tracing of implicit surfaces on the GPU,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(2), 261–272 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papageorgas, P. G.

S. S. Athineos and P. G. Papageorgas, “Photorealistic integral photography using a ray-traced model of capturing optics,” J. Electron. Imaging 15(4), 043007 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, C.

Park, J. H.

K. C. Kwon, C. Park, M. U. Erdenebat, J. S. Jeong, J. H. Choi, N. Kim, J. H. Park, Y. T. Lim, and K. H. Yoo, “High speed image space parallel processing for computer-generated integral imaging system,” Opt. Express 20(2), 732–740 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Jang, P. Chan, J. S. Jung, J. H. Park, N. Kim, J. S. Ha, and K. H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and octree,” Electrophoresis 10, 924–929 (2010).

Park, K. S.

K. S. Park, S. W. Min, and Y. Cho, “Viewpoint vector rendering for efficient elemental image generation,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E90-D(1), 233–241 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, M. C.

Parker, S. G.

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Robison, A.

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sang, X.

Saveljev, V. V.

Singh, J. M.

J. M. Singh and P. J. Narayanan, “Real-time ray tracing of implicit surfaces on the GPU,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(2), 261–272 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, J. Y.

Stich, M.

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ueda, M.

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3-D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

Yanaka, K.

K. Yanaka, “Integral photography using hexagonal fly’s eye lens and fractional view,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68031K (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoo, K. H.

Yu, C.

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

S. G. Parker, A. Robison, M. Stich, J. Bigler, A. Dietrich, H. Friedrich, J. Hoberock, D. Luebke, D. McAllister, M. McGuire, and K. Morley, “OptiX: a general purpose ray tracing engine,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 157–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electrophoresis (1)

Y. H. Jang, P. Chan, J. S. Jung, J. H. Park, N. Kim, J. S. Ha, and K. H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and octree,” Electrophoresis 10, 924–929 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. (1)

J. M. Singh and P. J. Narayanan, “Real-time ray tracing of implicit surfaces on the GPU,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(2), 261–272 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. (1)

K. S. Park, S. W. Min, and Y. Cho, “Viewpoint vector rendering for efficient elemental image generation,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E90-D(1), 233–241 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

S. S. Athineos and P. G. Papageorgas, “Photorealistic integral photography using a ray-traced model of capturing optics,” J. Electron. Imaging 15(4), 043007 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3-D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Yanaka, “Integral photography using hexagonal fly’s eye lens and fractional view,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68031K (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

M. Halle, “Multiple viewpoint rendering,” in Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (2010), pp. 243–254.

B. N. R. Lee, Y. Cho, K. S. Park, S. W. Min, J. S. Lim, C. W. Min, and R. P. Kang, “Design and implementation of a fast integral image rendering method,” in Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2006 (2006), pp. 135–140.

H. Liao, K. Nomura, and T. Dohi, “Autostereoscopic integral photography imaging using pixel distribution of computer graphics generated image,” in ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Posters (2005), pp. 73.

K. Akeley, D. Kirk, L. Seiler, P. Slusallek, and B. Grantham, “When will ray-tracing replace rasterization?” in ACM SIGGRAPH 2002 Conference Abstracts and Applications (2002), pp. 206–207.

G. Milnthorpe, M. Mccormick, and N. Davies, “Computer modeling of lens arrays for integral image rendering,” in Proceedings of the Eurographics UK Conference,2002 (2002), pp. 136–141.
[Crossref]

M. Ashikhmin, Fundamentals of Computer Graphics (AK Peters, 2005), pp. 70–79.

Wikipedia, Ray tracing (graphics), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ray_tracing_(graphics)

S. K. Ray, Tracing from the Ground Up (A. K. Peters, Ltd. 2015), pp. 93–119.

NVIDIA, SBVH acceleration structure, http://docs.nvidia.com/gameworks/index.html#gameworkslibrary/optix/optix_host_api.htm?Highlight=sbvh

Z. Li, T. Wang, and Y. Deng, “Fully parallel kd-tree construction for real-time ray tracing,” in Meeting of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3d Graphics and Games (2014), pp. 159.
[Crossref]

B. C. Budge, J. C. Anderson, C. Garth, and K. I. Joy, “A straightforward CUDA implementation for interactive ray-tracing,” in IEEE Symposium on Interactive Ray Tracing (IEEE, 2008), pp. 178.
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (5388 KB)      The non-real time II images created with the backward ray tracing approach
» Visualization 2: MP4 (5549 KB)      Different perspectives of the reconstructed 3D scene on 3D light field display
» Visualization 3: MP4 (4627 KB)      Real time rendering for volume data and 3D mesh data.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Rays starting from S i n and received with the camera at the end, and the transmission process determined by the P l e n s .
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The principle of the backward ray-tracing technique [22]
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Elemental images and virtual cameras
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The process comparison between (a) BRT CGII and (b) ECVIR
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The images generated with the center camera and the non-real time integral images created with the backward ray tracing approach, including (a) Monkey (b) Cup (c) Skull. (see Visualization 1)
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Different perspectives of the reconstructed 3D scene on 3D light field display(see Visualization 2)
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Real time rendering for volume data and 3D mesh data.(1) a cell volume data rendered with the frame rate of 75fps (2) a 3D mesh object has 200 triangles, which rendered without acceleration structure at 40fps.(3)The builds is a 3D mesh object with 1.5million triangles, which rendered with acceleration structure SBVH. The frame rate is 30fps (see Visualization 3)
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 the processing time for different render method:(a) three mesh 3D models rendered by using ECVIR method;(b) three mesh 3D model rendered by using BRTCGII method.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of 3D data and the Display Configuration in the Experiment

Tables Icon

Table 2 Processing time comparison between proposed BRT method and the traditional CGII method

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R e x = f l e n s ( R i n , P l e n s ) .
P c a m = f c a m ( R e x , P c a m A r r a y ) .
{ i = { ( N 1 ) / 2 ( k mod N ) N / 2 ( k mod N ) j = { ( m mod N ) ( N 1 ) / 2 ( m mod N ) N / 2 N N N N i s i s i s i s o d d e v e n o d d e v e n .
P i j = P 00 + ( i D H , j D v , 0 ) .
( k , m ) = ( f l o o r ( x + p p * W / 2 p p ) , f l o o r ( p p * H / 2 y p p ) ) .
{ R 0 = P i j R d = P i j ( x , y , 0 ) .

Metrics