Abstract

We propose that a gain-switched laser diode (GS-LD) can be used as a picosecond laser source for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. We employed a 1.06-µm GS-LD to generate ~13-ps pulses at a repetition rate of 38 MHz and amplified them to >100 mW with Yb-doped fiber amplifiers. The GS-LD was driven by 200-ps electrical pulses, which were triggered through a toggle flip-flop (T-FF) so that the GS-LD pulses were synchronized to Ti:sapphire laser (TSL) pulses at a repetition rate of 76 MHz. We found the timing jitter of GS-LD pulses to be approximately 2.7 ps in a jitter bandwidth of 7 MHz. We also show that the delay of electrical pulses can be less sensitive to the optical power of TSL pulses by controlling the threshold voltage of the T-FF. We demonstrate the SRS imaging of polymer beads and of HeLa cells with GS-LD pulses and TSL pulses, proving that GS-LD is readily applicable to SRS microscopy as a compact and stable pulse source.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

K. Tokunaga, Y.-C. Fang, Y. Yokoyama, and Y. Ozeki, “Synchronized and timing-stabilized pulse generation from a gain-switched laser diode for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 9712, 97120N (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (13)

R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, Y. Kusama, Y.-C. Fang, S. Kanazawa, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, and T. Nemoto, “In vivo two-photon imaging of mouse hippocampal neurons in dentate gyrus using a light source based on a high-peak power gain-switched laser diode,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 891–901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki and D. Tashiro, “Fast wavelength-tunable picosecond pulses from a passively mode-locked Er fiber laser using a galvanometer-driven intracavity filter,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15186–15194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Steinle, V. Kumar, A. Steinmann, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, and H. Giessen, “Compact, low-noise, all-solid-state laser system for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 593–596 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Otsuka, K. Makara, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, and Y. Ozeki, “On-line visualization of multicolor chemical images with stimulated Raman scattering spectral microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(9), 2984–2987 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, P. Wang, J. Li, H. J. Lee, G. Eakins, and J.-X. Cheng, “Spectrometer-free vibrational imaging by retrieving stimulated Raman signal from highly scattered photons,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, P. Wang, J. I. Kim, D. Zhang, Y. Xia, C. Chapple, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational fingerprint mapping reveals spatial distribution of functional groups of lignin in plant cell wall,” Anal. Chem. 87(18), 9436–9442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S.-Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J.-X. Cheng, “Microsecond scale vibrational spectroscopic imaging by multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lee, W. Zhang, D. Zhang, Y. Yang, B. Liu, E. L. Barker, K. K. Buhman, L. V. Slipchenko, M. Dai, and J.-X. Cheng, “Assessing cholesterol storage in live cells and C. elegans by stimulated Raman scattering imaging of phenyl-diyne cholesterol,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7930 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, H. J. Lee, D. Zhang, C.-S. Liao, N. Ji, Y. Xia, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free spectroscopic detection of membrane potential using stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173704 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(25), 7725–7730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. R. Littlejohn, J. C. Mansfield, D. Parker, R. Lind, S. Perfect, M. Seymour, N. Smirnoff, J. Love, and J. Moger, “In vivo chemical and structural analysis of plant cuticular waxes using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Plant Physiol. 168(1), 18–28 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

L. Wei, F. Hu, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, Y. Yu, C. C. Lin, M. C. Wang, and W. Min, “Live-cell imaging of alkyne-tagged small biomolecules by stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Methods 11(4), 410–412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Satoh, Y. Otsuka, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, A. Hashiguchi, K. Yamazaki, H. Hashimoto, and M. Sakamoto, “Label-free visualization of acetaminophen-induced liver injury by high-speed stimulated Raman scattering spectral microscopy and multivariate image analysis,” Pathol. Int. 64(10), 518–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, B. Liu, D. Zhang, M. Y. Belew, H. A. Tissenbaum, and J.-X. Cheng, “Imaging lipid metabolism in live Caenorhabditis elegans using fingerprint vibrations,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(44), 11787–11792 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, Y. Yu, A. Folick, E. Currie, R. V. Farese, T.-H. Tsai, X. S. Xie, and M. C. Wang, “In vivo metabolic fingerprinting of neutral lipids with hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(24), 8820–8828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nose, T. Kishi, Y. Ozeki, Y. Kanematsu, H. Takata, K. Fukui, Y. Takai, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman spectral microscope using synchronized Er- and Yb-fiber lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5), 052401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kusama, Y. Tanushi, M. Yokoyama, R. Kawakami, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, T. Nemoto, S. Sato, and H. Yokoyama, “7-ps optical pulse generation from a 1064-nm gain-switched laser diode and its application for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5746–5753 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (11)

E. Molotokaite, V. Kumar, C. Manzoni, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, and M. Marangoni, “Raman-induced Kerr effect microscopy with balanced detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(10), 1385–1392 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, D. Zhang, K. Charan, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, C. Xu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Time-lens based hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering imaging and quantitative spectral analysis,” J. Biophotonics 6(10), 815–820 (2013).
[PubMed]

C.-R. Hu, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, P. Wang, J. D. Lin, G. Simpson, B. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Stimulated Raman scattering imaging by continuous-wave laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1479–1481 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong, M. Ji, G. R. Holtom, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a rapidly tunable optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 145–147 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wei, Y. Yu, Y. Shen, M. C. Wang, and W. Min, “Vibrational imaging of newly synthesized proteins in live cells by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(28), 11226–11231 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem. 85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Mansfield, G. R. Littlejohn, M. P. Seymour, R. J. Lind, S. Perfect, and J. Moger, “Label-free chemically specific imaging in planta with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 85(10), 5055–5063 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mansfield, J. Moger, E. Green, C. Moger, and C. P. Winlove, “Chemically specific imaging and in-situ chemical analysis of articular cartilage with stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Biophotonics 6(10), 803–814 (2013).
[PubMed]

P. Wang, J. Li, P. Wang, C. R. Hu, D. Zhang, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative imaging of cholesterol in intact tissues by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(49), 13042–13046 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

W. Dou, D. Zhang, Y. Jung, J.-X. Cheng, and D. M. Umulis, “Label-free imaging of lipid-droplet intracellular motion in early Drosophila embryos using femtosecond-stimulated Raman loss microscopy,” Biophys. J. 102(7), 1666–1675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Suhalim, C. Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J. 102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 845–851 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, A. Sato, T. Ito, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Sub-5-ps optical pulse generation from a 1.55-µm distributed-feedback laser diode with nanosecond electric pulse excitation and spectral filtering,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24843–24849 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nose, Y. Ozeki, T. Kishi, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, Y. Kanematsu, and K. Itoh, “Sensitivity enhancement of fiber-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy by collinear balanced detection technique,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13958–13965 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly sensitive vibrational imaging by femtosecond pulse stimulated Raman loss,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Roeffaers, X. Zhang, C. W. Freudiger, B. G. Saar, M. van Ruijven, G. van Dalen, C. Xiao, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free imaging of biomolecules in food products using stimulated Raman microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021118 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, X. S. Xie, and R. H. Guy, “Imaging drug delivery to skin with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Mol. Pharm. 8(3), 969–975 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gambetta, V. Kumar, G. Grancini, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and M. Marangoni, “Fiber-format stimulated-Raman-scattering microscopy from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 226–228 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, Y. Kitagawa, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, W. Umemura, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscope with shot noise limited sensitivity using subharmonically synchronized laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13708–13719 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys. 11(3), 033026 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Ozeki, F. Dake, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Analysis and experimental assessment of the sensitivity of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3651–3658 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

D.-S. Seo, D. Y. Kim, and H.-F. Liu, “Timing jitter reduction of gain-switched DFB laser by external injection-seeding,” Electron. Lett. 32(1), 44–45 (1996).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

K. Y. Lau, “Gain switching of semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(4), 257–259 (1988).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

T. Kobayashi, A. Yoshikawa, A. Morimoto, Y. Aoki, and T. Sueta, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulse by pulse driving of a semiconductor diode laser (A),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 667–668 (1980).

1967 (1)

D. A. Gedcke and W. J. McDonald, “A constant fraction of pulse height trigger for optimum time resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 55, 377–380 (1967).
[Crossref]

Agar, N. Y.

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiyama, H.

Aoki, Y.

T. Kobayashi, A. Yoshikawa, A. Morimoto, Y. Aoki, and T. Sueta, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulse by pulse driving of a semiconductor diode laser (A),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 667–668 (1980).

Barker, E. L.

H. J. Lee, W. Zhang, D. Zhang, Y. Yang, B. Liu, E. L. Barker, K. K. Buhman, L. V. Slipchenko, M. Dai, and J.-X. Cheng, “Assessing cholesterol storage in live cells and C. elegans by stimulated Raman scattering imaging of phenyl-diyne cholesterol,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7930 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basu, S.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belew, M. Y.

P. Wang, B. Liu, D. Zhang, M. Y. Belew, H. A. Tissenbaum, and J.-X. Cheng, “Imaging lipid metabolism in live Caenorhabditis elegans using fingerprint vibrations,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(44), 11787–11792 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belsey, N. A.

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(25), 7725–7730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben-Amotz, D.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem. 85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buhman, K. K.

H. J. Lee, W. Zhang, D. Zhang, Y. Yang, B. Liu, E. L. Barker, K. K. Buhman, L. V. Slipchenko, M. Dai, and J.-X. Cheng, “Assessing cholesterol storage in live cells and C. elegans by stimulated Raman scattering imaging of phenyl-diyne cholesterol,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7930 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camelo-Piragua, S.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

Chapple, C.

B. Liu, P. Wang, J. I. Kim, D. Zhang, Y. Xia, C. Chapple, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational fingerprint mapping reveals spatial distribution of functional groups of lignin in plant cell wall,” Anal. Chem. 87(18), 9436–9442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charan, K.

K. Wang, D. Zhang, K. Charan, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, C. Xu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Time-lens based hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering imaging and quantitative spectral analysis,” J. Biophotonics 6(10), 815–820 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chen, S.

Chen, Z.

L. Wei, F. Hu, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, Y. Yu, C. C. Lin, M. C. Wang, and W. Min, “Live-cell imaging of alkyne-tagged small biomolecules by stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Methods 11(4), 410–412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

P. Wang, J. Li, P. Wang, C. R. Hu, D. Zhang, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative imaging of cholesterol in intact tissues by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(49), 13042–13046 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.-X.

H. J. Lee, W. Zhang, D. Zhang, Y. Yang, B. Liu, E. L. Barker, K. K. Buhman, L. V. Slipchenko, M. Dai, and J.-X. Cheng, “Assessing cholesterol storage in live cells and C. elegans by stimulated Raman scattering imaging of phenyl-diyne cholesterol,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7930 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S.-Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J.-X. Cheng, “Microsecond scale vibrational spectroscopic imaging by multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, P. Wang, J. I. Kim, D. Zhang, Y. Xia, C. Chapple, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational fingerprint mapping reveals spatial distribution of functional groups of lignin in plant cell wall,” Anal. Chem. 87(18), 9436–9442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, P. Wang, J. Li, H. J. Lee, G. Eakins, and J.-X. Cheng, “Spectrometer-free vibrational imaging by retrieving stimulated Raman signal from highly scattered photons,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, H. J. Lee, D. Zhang, C.-S. Liao, N. Ji, Y. Xia, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free spectroscopic detection of membrane potential using stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173704 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, B. Liu, D. Zhang, M. Y. Belew, H. A. Tissenbaum, and J.-X. Cheng, “Imaging lipid metabolism in live Caenorhabditis elegans using fingerprint vibrations,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(44), 11787–11792 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem. 85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, D. Zhang, K. Charan, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, C. Xu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Time-lens based hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering imaging and quantitative spectral analysis,” J. Biophotonics 6(10), 815–820 (2013).
[PubMed]

C.-R. Hu, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, P. Wang, J. D. Lin, G. Simpson, B. Hu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Stimulated Raman scattering imaging by continuous-wave laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1479–1481 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Dou, D. Zhang, Y. Jung, J.-X. Cheng, and D. M. Umulis, “Label-free imaging of lipid-droplet intracellular motion in early Drosophila embryos using femtosecond-stimulated Raman loss microscopy,” Biophys. J. 102(7), 1666–1675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly sensitive vibrational imaging by femtosecond pulse stimulated Raman loss,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, W. S.

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(25), 7725–7730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, C. Y.

J. L. Suhalim, C. Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J. 102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contreras-Rojas, L. R.

B. G. Saar, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, X. S. Xie, and R. H. Guy, “Imaging drug delivery to skin with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Mol. Pharm. 8(3), 969–975 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Currie, E.

D. Fu, Y. Yu, A. Folick, E. Currie, R. V. Farese, T.-H. Tsai, X. S. Xie, and M. C. Wang, “In vivo metabolic fingerprinting of neutral lipids with hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(24), 8820–8828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, M.

H. J. Lee, W. Zhang, D. Zhang, Y. Yang, B. Liu, E. L. Barker, K. K. Buhman, L. V. Slipchenko, M. Dai, and J.-X. Cheng, “Assessing cholesterol storage in live cells and C. elegans by stimulated Raman scattering imaging of phenyl-diyne cholesterol,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7930 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dake, F.

Daniele, J. R.

X. Zhang, M. B. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Jager, P. L.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delgado-Charro, M. B.

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(25), 7725–7730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, S.-Y.

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dou, W.

W. Dou, D. Zhang, Y. Jung, J.-X. Cheng, and D. M. Umulis, “Label-free imaging of lipid-droplet intracellular motion in early Drosophila embryos using femtosecond-stimulated Raman loss microscopy,” Biophys. J. 102(7), 1666–1675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eakins, G.

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, P. Wang, J. Li, H. J. Lee, G. Eakins, and J.-X. Cheng, “Spectrometer-free vibrational imaging by retrieving stimulated Raman signal from highly scattered photons,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.-C.

Farese, R. V.

D. Fu, Y. Yu, A. Folick, E. Currie, R. V. Farese, T.-H. Tsai, X. S. Xie, and M. C. Wang, “In vivo metabolic fingerprinting of neutral lipids with hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(24), 8820–8828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, D. E.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher-Hubbard, A.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Folick, A.

D. Fu, Y. Yu, A. Folick, E. Currie, R. V. Farese, T.-H. Tsai, X. S. Xie, and M. C. Wang, “In vivo metabolic fingerprinting of neutral lipids with hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(24), 8820–8828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong, M. Ji, G. R. Holtom, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a rapidly tunable optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 145–147 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Roeffaers, X. Zhang, C. W. Freudiger, B. G. Saar, M. van Ruijven, G. van Dalen, C. Xiao, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free imaging of biomolecules in food products using stimulated Raman microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021118 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
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W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, Y. Yu, A. Folick, E. Currie, R. V. Farese, T.-H. Tsai, X. S. Xie, and M. C. Wang, “In vivo metabolic fingerprinting of neutral lipids with hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(24), 8820–8828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong, M. Ji, G. R. Holtom, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a rapidly tunable optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 145–147 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukui, K.

Gambetta, A.

Garrard, M.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
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Garrett, N. L.

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(25), 7725–7730 (2015).
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Golby, A. J.

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
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Grancini, G.

Green, E.

J. Mansfield, J. Moger, E. Green, C. Moger, and C. P. Winlove, “Chemically specific imaging and in-situ chemical analysis of articular cartilage with stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Biophotonics 6(10), 803–814 (2013).
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W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(25), 7725–7730 (2015).
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B. G. Saar, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, X. S. Xie, and R. H. Guy, “Imaging drug delivery to skin with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Mol. Pharm. 8(3), 969–975 (2011).
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Hashiguchi, A.

S. Satoh, Y. Otsuka, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, A. Hashiguchi, K. Yamazaki, H. Hashimoto, and M. Sakamoto, “Label-free visualization of acetaminophen-induced liver injury by high-speed stimulated Raman scattering spectral microscopy and multivariate image analysis,” Pathol. Int. 64(10), 518–526 (2014).
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Hashimoto, H.

Y. Otsuka, K. Makara, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, and Y. Ozeki, “On-line visualization of multicolor chemical images with stimulated Raman scattering spectral microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(9), 2984–2987 (2015).
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S. Satoh, Y. Otsuka, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, A. Hashiguchi, K. Yamazaki, H. Hashimoto, and M. Sakamoto, “Label-free visualization of acetaminophen-induced liver injury by high-speed stimulated Raman scattering spectral microscopy and multivariate image analysis,” Pathol. Int. 64(10), 518–526 (2014).
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M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
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C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
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M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
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Hibi, T.

Himmel, M. E.

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
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F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
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Holtom, G.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
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F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
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L. Kong, M. Ji, G. R. Holtom, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a rapidly tunable optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 145–147 (2013).
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X. Zhang, M. B. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
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Hood, T.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
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Hu, C. R.

P. Wang, J. Li, P. Wang, C. R. Hu, D. Zhang, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative imaging of cholesterol in intact tissues by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(49), 13042–13046 (2013).
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Hu, F.

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F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
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Ito, T.

Itoh, K.

S. Satoh, Y. Otsuka, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, A. Hashiguchi, K. Yamazaki, H. Hashimoto, and M. Sakamoto, “Label-free visualization of acetaminophen-induced liver injury by high-speed stimulated Raman scattering spectral microscopy and multivariate image analysis,” Pathol. Int. 64(10), 518–526 (2014).
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K. Nose, T. Kishi, Y. Ozeki, Y. Kanematsu, H. Takata, K. Fukui, Y. Takai, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman spectral microscope using synchronized Er- and Yb-fiber lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5), 052401 (2014).
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Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 845–851 (2012).
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K. Nose, Y. Ozeki, T. Kishi, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, Y. Kanematsu, and K. Itoh, “Sensitivity enhancement of fiber-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy by collinear balanced detection technique,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13958–13965 (2012).
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Y. Ozeki, Y. Kitagawa, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, W. Umemura, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscope with shot noise limited sensitivity using subharmonically synchronized laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13708–13719 (2010).
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F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
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M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong, M. Ji, G. R. Holtom, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a rapidly tunable optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 145–147 (2013).
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C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
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Ji, N.

B. Liu, H. J. Lee, D. Zhang, C.-S. Liao, N. Ji, Y. Xia, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free spectroscopic detection of membrane potential using stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173704 (2015).
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M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
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Kanazawa, S.

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C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
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Kesari, S.

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C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
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K. Nose, T. Kishi, Y. Ozeki, Y. Kanematsu, H. Takata, K. Fukui, Y. Takai, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman spectral microscope using synchronized Er- and Yb-fiber lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5), 052401 (2014).
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Perfect, S.

G. R. Littlejohn, J. C. Mansfield, D. Parker, R. Lind, S. Perfect, M. Seymour, N. Smirnoff, J. Love, and J. Moger, “In vivo chemical and structural analysis of plant cuticular waxes using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Plant Physiol. 168(1), 18–28 (2015).
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L. Wei, F. Hu, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, Y. Yu, C. C. Lin, M. C. Wang, and W. Min, “Live-cell imaging of alkyne-tagged small biomolecules by stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Methods 11(4), 410–412 (2014).
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C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
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Xie, X. S.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, Y. Yu, A. Folick, E. Currie, R. V. Farese, T.-H. Tsai, X. S. Xie, and M. C. Wang, “In vivo metabolic fingerprinting of neutral lipids with hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(24), 8820–8828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong, M. Ji, G. R. Holtom, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a rapidly tunable optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 145–147 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, X. S. Xie, and R. H. Guy, “Imaging drug delivery to skin with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Mol. Pharm. 8(3), 969–975 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Roeffaers, X. Zhang, C. W. Freudiger, B. G. Saar, M. van Ruijven, G. van Dalen, C. Xiao, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free imaging of biomolecules in food products using stimulated Raman microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021118 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

K. Wang, D. Zhang, K. Charan, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, C. Xu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Time-lens based hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering imaging and quantitative spectral analysis,” J. Biophotonics 6(10), 815–820 (2013).
[PubMed]

Xu, X.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamazaki, K.

S. Satoh, Y. Otsuka, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, A. Hashiguchi, K. Yamazaki, H. Hashimoto, and M. Sakamoto, “Label-free visualization of acetaminophen-induced liver injury by high-speed stimulated Raman scattering spectral microscopy and multivariate image analysis,” Pathol. Int. 64(10), 518–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

H. J. Lee, W. Zhang, D. Zhang, Y. Yang, B. Liu, E. L. Barker, K. K. Buhman, L. V. Slipchenko, M. Dai, and J.-X. Cheng, “Assessing cholesterol storage in live cells and C. elegans by stimulated Raman scattering imaging of phenyl-diyne cholesterol,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7930 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, H.

Yokoyama, M.

Yokoyama, Y.

K. Tokunaga, Y.-C. Fang, Y. Yokoyama, and Y. Ozeki, “Synchronized and timing-stabilized pulse generation from a gain-switched laser diode for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 9712, 97120N (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, A.

T. Kobayashi, A. Yoshikawa, A. Morimoto, Y. Aoki, and T. Sueta, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulse by pulse driving of a semiconductor diode laser (A),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 667–668 (1980).

Yoshita, M.

Young, G. S.

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

L. Wei, F. Hu, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, Y. Yu, C. C. Lin, M. C. Wang, and W. Min, “Live-cell imaging of alkyne-tagged small biomolecules by stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Methods 11(4), 410–412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, Y. Yu, A. Folick, E. Currie, R. V. Farese, T.-H. Tsai, X. S. Xie, and M. C. Wang, “In vivo metabolic fingerprinting of neutral lipids with hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(24), 8820–8828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wei, Y. Yu, Y. Shen, M. C. Wang, and W. Min, “Vibrational imaging of newly synthesized proteins in live cells by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(28), 11226–11231 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Q.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Y.

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

H. J. Lee, W. Zhang, D. Zhang, Y. Yang, B. Liu, E. L. Barker, K. K. Buhman, L. V. Slipchenko, M. Dai, and J.-X. Cheng, “Assessing cholesterol storage in live cells and C. elegans by stimulated Raman scattering imaging of phenyl-diyne cholesterol,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7930 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, H. J. Lee, D. Zhang, C.-S. Liao, N. Ji, Y. Xia, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free spectroscopic detection of membrane potential using stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173704 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, P. Wang, J. I. Kim, D. Zhang, Y. Xia, C. Chapple, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational fingerprint mapping reveals spatial distribution of functional groups of lignin in plant cell wall,” Anal. Chem. 87(18), 9436–9442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, B. Liu, D. Zhang, M. Y. Belew, H. A. Tissenbaum, and J.-X. Cheng, “Imaging lipid metabolism in live Caenorhabditis elegans using fingerprint vibrations,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(44), 11787–11792 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, J. Li, P. Wang, C. R. Hu, D. Zhang, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative imaging of cholesterol in intact tissues by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(49), 13042–13046 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem. 85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, D. Zhang, K. Charan, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, C. Xu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Time-lens based hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering imaging and quantitative spectral analysis,” J. Biophotonics 6(10), 815–820 (2013).
[PubMed]

W. Dou, D. Zhang, Y. Jung, J.-X. Cheng, and D. M. Umulis, “Label-free imaging of lipid-droplet intracellular motion in early Drosophila embryos using femtosecond-stimulated Raman loss microscopy,” Biophys. J. 102(7), 1666–1675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly sensitive vibrational imaging by femtosecond pulse stimulated Raman loss,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

H. J. Lee, W. Zhang, D. Zhang, Y. Yang, B. Liu, E. L. Barker, K. K. Buhman, L. V. Slipchenko, M. Dai, and J.-X. Cheng, “Assessing cholesterol storage in live cells and C. elegans by stimulated Raman scattering imaging of phenyl-diyne cholesterol,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7930 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Roeffaers, X. Zhang, C. W. Freudiger, B. G. Saar, M. van Ruijven, G. van Dalen, C. Xiao, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free imaging of biomolecules in food products using stimulated Raman microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021118 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, W. S.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (3)

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem. 85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Mansfield, G. R. Littlejohn, M. P. Seymour, R. J. Lind, S. Perfect, and J. Moger, “Label-free chemically specific imaging in planta with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 85(10), 5055–5063 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, P. Wang, J. I. Kim, D. Zhang, Y. Xia, C. Chapple, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational fingerprint mapping reveals spatial distribution of functional groups of lignin in plant cell wall,” Anal. Chem. 87(18), 9436–9442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

Y. Otsuka, K. Makara, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, and Y. Ozeki, “On-line visualization of multicolor chemical images with stimulated Raman scattering spectral microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(9), 2984–2987 (2015).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (3)

P. Wang, J. Li, P. Wang, C. R. Hu, D. Zhang, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative imaging of cholesterol in intact tissues by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(49), 13042–13046 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, B. Liu, D. Zhang, M. Y. Belew, H. A. Tissenbaum, and J.-X. Cheng, “Imaging lipid metabolism in live Caenorhabditis elegans using fingerprint vibrations,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(44), 11787–11792 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. Liu, H. J. Lee, D. Zhang, C.-S. Liao, N. Ji, Y. Xia, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free spectroscopic detection of membrane potential using stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173704 (2015).
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K. Y. Lau, “Gain switching of semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(4), 257–259 (1988).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (2)

W. Dou, D. Zhang, Y. Jung, J.-X. Cheng, and D. M. Umulis, “Label-free imaging of lipid-droplet intracellular motion in early Drosophila embryos using femtosecond-stimulated Raman loss microscopy,” Biophys. J. 102(7), 1666–1675 (2012).
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J. L. Suhalim, C. Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J. 102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
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ChemPhysChem (1)

X. Zhang, M. B. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free live-cell imaging of nucleic acids using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

D.-S. Seo, D. Y. Kim, and H.-F. Liu, “Timing jitter reduction of gain-switched DFB laser by external injection-seeding,” Electron. Lett. 32(1), 44–45 (1996).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, Y. Yu, A. Folick, E. Currie, R. V. Farese, T.-H. Tsai, X. S. Xie, and M. C. Wang, “In vivo metabolic fingerprinting of neutral lipids with hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(24), 8820–8828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. B. Roeffaers, X. Zhang, C. W. Freudiger, B. G. Saar, M. van Ruijven, G. van Dalen, C. Xiao, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free imaging of biomolecules in food products using stimulated Raman microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021118 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (2)

J. Mansfield, J. Moger, E. Green, C. Moger, and C. P. Winlove, “Chemically specific imaging and in-situ chemical analysis of articular cartilage with stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Biophotonics 6(10), 803–814 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Wang, D. Zhang, K. Charan, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, C. Xu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Time-lens based hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering imaging and quantitative spectral analysis,” J. Biophotonics 6(10), 815–820 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

T. Kobayashi, A. Yoshikawa, A. Morimoto, Y. Aoki, and T. Sueta, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulse by pulse driving of a semiconductor diode laser (A),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 667–668 (1980).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly sensitive vibrational imaging by femtosecond pulse stimulated Raman loss,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
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J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

E. Molotokaite, V. Kumar, C. Manzoni, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, and M. Marangoni, “Raman-induced Kerr effect microscopy with balanced detection,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(10), 1385–1392 (2013).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Nose, T. Kishi, Y. Ozeki, Y. Kanematsu, H. Takata, K. Fukui, Y. Takai, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman spectral microscope using synchronized Er- and Yb-fiber lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(5), 052401 (2014).
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Lab. Invest. (1)

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
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Light Sci. Appl. (1)

C.-S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S.-Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J.-X. Cheng, “Microsecond scale vibrational spectroscopic imaging by multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
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Mol. Pharm. (1)

B. G. Saar, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, X. S. Xie, and R. H. Guy, “Imaging drug delivery to skin with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Mol. Pharm. 8(3), 969–975 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Chem. (1)

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (2)

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wei, F. Hu, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, Y. Yu, C. C. Lin, M. C. Wang, and W. Min, “Live-cell imaging of alkyne-tagged small biomolecules by stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Methods 11(4), 410–412 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 845–851 (2012).
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C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
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New J. Phys. (1)

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys. 11(3), 033026 (2009).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

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Opt. Express (6)

Y. Ozeki, Y. Kitagawa, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, W. Umemura, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscope with shot noise limited sensitivity using subharmonically synchronized laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13708–13719 (2010).
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S. Chen, A. Sato, T. Ito, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Sub-5-ps optical pulse generation from a 1.55-µm distributed-feedback laser diode with nanosecond electric pulse excitation and spectral filtering,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24843–24849 (2012).
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Y. Kusama, Y. Tanushi, M. Yokoyama, R. Kawakami, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, T. Nemoto, S. Sato, and H. Yokoyama, “7-ps optical pulse generation from a 1064-nm gain-switched laser diode and its application for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5746–5753 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nose, Y. Ozeki, T. Kishi, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, Y. Kanematsu, and K. Itoh, “Sensitivity enhancement of fiber-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy by collinear balanced detection technique,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13958–13965 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki and D. Tashiro, “Fast wavelength-tunable picosecond pulses from a passively mode-locked Er fiber laser using a galvanometer-driven intracavity filter,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15186–15194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, F. Dake, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Analysis and experimental assessment of the sensitivity of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3651–3658 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Pathol. Int. (1)

S. Satoh, Y. Otsuka, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, A. Hashiguchi, K. Yamazaki, H. Hashimoto, and M. Sakamoto, “Label-free visualization of acetaminophen-induced liver injury by high-speed stimulated Raman scattering spectral microscopy and multivariate image analysis,” Pathol. Int. 64(10), 518–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plant Physiol. (1)

G. R. Littlejohn, J. C. Mansfield, D. Parker, R. Lind, S. Perfect, M. Seymour, N. Smirnoff, J. Love, and J. Moger, “In vivo chemical and structural analysis of plant cuticular waxes using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Plant Physiol. 168(1), 18–28 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(25), 7725–7730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wei, Y. Yu, Y. Shen, M. C. Wang, and W. Min, “Vibrational imaging of newly synthesized proteins in live cells by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(28), 11226–11231 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Tokunaga, Y.-C. Fang, Y. Yokoyama, and Y. Ozeki, “Synchronized and timing-stabilized pulse generation from a gain-switched laser diode for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 9712, 97120N (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, P. Wang, J. Li, H. J. Lee, G. Eakins, and J.-X. Cheng, “Spectrometer-free vibrational imaging by retrieving stimulated Raman signal from highly scattered photons,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500738 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. J. Lee, W. Zhang, D. Zhang, Y. Yang, B. Liu, E. L. Barker, K. K. Buhman, L. V. Slipchenko, M. Dai, and J.-X. Cheng, “Assessing cholesterol storage in live cells and C. elegans by stimulated Raman scattering imaging of phenyl-diyne cholesterol,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7930 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Transl. Med. (2)

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy (CRC Press, 2012).

K. Tokunaga, Y.-C. Fang, Y. Kusama, H. Yokoyama, and Y. Ozeki, “Experimental investigation of timing jitter of a 1.06-µm gain-switched laser diode for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” in 2015 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper 27H2_3.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic of the experimental setup. HWP: half-wave plate, PD: photodetector, BPF: band-pass filter, YDFA: Yb-doped fiber amplifier, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, DM: dichroic mirror, T-FF: toggle flip-flop, EPG: electrical pulse generator, LIA: lock-in amplifier, SPF: short-pass filter, OL: objective lens.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Illustrations of the input voltage (Vin) of T-FF for various optical powers of TSL pulses. When the threshold voltage (Vth) is fixed (a), the time at which Vin exceeds Vth is dependent on the optical power. By properly changing the threshold voltage (b), the time can be less sensitive to the change of the optical power.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Generation and characterization of GS-LD pulses. (a) Sampling oscilloscope trace of the output signal from EPG. (b) Spectrum of the optical pulses of GS-LD before amplification (broken line) and after amplification by YDFA’s (solid line). (c) Cross-correlation trace of GS-LD pulses and TSL pulses (circles). Solid line: Gaussian fit. (d) Histogram of SRS signal intensity of water sample. We changed the delay of TSL pulses by moving the delay line stage to obtain the SRS signals at the three intensity levels, minimum (blue), half (red) and maximum (green).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimentally measured time delay of the T-FF’s output signal as a function of the optical power of TSL pulses with variable Vth (open blue circle) and fixed Vth (red triangle).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SRS images of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads. Number of pixels, 500 × 500; frame rate, 30 fps; image size, 80 µm × 80 µm; scale bar, 20 µm. SRS images at (a) 2850 cm−1, (b) 2900 cm−1, (c) 2950 cm−1, (d) 3000 cm−1, (e) 3050 cm−1. (f) SRS spectra of PS and PMMA beads. Blue line: PS. Red line: PMMA. Lines in Fig. 5(f) are for clarity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SRS images of HeLa cells at (a) 2850 cm−1, (b) 2930 cm−1. Number of pixels, 500 × 500; averaging time, 3.3 s; scale bar, 20 µm.

Equations (5)

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I p (t)= E p τ p exp{ ( t τ p ) 2 },
I s (t)= E s τ s exp{ ( t τ s ) 2 },
I SRS (Δt) + I p (t) I s (t+Δt)dt = + E p τ p exp{ ( t t p ) 2 } E s τ s exp{ ( t+Δt t s ) 2 }dt = E p E s π τ p 2 + τ s 2 exp( Δ t 2 τ p 2 + τ s 2 ),
I SRS (Δt)~ I 0 ( 1 Δ t 2 τ p 2 + τ s 2 ),
2 [ τ 0 B N / B v ] 2 τ p 2 + τ s 2 B v / B N =0.22.

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