Abstract

In this work we experimentally demonstrated an underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) link over a 2.96 m distance with two 445-nm fiber-pigtailed laser diodes employing Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) to allow for spatial multiplexing. Using an on-off keying, non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) modulation scheme, a data rate of 3 Gbit/s was achieved in water with an attenuation coefficient of 0.4128 m−1 at an average bit error rate (BER) of 2.073 × 10−4, well beneath the forward error correction (FEC) threshold.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (8)

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Oubei, C. Li, K. H. Park, T. K. Ng, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20743–20748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H. C. Kuo, J. H. He, M. S. Alouini, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, M. Mazilu, Y. Arita, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Creating and probing of a perfect vortex in situ with an optically trapped particle,” Opt. Rev. 22(1), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14197–14201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, K. Miller, and E. Johnson, “Spatial multiplexing for blue lasers for undersea communications,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 945905 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Byrd, A. Pung, E. Johnson, K. Lee, R. Magnusson, P. Binun, and K. McCormick, “Wavelength Selection and Polarization Multiplexing of Blue Laser Diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(20), 2166–2169 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013024 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and J. Muth, “Temporal Response of the Underwater Optical Channel for High-Bandwidth Wireless Laser Communications,” J. Oceanic Eng. 38(4), 730–742 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. J. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

1973 (1)

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Almazov, A. A.

Alouini, M. S.

Arita, Y.

M. Chen, M. Mazilu, Y. Arita, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Creating and probing of a perfect vortex in situ with an optically trapped particle,” Opt. Rev. 22(1), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Baghdady, J.

J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, K. Miller, and E. Johnson, “Spatial multiplexing for blue lasers for undersea communications,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 945905 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Johnson, J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, and K. Miller, “Space division multiplexing of blue lasers for undersea communications,” in Photonics Conference (IPC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 653–654.
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Barnett, S.

Binun, P.

M. Byrd, A. Pung, E. Johnson, K. Lee, R. Magnusson, P. Binun, and K. McCormick, “Wavelength Selection and Polarization Multiplexing of Blue Laser Diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(20), 2166–2169 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Bowman, R.

M. J. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Byrd, M.

M. Byrd, A. Pung, E. Johnson, K. Lee, R. Magnusson, P. Binun, and K. McCormick, “Wavelength Selection and Polarization Multiplexing of Blue Laser Diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(20), 2166–2169 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, K. Miller, and E. Johnson, “Spatial multiplexing for blue lasers for undersea communications,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 945905 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Johnson, J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, and K. Miller, “Space division multiplexing of blue lasers for undersea communications,” in Photonics Conference (IPC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 653–654.
[Crossref]

Cantore, M.

Cao, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Chen, M.

M. Chen, M. Mazilu, Y. Arita, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Creating and probing of a perfect vortex in situ with an optically trapped particle,” Opt. Rev. 22(1), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y. C.

Cochenour, B. M.

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and J. Muth, “Temporal Response of the Underwater Optical Channel for High-Bandwidth Wireless Laser Communications,” J. Oceanic Eng. 38(4), 730–742 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the Beam-Spread Function for Underwater Wireless Optical Communications Links,” J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Courtial, J.

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013024 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5448–5456 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cvijetic, M.

DenBaars, S. P.

Dholakia, K.

M. Chen, M. Mazilu, Y. Arita, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Creating and probing of a perfect vortex in situ with an optically trapped particle,” Opt. Rev. 22(1), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duran, J. R.

Elfstrom, H.

Farrell, R. M.

Fickler, R.

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14197–14201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidel, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatically modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fink, M.

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14197–14201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidel, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatically modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Gbur, G.

Gibson, G.

Hale, G. M.

Handsteiner, J.

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14197–14201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidel, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatically modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hanson, F.

He, J. H.

Huang, H.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Janjua, B.

Johnson, E.

J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, K. Miller, and E. Johnson, “Spatial multiplexing for blue lasers for undersea communications,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 945905 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Byrd, A. Pung, E. Johnson, K. Lee, R. Magnusson, P. Binun, and K. McCormick, “Wavelength Selection and Polarization Multiplexing of Blue Laser Diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(20), 2166–2169 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Johnson, J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, and K. Miller, “Space division multiplexing of blue lasers for undersea communications,” in Photonics Conference (IPC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 653–654.
[Crossref]

Khonina, S. N.

Kotlyar, V. V.

Krenn, M.

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14197–14201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidel, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatically modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Laux, A. E.

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the Beam-Spread Function for Underwater Wireless Optical Communications Links,” J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lavery, M. P. J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013024 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

Lee, K.

M. Byrd, A. Pung, E. Johnson, K. Lee, R. Magnusson, P. Binun, and K. McCormick, “Wavelength Selection and Polarization Multiplexing of Blue Laser Diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(20), 2166–2169 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, L.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Li, M.

Li, W.

J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, K. Miller, and E. Johnson, “Spatial multiplexing for blue lasers for undersea communications,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 945905 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Johnson, J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, and K. Miller, “Space division multiplexing of blue lasers for undersea communications,” in Photonics Conference (IPC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 653–654.
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

Magnusson, R.

M. Byrd, A. Pung, E. Johnson, K. Lee, R. Magnusson, P. Binun, and K. McCormick, “Wavelength Selection and Polarization Multiplexing of Blue Laser Diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(20), 2166–2169 (2015).
[Crossref]

Malik, M.

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidel, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatically modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Margalith, T.

Mazilu, M.

M. Chen, M. Mazilu, Y. Arita, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Creating and probing of a perfect vortex in situ with an optically trapped particle,” Opt. Rev. 22(1), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

McCormick, K.

M. Byrd, A. Pung, E. Johnson, K. Lee, R. Magnusson, P. Binun, and K. McCormick, “Wavelength Selection and Polarization Multiplexing of Blue Laser Diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(20), 2166–2169 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miller, K.

J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, K. Miller, and E. Johnson, “Spatial multiplexing for blue lasers for undersea communications,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 945905 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Johnson, J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, and K. Miller, “Space division multiplexing of blue lasers for undersea communications,” in Photonics Conference (IPC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 653–654.
[Crossref]

Molisch, A. F.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Morgan, K.

J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, K. Miller, and E. Johnson, “Spatial multiplexing for blue lasers for undersea communications,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 945905 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Johnson, J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, and K. Miller, “Space division multiplexing of blue lasers for undersea communications,” in Photonics Conference (IPC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 653–654.
[Crossref]

Mullen, L. J.

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and J. Muth, “Temporal Response of the Underwater Optical Channel for High-Bandwidth Wireless Laser Communications,” J. Oceanic Eng. 38(4), 730–742 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the Beam-Spread Function for Underwater Wireless Optical Communications Links,” J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Muth, J.

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and J. Muth, “Temporal Response of the Underwater Optical Channel for High-Bandwidth Wireless Laser Communications,” J. Oceanic Eng. 38(4), 730–742 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

Neuner, B.

Ng, T. K.

Oh, S. H.

Ooi, B. S.

Oubei, H. M.

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013024 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. J. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, K. H.

Pas’ko, V.

Poirier, P.

Pung, A.

J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, K. Miller, and E. Johnson, “Spatial multiplexing for blue lasers for undersea communications,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 945905 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Byrd, A. Pung, E. Johnson, K. Lee, R. Magnusson, P. Binun, and K. McCormick, “Wavelength Selection and Polarization Multiplexing of Blue Laser Diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(20), 2166–2169 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Johnson, J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, and K. Miller, “Space division multiplexing of blue lasers for undersea communications,” in Photonics Conference (IPC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 653–654.
[Crossref]

Querry, M. R.

Radic, S.

Ramachandran, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Ren, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Robertson, D. J.

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013024 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scheidel, T.

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidel, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatically modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Soifer, V. A.

Speck, J. S.

Sponselli, A.

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013024 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steinhoff, N. K.

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013024 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takashima, Y.

Tsai, C. T.

Tur, M.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Turunen, J.

Tyler, G. A.

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013024 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tyson, R. K.

Ursin, R.

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidel, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatically modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vasnetsov, M.

Wang, H. Y.

Wang, J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Willner, A. E.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013024 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wright, E. M.

M. Chen, M. Mazilu, Y. Arita, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Creating and probing of a perfect vortex in situ with an optically trapped particle,” Opt. Rev. 22(1), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Yan, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Yao, A. M.

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

Zeilinger, A.

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14197–14201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidel, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatically modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhao, Z.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Adv. Opt. Photonics (2)

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Byrd, A. Pung, E. Johnson, K. Lee, R. Magnusson, P. Binun, and K. McCormick, “Wavelength Selection and Polarization Multiplexing of Blue Laser Diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(20), 2166–2169 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Oceanic Eng. (2)

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the Beam-Spread Function for Underwater Wireless Optical Communications Links,” J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and J. Muth, “Temporal Response of the Underwater Optical Channel for High-Bandwidth Wireless Laser Communications,” J. Oceanic Eng. 38(4), 730–742 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. J. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (2)

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013024 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidel, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatically modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Rev. (1)

M. Chen, M. Mazilu, Y. Arita, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “Creating and probing of a perfect vortex in situ with an optically trapped particle,” Opt. Rev. 22(1), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14197–14201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, K. Miller, and E. Johnson, “Spatial multiplexing for blue lasers for undersea communications,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 945905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

E. Johnson, J. Baghdady, M. Byrd, W. Li, K. Morgan, A. Pung, and K. Miller, “Space division multiplexing of blue lasers for undersea communications,” in Photonics Conference (IPC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 653–654.
[Crossref]

G. Mooradian, “Undersea laser communications is a “game-changer” for the US Navy, so how do we make the promise a reality?” in Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2012), pp. 71–72.

R. Drevinskas, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, and P. Kazansky, “High-Topological Charge Vortex Tweezers with Continuous Control of Orbital Angular Momentum by Ultrafast Laser Machining,” in CLEO:2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper STu1L.2.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Generation of OAM beams using vortex phase plates of charge numbers (a) m = + 1 and (b) m = −1.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Intensity and phase profiles of vortex beams of charge numbers m = + 1 ((a) and (b), respectively) and m = −1 ((c) and (d), respectively).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Regeneration of plane wave through inverse phase plate propagation. (b) Intensity and (c) phase profiles of resulting demultiplexed beam.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Profile of (a) |m| = 4 and (b) |m| = 8 phase plates, along with a top-down view of the completed optics for (c) |m| = 4 and (d) |m| = 8.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Attenuation of OAM beams through underwater environments for beams of charge numbers m = 0, m = |8|, and m = |16|.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental Layout: A. Arbitrary Waveform Generator, B. 10 dB Amplifiers, C. Bias-tees/Fiber-pigtailed LDs, D. DC Power Supply, E. Fiber Collimator (f = 4.6 mm), F. Optical Phase Plate, G. Fiber Collimator (f = 4.6 mm), H. Optical Phase Plate, I. 50/50 Non-polarizing Beam Splitter, J. 5X Beam Expander (f = 30 mm and f = 150 mm pair), K. 50/50 Non-polarizing Beam Splitter, L. Optical Phase Plate, M. Focusing lens (f = 125 mm), N. Pinhole (40 μm), O. Focusing lens (f = 50 mm), P. Avalanche Photodetector, Q. Optical Phase Plate, R. Focusing lens (f = 125 mm), S. Pinhole (40 m), T. Focusing lens (f = 50 mm), U. Avalanche Photodetector.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Photographs of (a) transmitter and (b) receiver.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Demultiplexed image distributions of (a) m = −8 beam; (b) m = + 8 beam; (c) m = ± 8 beams, all after propagation through an m = −8 phase plate.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Eye diagrams for |m| = 8 showing Channel 1 (top) and Channel 2 (bottom) transmitting in parallel at (a) 1 Gbit/s and (b) 1.5 Gbit/s, all through water with an attenuation coefficient of c = 0.4128 m−1.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Bit Error Rates for Channel 1, |m| = 8.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Bit Error Rates for Channel 2, |m| = 8.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Demultiplexed image distributions of (a) m = −4 beam; (b) m = + 4 beam; (c) m = ± 4 beams, all after propagation through an m = −4 phase plate.

Equations (7)

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u m (r,ϕ) 2 π| m |! 1 ω 0 [ 2 r ω 0 ] | m | exp[ r 2 ω 2 0 ]exp( imϕ )
r m ( z )= ω 0 2 + λ 2 z 2 / π 2 ω 0 2 | m |+1 .
u 2 ( r,ϕ )δ( r r 0 )exp( i[ m+ m 0 ]ϕ ).
| u ^ m+ m 0 (r,ϕ) | 2 { | J m+ m 0 ( 2π r 0 r λf ) | 2 ,m m 0 | J 0 ( 2π r 0 r λf ) | 2 ,m= m 0
BER= 1 4 erfc( μ 1 V th σ 1 2 )+ 1 4 erfc( V th μ 0 σ 0 2 )
erfc(x)= 2 π x e t 2 dt
V th = μ 0 σ 1 + μ 1 σ 0 σ 0 + σ 1 .

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