Abstract

We demonstrate electro-optic tuning of an on-chip lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes. First, the metallic microelectrodes were fabricated on the substrate using a femtosecond laser. Then high-Q lithium niobate microresonator located between the microelectrodes was further fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing accompanied by focused ion beam milling. Thanks to the efficient design, a high electro-optical tuning coefficient of 3.41 pm/V has been obtained.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, J. X. Song, N. W. Wang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Second harmonic generation in a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1405.6473 (2014).
  3. J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Wang, M. J. Burek, Z. Lin, H. A. Atikian, V. Venkataraman, I. C. Huang, P. Stark, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30924–30933 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  7. M. Wang, J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, Z. M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. In press (2016).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  13. J. Xu, Y. Liao, H. Zeng, Z. Zhou, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Selective metallization on insulator surfaces with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12743–12748 (2007).
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, J. L. Ni, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Melnichuk and L. T. Wood, “Direct Kerr electro-optic effect in noncentrosymmetric materials,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013821 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Liao, H. Zeng, Z. Zhou, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Selective metallization on insulator surfaces with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12743–12748 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Armani, B. Min, A. Martin, and K. Vahala, “Electrical thermo-optic tuning of ultrahigh-Q microtoroid resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5439–5441 (2004).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Armani, D.

D. Armani, B. Min, A. Martin, and K. Vahala, “Electrical thermo-optic tuning of ultrahigh-Q microtoroid resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5439–5441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arnold, S.

Atikian, H. A.

Bo, F.

Burek, M. J.

Chen, L.

Cheng, Y.

J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, J. L. Ni, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Zhou, F. He, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Electro-optic integration of embedded electrodes and waveguides in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2281–2283 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, Y. Liao, H. Zeng, Z. Zhou, H. Sun, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Selective metallization on insulator surfaces with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12743–12748 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, Z. M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. In press (2016).

Degl’Innocenti, R.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fang, W.

J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, J. L. Ni, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, Z. M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. In press (2016).

Fang, Z.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Z. W.

J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, J. L. Ni, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, Z. M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. In press (2016).

Gao, F.

Griffel, G.

Guarino, A.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Günter, P.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, F.

Hu, H.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, I. C.

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Li, W.

Liao, Y.

Lin, J.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J. T.

J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, J. L. Ni, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, Z. M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. In press (2016).

Lin, Z.

Liu, Z. M.

M. Wang, J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, Z. M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. In press (2016).

Loncar, M.

Maleki, L.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, A.

D. Armani, B. Min, A. Martin, and K. Vahala, “Electrical thermo-optic tuning of ultrahigh-Q microtoroid resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5439–5441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melnichuk, M.

M. Melnichuk and L. T. Wood, “Direct Kerr electro-optic effect in noncentrosymmetric materials,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013821 (2010).
[Crossref]

Midorikawa, K.

Min, B.

D. Armani, B. Min, A. Martin, and K. Vahala, “Electrical thermo-optic tuning of ultrahigh-Q microtoroid resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5439–5441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ni, J. L.

J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, J. L. Ni, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Poberaj, G.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qiao, L.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, L. L.

J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, J. L. Ni, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, Z. M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. In press (2016).

Reano, R. M.

Rezzonico, D.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Savchenkov, A. A.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serpengüzel, A.

Sohler, W.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Stark, P.

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H.

Vahala, K.

D. Armani, B. Min, A. Martin, and K. Vahala, “Electrical thermo-optic tuning of ultrahigh-Q microtoroid resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5439–5441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Venkataraman, V.

Wan, S.

Wang, C.

Wang, J.

Wang, M.

J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, J. L. Ni, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, Z. M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. In press (2016).

Wang, N.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Wood, L. T.

M. Melnichuk and L. T. Wood, “Direct Kerr electro-optic effect in noncentrosymmetric materials,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013821 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wood, M. G.

Xu, J.

Xu, Y.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y. X.

J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, J. L. Ni, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, Z. M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. In press (2016).

Xu, Z.

Zeng, H.

Zhang, G.

Zhou, Z.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Armani, B. Min, A. Martin, and K. Vahala, “Electrical thermo-optic tuning of ultrahigh-Q microtoroid resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5439–5441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Melnichuk and L. T. Wood, “Direct Kerr electro-optic effect in noncentrosymmetric materials,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013821 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, J. L. Ni, M. Wang, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, J. X. Song, N. W. Wang, L. L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Second harmonic generation in a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1405.6473 (2014).

M. Wang, J. T. Lin, Y. X. Xu, Z. W. Fang, L. L. Qiao, Z. M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. In press (2016).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The processing flow of fabricating an on-chip electro-optic tunable LN microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes is illustrated in (a)-(d): (a) formation of two microelectrodes using femtosecond laser assisted selective electroless copper plating; (b) water-assisted femtosecond laser ablation in LN substrate to form a cylindrical post; (c) focused ion beam (FIB) milling to smooth the periphery of the cylindrical post; (d) chemical wet etching of the fabricated sample to form the freestanding LN microdisk resonator. (e) Experimental setup for measuring the electro-optic tuning of the resonate wavelength in the LiNbO3 microresonator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The top view of the EO tunable LN microresonator integrated with in-plane microelectrodes. (b) The SEM image of the freestanding LN microdisk with smooth boundary. Inset of (b) is the overview of the LN microdisk. (c) Normalized transmission spectrum of the LN microresonator measured under the critical coupling condition without the applied voltage. (d) The Lorentz fitting (red curve) of the dip under over-coupling condition showing a Q-factor of 1.83 × 105. The inset of (d) is the top-view optical image of the LN microresonator coupled with a fiber taper.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The resonant wavelength in the fabricated microresonator as a function of the applied voltage. (b) The resonant wavelength shifts as a function of the voltage with a nonlinear relationship. At low voltages (i.e., 0 ~80 V), the tuning efficiency is 0.826 pm/V according to the linear fitting plotted by the blue dash line. At high voltages (i.e., above 80 V), the tuning coefficient is 3.41 pm/V according to the linear fitting plotted by the green dash dot line.

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