Abstract

We demonstrate a programmable control-plane based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) with a power-efficient algorithm for optical unicast, multicast, and broadcast functionalities in a silicon photonic platform. The platform includes a silicon photonic 1×8 microring array chip which in conjunction with a fast tunable laser over the C-band is capable of delivering software controlled wavelength selective functionality on top of spatial switching. We characterize the thermo-optic response of microring resonators and extract key parameters necessary for the development of the control-plane. The performance of the proposed architecture is tested with 10 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK) optical data and error-free operation is verified for various wavelength and spatial switching scenarios. Lastly, we evaluate electrical power and energy consumption required to reconfigure the silicon photonic device for all possible wavelength operations and output ports combinations and show that unicast, multicast of two, three, four, five, six, seven, and broadcast functions are achieved with energy overheads of 0.02, 0.07, 0.18, 0.49, 0.76, 1.01, 1.3, and 1.55 pJ/bit, respectively.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2016 (7)

A. S. Hamza, J. S. Deogun, and D. R. Alexander, “Free space optical multicast crossbar,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, L. Carroll, C. Scarcella, N. Pavarelli, S. Menezo, S. Bernabe, E. Temporiti, and P. O’Brian, “Meeting the electrical, optical, and thermal design challenges of photonic-packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200209 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, K. Wen, M. S. Chik, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Programmable dynamically-controlled silicon photonic switch fabric,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2952–2958 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2975–2987 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, S. Shekhar, and K. Bergman, “Crosstalk penalty in microring-based silicon photonic interconnect systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(17), 4043–4052 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Lu, S. Zhao, L. Zhou, D. Li, Z. Li, M. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “16×16 non-blocking silicon optical switch based on electro-optic mach-zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9295–9307 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
[Crossref]

C. Browning, K. Shi, A. D. Ellis, and L. P. Barry, “Optical burst-switched SSB-OFDM using a fast switching SG-DBR laser,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(9), 994–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Komma, C. Schwarz, G. Hofmann, D. Heinert, and R. Nawrodt, “Thermo-optic coefficient of silicon at 1550 nm and cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 14(4), 1021–1036 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, A. Forencich, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A demonstration of ultra-low-latency data center optical circuit switching,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(4), 95–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K. Chen, C. Hu, X. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Chen, and A. V. Vasilakos, “Survey on routing in data centers: insights and future directions,” IEEE Netw. 25, 6–10 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Biberman, H. L. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, W. Zhang, H. L. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “A hybrid optical packet and wavelength selective switching platform for high-performance data center networks,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24258–24267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2005 (1)

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adibi, A.

Aguinaldo, R.

R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Energy-efficient, digitally-driven “fat pipe” silicon photonic circuit switch in the ucsd mordia data-center network,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2014), pp. STu1J–2.

Ahmed, N.

Alexander, D. R.

A. S. Hamza, J. S. Deogun, and D. R. Alexander, “Free space optical multicast crossbar,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

L. Alloatti, M. Wade, V. Stojanovic, M. Popovic, and R. J. Ram, “Photonics design tool for advanced cmos nodes,” IET Optoelectron. 9(4), 163–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anuar, N. B.

I. A. T. Hashem, I. Yaqoob, N. B. Anuar, S. Mokhtar, A. Gani, and S. U. Khan, “The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues,” Information Syst. 47, 98–115 (2015).
[Crossref]

Atabaki, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

C. Chen, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, K. Wen, M. S. Chik, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Programmable dynamically-controlled silicon photonic switch fabric,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2952–2958 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
[Crossref]

D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” in Proceeding of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (IEEE, 2014).

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bahadori, M.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2975–2987 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, S. Shekhar, and K. Bergman, “Crosstalk penalty in microring-based silicon photonic interconnect systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(17), 4043–4052 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barry, L. P.

C. Browning, K. Shi, A. D. Ellis, and L. P. Barry, “Optical burst-switched SSB-OFDM using a fast switching SG-DBR laser,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(9), 994–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

C. Chen, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, K. Wen, M. S. Chik, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Programmable dynamically-controlled silicon photonic switch fabric,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2952–2958 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2975–2987 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, S. Shekhar, and K. Bergman, “Crosstalk penalty in microring-based silicon photonic interconnect systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(17), 4043–4052 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Samadi, V. Gupta, J. Xu, H. Wang, G. Zussman, and K. Bergman, “Optical multicast system for data center networks,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22162–22180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
[Crossref]

A. Biberman, H. L. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, W. Zhang, H. L. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “A hybrid optical packet and wavelength selective switching platform for high-performance data center networks,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24258–24267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Wavelength multicasting in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18047–18055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Calhoun, Q. Li, D. Nikolova, C. P. Chen, K. Wen, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, Hardware–software integrated silicon photonics for computing systems, in Silicon Photonics III, (Springer, 2016), Chap. 5.

A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, B. G. Lee, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermally active 4×4 non-blocking switch for networks-on-chip,” in IEEE 21st Annual Meeting of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2008), pp. 370–371.

D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” in Proceeding of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (IEEE, 2014).

W. Zhang, D. Liu, H. Wang, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of wavelength-reconfigurable optical packet-and circuit-switched platform for data center networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Interconnects Conference (OI), (IEEE, 2012), Paper WB 5.

Bergman, Keren

Keren Bergman and Sébastien Rumley, “Optical switching performance metrics for scalable data centers.” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Bernabe, S.

J. Lee, L. Carroll, C. Scarcella, N. Pavarelli, S. Menezo, S. Bernabe, E. Temporiti, and P. O’Brian, “Meeting the electrical, optical, and thermal design challenges of photonic-packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman, H. L. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Wavelength multicasting in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18047–18055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, B. G. Lee, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermally active 4×4 non-blocking switch for networks-on-chip,” in IEEE 21st Annual Meeting of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2008), pp. 370–371.

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Browning, C.

C. Browning, K. Shi, A. D. Ellis, and L. P. Barry, “Optical burst-switched SSB-OFDM using a fast switching SG-DBR laser,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(9), 994–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

Calhoun, D.

D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” in Proceeding of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (IEEE, 2014).

Calhoun, D. M.

D. M. Calhoun, Q. Li, D. Nikolova, C. P. Chen, K. Wen, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, Hardware–software integrated silicon photonics for computing systems, in Silicon Photonics III, (Springer, 2016), Chap. 5.

Carroll, L.

J. Lee, L. Carroll, C. Scarcella, N. Pavarelli, S. Menezo, S. Bernabe, E. Temporiti, and P. O’Brian, “Meeting the electrical, optical, and thermal design challenges of photonic-packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200209 (2016).
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A. Biberman, H. L. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 504–506 (2011).
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Chen, C.

C. Chen, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, K. Wen, M. S. Chik, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Programmable dynamically-controlled silicon photonic switch fabric,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2952–2958 (2016).
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Chen, C. P.

D. M. Calhoun, Q. Li, D. Nikolova, C. P. Chen, K. Wen, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, Hardware–software integrated silicon photonics for computing systems, in Silicon Photonics III, (Springer, 2016), Chap. 5.

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, X. Xiao, R. Ryf, and D. T. Neilson, “Wavelength selective switch for dynamic VCSEL-based data centers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication, (2016), pp. 1–3.

Chen, J.

Chen, K.

K. Chen, C. Hu, X. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Chen, and A. V. Vasilakos, “Survey on routing in data centers: insights and future directions,” IEEE Netw. 25, 6–10 (2011).
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Chen, R. T.

Chen, Y.

K. Chen, C. Hu, X. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Chen, and A. V. Vasilakos, “Survey on routing in data centers: insights and future directions,” IEEE Netw. 25, 6–10 (2011).
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Cheng, K.-T.

Chik, M. S.

C. Chen, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, K. Wen, M. S. Chik, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Programmable dynamically-controlled silicon photonic switch fabric,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2952–2958 (2016).
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Chrostowski, L.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, S. Shekhar, and K. Bergman, “Crosstalk penalty in microring-based silicon photonic interconnect systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(17), 4043–4052 (2016).
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Chu, D. P.

Collings, N.

Crossland, W. A.

Davenport, M.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
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A. S. Hamza, J. S. Deogun, and D. R. Alexander, “Free space optical multicast crossbar,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
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DeRose, C.

R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Energy-efficient, digitally-driven “fat pipe” silicon photonic circuit switch in the ucsd mordia data-center network,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2014), pp. STu1J–2.

Ding, R.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
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D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” in Proceeding of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (IEEE, 2014).

Dolinar, S.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
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Ellis, A. D.

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Fainman, Y.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, A. Forencich, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A demonstration of ultra-low-latency data center optical circuit switching,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(4), 95–96 (2012).
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R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Energy-efficient, digitally-driven “fat pipe” silicon photonic circuit switch in the ucsd mordia data-center network,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2014), pp. STu1J–2.

Farrington, N.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, A. Forencich, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A demonstration of ultra-low-latency data center optical circuit switching,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(4), 95–96 (2012).
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N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. C. Papen, “A 10 us hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. OW3H-3.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fontaine, N. K.

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, X. Xiao, R. Ryf, and D. T. Neilson, “Wavelength selective switch for dynamic VCSEL-based data centers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication, (2016), pp. 1–3.

Ford, J.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, A. Forencich, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A demonstration of ultra-low-latency data center optical circuit switching,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(4), 95–96 (2012).
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N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. C. Papen, “A 10 us hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. OW3H-3.

Forencich, A.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, A. Forencich, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A demonstration of ultra-low-latency data center optical circuit switching,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(4), 95–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. C. Papen, “A 10 us hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. OW3H-3.

R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Energy-efficient, digitally-driven “fat pipe” silicon photonic circuit switch in the ucsd mordia data-center network,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2014), pp. STu1J–2.

Foster, M. A.

Fournier, M.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gani, A.

I. A. T. Hashem, I. Yaqoob, N. B. Anuar, S. Mokhtar, A. Gani, and S. U. Khan, “The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues,” Information Syst. 47, 98–115 (2015).
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Gould, M.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
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Gupta, V.

Hamza, A. S.

A. S. Hamza, J. S. Deogun, and D. R. Alexander, “Free space optical multicast crossbar,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
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Hashem, I. A. T.

I. A. T. Hashem, I. Yaqoob, N. B. Anuar, S. Mokhtar, A. Gani, and S. U. Khan, “The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues,” Information Syst. 47, 98–115 (2015).
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J. Komma, C. Schwarz, G. Hofmann, D. Heinert, and R. Nawrodt, “Thermo-optic coefficient of silicon at 1550 nm and cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 1905 (2012).
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Hochberg, M.

C. Chen, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, K. Wen, M. S. Chik, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Programmable dynamically-controlled silicon photonic switch fabric,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2952–2958 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
[Crossref]

D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” in Proceeding of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (IEEE, 2014).

Hofmann, G.

J. Komma, C. Schwarz, G. Hofmann, D. Heinert, and R. Nawrodt, “Thermo-optic coefficient of silicon at 1550 nm and cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 1905 (2012).
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Hosseini, E. S.

Hu, C.

K. Chen, C. Hu, X. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Chen, and A. V. Vasilakos, “Survey on routing in data centers: insights and future directions,” IEEE Netw. 25, 6–10 (2011).
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Huang, B.

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, X. Xiao, R. Ryf, and D. T. Neilson, “Wavelength selective switch for dynamic VCSEL-based data centers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication, (2016), pp. 1–3.

Huang, H.

Hulme, J.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
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Jaeger, N. A.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, S. Shekhar, and K. Bergman, “Crosstalk penalty in microring-based silicon photonic interconnect systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(17), 4043–4052 (2016).
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Jayatilleka, H.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, S. Shekhar, and K. Bergman, “Crosstalk penalty in microring-based silicon photonic interconnect systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(17), 4043–4052 (2016).
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I. A. T. Hashem, I. Yaqoob, N. B. Anuar, S. Mokhtar, A. Gani, and S. U. Khan, “The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues,” Information Syst. 47, 98–115 (2015).
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Komljenovic, T.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
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Komma, J.

J. Komma, C. Schwarz, G. Hofmann, D. Heinert, and R. Nawrodt, “Thermo-optic coefficient of silicon at 1550 nm and cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 1905 (2012).
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Kwong, D.

Lee, B. G.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Wavelength multicasting in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18047–18055 (2010).
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A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, B. G. Lee, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermally active 4×4 non-blocking switch for networks-on-chip,” in IEEE 21st Annual Meeting of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2008), pp. 370–371.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, L. Carroll, C. Scarcella, N. Pavarelli, S. Menezo, S. Bernabe, E. Temporiti, and P. O’Brian, “Meeting the electrical, optical, and thermal design challenges of photonic-packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200209 (2016).
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Lee, S.

Lentine, A. L.

R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Energy-efficient, digitally-driven “fat pipe” silicon photonic circuit switch in the ucsd mordia data-center network,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2014), pp. STu1J–2.

Li, D.

Li, Q.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
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D. M. Calhoun, Q. Li, D. Nikolova, C. P. Chen, K. Wen, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, Hardware–software integrated silicon photonics for computing systems, in Silicon Photonics III, (Springer, 2016), Chap. 5.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Lim, A. E.-J.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
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Lipson, M.

L. Xu, W. Zhang, H. L. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “A hybrid optical packet and wavelength selective switching platform for high-performance data center networks,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24258–24267 (2011).
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A. Biberman, H. L. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Wavelength multicasting in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18047–18055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, B. G. Lee, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermally active 4×4 non-blocking switch for networks-on-chip,” in IEEE 21st Annual Meeting of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2008), pp. 370–371.

D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” in Proceeding of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (IEEE, 2014).

Lira, H. L.

A. Biberman, H. L. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, W. Zhang, H. L. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “A hybrid optical packet and wavelength selective switching platform for high-performance data center networks,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24258–24267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, A. Y.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
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Liu, D.

W. Zhang, D. Liu, H. Wang, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of wavelength-reconfigurable optical packet-and circuit-switched platform for data center networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Interconnects Conference (OI), (IEEE, 2012), Paper WB 5.

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

C. Chen, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, K. Wen, M. S. Chik, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Programmable dynamically-controlled silicon photonic switch fabric,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2952–2958 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
[Crossref]

D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” in Proceeding of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (IEEE, 2014).

Lo, G.-Q.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
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Lu, L.

Luo, L.

D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” in Proceeding of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (IEEE, 2014).

Luyssaert, B.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
[Crossref]

Menezo, S.

J. Lee, L. Carroll, C. Scarcella, N. Pavarelli, S. Menezo, S. Bernabe, E. Temporiti, and P. O’Brian, “Meeting the electrical, optical, and thermal design challenges of photonic-packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mokhtar, S.

I. A. T. Hashem, I. Yaqoob, N. B. Anuar, S. Mokhtar, A. Gani, and S. U. Khan, “The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues,” Information Syst. 47, 98–115 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mookherjea, S.

R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Energy-efficient, digitally-driven “fat pipe” silicon photonic circuit switch in the ucsd mordia data-center network,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2014), pp. STu1J–2.

Moore, J. R.

Murray, K.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, S. Shekhar, and K. Bergman, “Crosstalk penalty in microring-based silicon photonic interconnect systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(17), 4043–4052 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nawrodt, R.

J. Komma, C. Schwarz, G. Hofmann, D. Heinert, and R. Nawrodt, “Thermo-optic coefficient of silicon at 1550 nm and cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

Neilson, D. T.

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, X. Xiao, R. Ryf, and D. T. Neilson, “Wavelength selective switch for dynamic VCSEL-based data centers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication, (2016), pp. 1–3.

Ng, T. E.

G. Wang and T. E. Ng, “The impact of virtualization on network performance of amazon ec2 data center,” in Proceedings of INFOCOM, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–9.

Nikolova, D.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2975–2987 (2016).
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D. M. Calhoun, Q. Li, D. Nikolova, C. P. Chen, K. Wen, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, Hardware–software integrated silicon photonics for computing systems, in Silicon Photonics III, (Springer, 2016), Chap. 5.

Novack, A.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
[Crossref]

O’Brian, P.

J. Lee, L. Carroll, C. Scarcella, N. Pavarelli, S. Menezo, S. Bernabe, E. Temporiti, and P. O’Brian, “Meeting the electrical, optical, and thermal design challenges of photonic-packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

A. Biberman, H. L. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Padmaraju, K.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
[Crossref]

A. Biberman, H. L. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Papen, G.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, A. Forencich, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A demonstration of ultra-low-latency data center optical circuit switching,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(4), 95–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Energy-efficient, digitally-driven “fat pipe” silicon photonic circuit switch in the ucsd mordia data-center network,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2014), pp. STu1J–2.

Papen, G. C.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. C. Papen, “A 10 us hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. OW3H-3.

Pavarelli, N.

J. Lee, L. Carroll, C. Scarcella, N. Pavarelli, S. Menezo, S. Bernabe, E. Temporiti, and P. O’Brian, “Meeting the electrical, optical, and thermal design challenges of photonic-packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pivnenko, M.

Popovic, M.

L. Alloatti, M. Wade, V. Stojanovic, M. Popovic, and R. J. Ram, “Photonics design tool for advanced cmos nodes,” IET Optoelectron. 9(4), 163–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Porter, G.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, A. Forencich, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A demonstration of ultra-low-latency data center optical circuit switching,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(4), 95–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. C. Papen, “A 10 us hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. OW3H-3.

R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Energy-efficient, digitally-driven “fat pipe” silicon photonic circuit switch in the ucsd mordia data-center network,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2014), pp. STu1J–2.

Ram, R. J.

L. Alloatti, M. Wade, V. Stojanovic, M. Popovic, and R. J. Ram, “Photonics design tool for advanced cmos nodes,” IET Optoelectron. 9(4), 163–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, K.

A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Proteus: a topology malleable data center network,” in Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Redmond, M. M.

Ren, Y.

Robertson, B.

Rumley, S.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2975–2987 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, S. Shekhar, and K. Bergman, “Crosstalk penalty in microring-based silicon photonic interconnect systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(17), 4043–4052 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. M. Calhoun, Q. Li, D. Nikolova, C. P. Chen, K. Wen, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, Hardware–software integrated silicon photonics for computing systems, in Silicon Photonics III, (Springer, 2016), Chap. 5.

D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” in Proceeding of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (IEEE, 2014).

Rumley, Sébastien

Keren Bergman and Sébastien Rumley, “Optical switching performance metrics for scalable data centers.” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Ryf, R.

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, X. Xiao, R. Ryf, and D. T. Neilson, “Wavelength selective switch for dynamic VCSEL-based data centers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication, (2016), pp. 1–3.

Samadi, P.

Santis, C. T.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Scarcella, C.

J. Lee, L. Carroll, C. Scarcella, N. Pavarelli, S. Menezo, S. Bernabe, E. Temporiti, and P. O’Brian, “Meeting the electrical, optical, and thermal design challenges of photonic-packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, C.

J. Komma, C. Schwarz, G. Hofmann, D. Heinert, and R. Nawrodt, “Thermo-optic coefficient of silicon at 1550 nm and cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shekhar, S.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, S. Shekhar, and K. Bergman, “Crosstalk penalty in microring-based silicon photonic interconnect systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(17), 4043–4052 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sherwood-Droz, N.

A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, B. G. Lee, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermally active 4×4 non-blocking switch for networks-on-chip,” in IEEE 21st Annual Meeting of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2008), pp. 370–371.

Shi, K.

C. Browning, K. Shi, A. D. Ellis, and L. P. Barry, “Optical burst-switched SSB-OFDM using a fast switching SG-DBR laser,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(9), 994–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

Singh, A.

A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Proteus: a topology malleable data center network,” in Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Singla, A.

A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Proteus: a topology malleable data center network,” in Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Spott, A.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, S.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stanton, E. J.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Starbuck, A.

R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Energy-efficient, digitally-driven “fat pipe” silicon photonic circuit switch in the ucsd mordia data-center network,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2014), pp. STu1J–2.

Stojanovic, V.

L. Alloatti, M. Wade, V. Stojanovic, M. Popovic, and R. J. Ram, “Photonics design tool for advanced cmos nodes,” IET Optoelectron. 9(4), 163–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Subbaraman, H.

Sun, P.-C.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, A. Forencich, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A demonstration of ultra-low-latency data center optical circuit switching,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(4), 95–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. C. Papen, “A 10 us hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. OW3H-3.

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Temporiti, E.

J. Lee, L. Carroll, C. Scarcella, N. Pavarelli, S. Menezo, S. Bernabe, E. Temporiti, and P. O’Brian, “Meeting the electrical, optical, and thermal design challenges of photonic-packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tomkos, I.

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 14(4), 1021–1036 (2012).
[Crossref]

Trotter, D. C.

R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Energy-efficient, digitally-driven “fat pipe” silicon photonic circuit switch in the ucsd mordia data-center network,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2014), pp. STu1J–2.

Tur, M.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

Vahdat, A.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, A. Forencich, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A demonstration of ultra-low-latency data center optical circuit switching,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(4), 95–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. C. Papen, “A 10 us hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. OW3H-3.

Van Campenhout, J.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vasilakos, A. V.

K. Chen, C. Hu, X. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Chen, and A. V. Vasilakos, “Survey on routing in data centers: insights and future directions,” IEEE Netw. 25, 6–10 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wade, M.

L. Alloatti, M. Wade, V. Stojanovic, M. Popovic, and R. J. Ram, “Photonics design tool for advanced cmos nodes,” IET Optoelectron. 9(4), 163–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Wang and T. E. Ng, “The impact of virtualization on network performance of amazon ec2 data center,” in Proceedings of INFOCOM, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–9.

Wang, H.

P. Samadi, V. Gupta, J. Xu, H. Wang, G. Zussman, and K. Bergman, “Optical multicast system for data center networks,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22162–22180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, D. Liu, H. Wang, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of wavelength-reconfigurable optical packet-and circuit-switched platform for data center networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Interconnects Conference (OI), (IEEE, 2012), Paper WB 5.

Wang, M.

Wen, K.

C. Chen, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, K. Wen, M. S. Chik, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Programmable dynamically-controlled silicon photonic switch fabric,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2952–2958 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” in Proceeding of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (IEEE, 2014).

D. M. Calhoun, Q. Li, D. Nikolova, C. P. Chen, K. Wen, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, Hardware–software integrated silicon photonics for computing systems, in Silicon Photonics III, (Springer, 2016), Chap. 5.

White, I. H.

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

Willner, A.

Wonfor, A.

Wu, R.

Xiao, X.

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, X. Xiao, R. Ryf, and D. T. Neilson, “Wavelength selective switch for dynamic VCSEL-based data centers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication, (2016), pp. 1–3.

Xu, J.

Xu, L.

L. Xu, W. Zhang, H. L. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “A hybrid optical packet and wavelength selective switching platform for high-performance data center networks,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24258–24267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Proteus: a topology malleable data center network,” in Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Xu, X.

Yan, Y.

Yang, H.

Yang, Y.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
[Crossref]

Yaqoob, I.

I. A. T. Hashem, I. Yaqoob, N. B. Anuar, S. Mokhtar, A. Gani, and S. U. Khan, “The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues,” Information Syst. 47, 98–115 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Yue, Y.

Zhang, C.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

L. Xu, W. Zhang, H. L. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “A hybrid optical packet and wavelength selective switching platform for high-performance data center networks,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24258–24267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, D. Liu, H. Wang, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of wavelength-reconfigurable optical packet-and circuit-switched platform for data center networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Interconnects Conference (OI), (IEEE, 2012), Paper WB 5.

Zhang, X.

H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, and R. T. Chen, “Recent advances in silicon-based passive and active optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2487–2511 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, C. Hu, X. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Chen, and A. V. Vasilakos, “Survey on routing in data centers: insights and future directions,” IEEE Netw. 25, 6–10 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, and R. T. Chen, “Recent advances in silicon-based passive and active optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2487–2511 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
[Crossref]

A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Proteus: a topology malleable data center network,” in Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

Zhao, S.

Zheng, K.

K. Chen, C. Hu, X. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Chen, and A. V. Vasilakos, “Survey on routing in data centers: insights and future directions,” IEEE Netw. 25, 6–10 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

Zhu, X.

C. Chen, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, K. Wen, M. S. Chik, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Programmable dynamically-controlled silicon photonic switch fabric,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2952–2958 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” in Proceeding of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (IEEE, 2014).

Zussman, G.

ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

N. Farrington, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, A. Forencich, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A demonstration of ultra-low-latency data center optical circuit switching,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 42(4), 95–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Komma, C. Schwarz, G. Hofmann, D. Heinert, and R. Nawrodt, “Thermo-optic coefficient of silicon at 1550 nm and cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. (1)

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 14(4), 1021–1036 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2975–2987 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, N. A. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, S. Shekhar, and K. Bergman, “Crosstalk penalty in microring-based silicon photonic interconnect systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(17), 4043–4052 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with cmos technology,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, X. Zhu, Y. Liu, K. Wen, M. S. Chik, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Programmable dynamically-controlled silicon photonic switch fabric,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2952–2958 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

C. Browning, K. Shi, A. D. Ellis, and L. P. Barry, “Optical burst-switched SSB-OFDM using a fast switching SG-DBR laser,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(9), 994–1000 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. S. Hamza, J. S. Deogun, and D. R. Alexander, “Free space optical multicast crossbar,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Lee, L. Carroll, C. Scarcella, N. Pavarelli, S. Menezo, S. Bernabe, E. Temporiti, and P. O’Brian, “Meeting the electrical, optical, and thermal design challenges of photonic-packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200209 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Netw. (1)

K. Chen, C. Hu, X. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Chen, and A. V. Vasilakos, “Survey on routing in data centers: insights and future directions,” IEEE Netw. 25, 6–10 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Biberman, H. L. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 504–506 (2011).
[Crossref]

IET Optoelectron. (1)

L. Alloatti, M. Wade, V. Stojanovic, M. Popovic, and R. J. Ram, “Photonics design tool for advanced cmos nodes,” IET Optoelectron. 9(4), 163–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Information Syst. (1)

I. A. T. Hashem, I. Yaqoob, N. B. Anuar, S. Mokhtar, A. Gani, and S. U. Khan, “The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues,” Information Syst. 47, 98–115 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (7)

P. Samadi, V. Gupta, J. Xu, H. Wang, G. Zussman, and K. Bergman, “Optical multicast system for data center networks,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22162–22180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, and R. T. Chen, “Recent advances in silicon-based passive and active optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2487–2511 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lu, S. Zhao, L. Zhou, D. Li, Z. Li, M. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “16×16 non-blocking silicon optical switch based on electro-optic mach-zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9295–9307 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xu, W. Zhang, H. L. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “A hybrid optical packet and wavelength selective switching platform for high-performance data center networks,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24258–24267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Wavelength multicasting in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18047–18055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Atabaki, E. S. Hosseini, A. Eftekhar, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Optimization of metallic microheaters for high-speed reconfigurable silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18312–18323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wu, C.-H. Chen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, K.-T. Cheng, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Compact models for carrier-injection silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15545–15554 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergman, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 ghz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013)
[Crossref]

Other (10)

H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, X. Xiao, R. Ryf, and D. T. Neilson, “Wavelength selective switch for dynamic VCSEL-based data centers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication, (2016), pp. 1–3.

G. Wang and T. E. Ng, “The impact of virtualization on network performance of amazon ec2 data center,” in Proceedings of INFOCOM, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–9.

W. Zhang, D. Liu, H. Wang, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of wavelength-reconfigurable optical packet-and circuit-switched platform for data center networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Interconnects Conference (OI), (IEEE, 2012), Paper WB 5.

Keren Bergman and Sébastien Rumley, “Optical switching performance metrics for scalable data centers.” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Proteus: a topology malleable data center network,” in Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, (ACM, 2010), p. 8.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, P.-C. Sun, S. Fainman, J. Ford, A. Vahdat, G. Porter, and G. C. Papen, “A 10 us hybrid optical-circuit/electrical-packet network for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), pp. OW3H-3.

R. Aguinaldo, A. Forencich, C. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, Y. Fainman, G. Porter, G. Papen, and S. Mookherjea, “Energy-efficient, digitally-driven “fat pipe” silicon photonic circuit switch in the ucsd mordia data-center network,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2014), pp. STu1J–2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Block diagram of the system including a tunable laser, SiP device, and two control FPGAs. The data modulates the laser’s wavelength and is transmitted through the SiP device. The central control computer can reconfigure the tunable laser and the SiP device to switch the data to any number of the eight ports (a), wavelength routing (b), and multicasting (c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Measured thermo-optic response of the heater-ring system of the eight rings. Inset illustrates a schematic of the SiP device where each MRR has its own individual resistive heating element. (b) Averaged shift of resonance as a function of dissipated power in eight rings. Bottom inset illustrates a red shift and the top inset shows the measured 3dB bandwidth of each drop port.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Illustration of the spectral response of the chip with zero bias. (b) Illustration of the spectral response of the chip in unicast operation. (c) Demonstration of a detuning procedure where 10Gbps data is modulated on wavelength 1543.09 and both MRR 2 and 8 are tuned to the same resonances. (d) Illustration of the spectral response of the chip in multicast operation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The flowchart of the control algorithm to achieve optimal tuning. (b) If the laser wavelength is located outside the two possible tuning points (A and B), point A is selected. (c) If the laser falls between the A and B tuning points, point A is not accessible. Therefore, point B is targeted as it requires less tuning power than point C or D.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) An image of a fast, C-band tunable laser. (b) Schematic of the experimental setup. Pulse Pattern Generator (PPG), Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA), Mach Zehnder Modulator (MZM), Bit Error Rate Detector (BERT), Avalanche Photodiode (APD), Trans-Impedance Amplifier (TIA), Variable Optical Attenuator (VOA), Polarization Controller (PC), Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA), Optical Bandpass Filter (OBPF). (c) Packaged SiP device with its control plane: (1) four dual DAC cards on an FPGA development board, (2) electrical Gain stage (3) breakout PCB (4) packaged and wire-bonded SiP (5) An array of ten fibers glued on the SiP chip.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Tuning ranges of eight cascaded MRRs in the C-band. The eye-diagram plots are captured from experimentally tested error-free unicast operation at various combinations of wavelength and output ports. Color strips are used to differentiate the outputs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental results of 8 different cases including Unicast, Multicast and Broadcast with Channel 17 are shown in first 8 columns. The last column shows the estimation of best and worst case power consumption for all possible configurations.

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