Abstract

Precise control of resonance features in microcavities is of significant importance both for researches and applications. By exploiting gain provided by the doped rare earth ions or Raman gain, this can be achieved through changing the pump. Here we propose and experimentally show that by using gain competition, one can also control the evolution of resonance for the probe signal while the pump is kept unchanged. The transition of Lorentz peak, Fano-like resonance and Lorentz dip can be observed from the transmission spectra of the probe signal through tuning the auxiliary control signal. The theory based on coupled-mode theory and laser rate equations by setting the optical gains as time-dependent was constructed. This method can be used in the precise control of transmission spectra and the coupling regime between the waveguide and microcavities.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

M.-Y. Ye, M.-X. Shen, and X.-M. Lin, “Ringing phenomenon based whispering-gallery-mode sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19597 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Huet, A. Rasoloniaina, P. Guillemé, P. Rochard, P. Féron, M. Mortier, A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, A. Yacomotti, and Y. Dumeige, “Millisecond Photon Lifetime in a Slow-Light Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133902 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (8)

A. Rasoloniaina, V. Huet, T. K. N. Nguyên, E. Le Cren, M. Mortier, L. Michely, Y. Dumeige, and P. Féron, “Controling the coupling properties of active ultrahigh-Q WGM microcavities from undercoupling to selective amplification,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4023 (2014).
[PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Özemdir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Jing, S. K. Özdemir, X.-Y. Lü, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and F. Nori, “PT-Symmetric Phonon Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053604 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking,” Science 346, 972–975 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346, 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lei, B. Peng, Ş. K. Özemedir, G. L. Long, and L. Yang, “Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101112 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

K. Qu and G. S. Agarwal, “Fano resonances and their control in optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063813 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

L. He, S. K. Özemdir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.-B. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, Y.-C. Liu, X.-F. Jiang, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

G. Lin, B. Qian, F. Oručević, Y. Candela, J.-B. Jager, Z. Cai, V. Lefvre-Seguin, and J. Hare, “Excitation mapping of whispering gallery modes in silica microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 35, 583–585 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Yang and L. Guo, “Optical sensors based on active microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143–147 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled erbium microlasers on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real Spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians Having PT Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243–5246 (1998).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

U. Fano, “Effects of Configuration Interaction on Intensities and Phase Shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1866–1878 (1961).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. 112, 1940–1949 (1958).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, G. S.

K. Qu and G. S. Agarwal, “Fano resonances and their control in optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled erbium microlasers on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
[Crossref]

Beck, T.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Becker, P. M.

P. M. Becker, A. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, 1999).

Bencheikh, K.

V. Huet, A. Rasoloniaina, P. Guillemé, P. Rochard, P. Féron, M. Mortier, A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, A. Yacomotti, and Y. Dumeige, “Millisecond Photon Lifetime in a Slow-Light Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bender, C. M.

B. Peng, S. K. Özemdir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346, 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real Spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians Having PT Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243–5246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bersch, C.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boettcher, S.

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real Spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians Having PT Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243–5246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bog, U.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, Z.

Candela, Y.

Chen, W.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-L.

B.-B. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, Y.-C. Liu, X.-F. Jiang, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chiasera, A.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Christodoulides, D. N.

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Conti, G. N.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Du, C.

Dumeige, Y.

V. Huet, A. Rasoloniaina, P. Guillemé, P. Rochard, P. Féron, M. Mortier, A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, A. Yacomotti, and Y. Dumeige, “Millisecond Photon Lifetime in a Slow-Light Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133902 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Rasoloniaina, V. Huet, T. K. N. Nguyên, E. Le Cren, M. Mortier, L. Michely, Y. Dumeige, and P. Féron, “Controling the coupling properties of active ultrahigh-Q WGM microcavities from undercoupling to selective amplification,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4023 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

El-Ganainy, R.

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

B. Peng, S. K. Özemdir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fano, U.

U. Fano, “Effects of Configuration Interaction on Intensities and Phase Shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1866–1878 (1961).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking,” Science 346, 972–975 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Féron, P.

V. Huet, A. Rasoloniaina, P. Guillemé, P. Rochard, P. Féron, M. Mortier, A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, A. Yacomotti, and Y. Dumeige, “Millisecond Photon Lifetime in a Slow-Light Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133902 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Rasoloniaina, V. Huet, T. K. N. Nguyên, E. Le Cren, M. Mortier, L. Michely, Y. Dumeige, and P. Féron, “Controling the coupling properties of active ultrahigh-Q WGM microcavities from undercoupling to selective amplification,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4023 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, M.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Flach, S.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[Crossref]

Friedmann, C.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, M.

Gianfreda, M.

B. Peng, S. K. Özemdir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

B.-B. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, Y.-C. Liu, X.-F. Jiang, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grossmann, T.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guillemé, P.

V. Huet, A. Rasoloniaina, P. Guillemé, P. Rochard, P. Féron, M. Mortier, A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, A. Yacomotti, and Y. Dumeige, “Millisecond Photon Lifetime in a Slow-Light Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

J. Yang and L. Guo, “Optical sensors based on active microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143–147 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hare, J.

He, L.

L. He, S. K. Özemdir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
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H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
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H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
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V. Huet, A. Rasoloniaina, P. Guillemé, P. Rochard, P. Féron, M. Mortier, A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, A. Yacomotti, and Y. Dumeige, “Millisecond Photon Lifetime in a Slow-Light Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133902 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Rasoloniaina, V. Huet, T. K. N. Nguyên, E. Le Cren, M. Mortier, L. Michely, Y. Dumeige, and P. Féron, “Controling the coupling properties of active ultrahigh-Q WGM microcavities from undercoupling to selective amplification,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4023 (2014).
[PubMed]

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Jestin, Y.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.-F.

B.-B. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, Y.-C. Liu, X.-F. Jiang, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jing, H.

H. Jing, S. K. Özdemir, X.-Y. Lü, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and F. Nori, “PT-Symmetric Phonon Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053604 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jing, Q.-L.

Kalkman, J.

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kalt, H.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

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H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, W.

L. He, S. K. Özemdir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).
[Crossref]

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B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
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A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
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Lefvre-Seguin, V.

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F. Lei, B. Peng, Ş. K. Özemedir, G. L. Long, and L. Yang, “Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101112 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özemdir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
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Levenson, A.

V. Huet, A. Rasoloniaina, P. Guillemé, P. Rochard, P. Féron, M. Mortier, A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, A. Yacomotti, and Y. Dumeige, “Millisecond Photon Lifetime in a Slow-Light Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133902 (2016).
[Crossref]

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B.-B. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, Y.-C. Liu, X.-F. Jiang, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

B.-B. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, Y.-C. Liu, X.-F. Jiang, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

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B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346, 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Lin, X.-M.

M.-Y. Ye, M.-X. Shen, and X.-M. Lin, “Ringing phenomenon based whispering-gallery-mode sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19597 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B.-B. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, Y.-C. Liu, X.-F. Jiang, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

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F. Lei, B. Peng, Ş. K. Özemedir, G. L. Long, and L. Yang, “Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101112 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özemdir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
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Lü, X.-Y.

H. Jing, S. K. Özdemir, X.-Y. Lü, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and F. Nori, “PT-Symmetric Phonon Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053604 (2014).
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L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking,” Science 346, 972–975 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).
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T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
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A. Rasoloniaina, V. Huet, T. K. N. Nguyên, E. Le Cren, M. Mortier, L. Michely, Y. Dumeige, and P. Féron, “Controling the coupling properties of active ultrahigh-Q WGM microcavities from undercoupling to selective amplification,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4023 (2014).
[PubMed]

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B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
[Crossref]

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H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[Crossref]

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B. Peng, S. K. Özemdir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346, 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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V. Huet, A. Rasoloniaina, P. Guillemé, P. Rochard, P. Féron, M. Mortier, A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, A. Yacomotti, and Y. Dumeige, “Millisecond Photon Lifetime in a Slow-Light Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133902 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Rasoloniaina, V. Huet, T. K. N. Nguyên, E. Le Cren, M. Mortier, L. Michely, Y. Dumeige, and P. Féron, “Controling the coupling properties of active ultrahigh-Q WGM microcavities from undercoupling to selective amplification,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4023 (2014).
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A. Rasoloniaina, V. Huet, T. K. N. Nguyên, E. Le Cren, M. Mortier, L. Michely, Y. Dumeige, and P. Féron, “Controling the coupling properties of active ultrahigh-Q WGM microcavities from undercoupling to selective amplification,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4023 (2014).
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B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
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B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346, 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jing, S. K. Özdemir, X.-Y. Lü, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and F. Nori, “PT-Symmetric Phonon Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053604 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özemdir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
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P. M. Becker, A. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, 1999).

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A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orucevic, F.

Özdemir, S. K.

X. Yang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, H. Yilmaz, F.-C. Lei, G.-L. Long, and L. Yang, “Raman gain induced mode evolution and on-demand coupling control in whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express 23, 29573–29583 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jing, S. K. Özdemir, X.-Y. Lü, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and F. Nori, “PT-Symmetric Phonon Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053604 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346, 328–332 (2014).
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B. Peng, S. K. Özemdir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. He, S. K. Özemdir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Lei, B. Peng, Ş. K. Özemedir, G. L. Long, and L. Yang, “Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101112 (2014).
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M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
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A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
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X. Yang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, H. Yilmaz, F.-C. Lei, G.-L. Long, and L. Yang, “Raman gain induced mode evolution and on-demand coupling control in whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express 23, 29573–29583 (2015).
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F. Lei, B. Peng, Ş. K. Özemedir, G. L. Long, and L. Yang, “Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101112 (2014).
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B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
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B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346, 328–332 (2014).
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B. Peng, S. K. Özemdir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
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A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167–171 (2012).
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Polman, A.

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
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A. Rasoloniaina, V. Huet, T. K. N. Nguyên, E. Le Cren, M. Mortier, L. Michely, Y. Dumeige, and P. Féron, “Controling the coupling properties of active ultrahigh-Q WGM microcavities from undercoupling to selective amplification,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4023 (2014).
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A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167–171 (2012).
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A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
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V. Huet, A. Rasoloniaina, P. Guillemé, P. Rochard, P. Féron, M. Mortier, A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, A. Yacomotti, and Y. Dumeige, “Millisecond Photon Lifetime in a Slow-Light Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133902 (2016).
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B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346, 328–332 (2014).
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C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).
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C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. Kip, “Observation of parity-time symmetry in optics,” Nat. Phys. 6, 192–195 (2010).
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Shen, M.-X.

M.-Y. Ye, M.-X. Shen, and X.-M. Lin, “Ringing phenomenon based whispering-gallery-mode sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19597 (2016).
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Simpson, J. R.

P. M. Becker, A. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, 1999).

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A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
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Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
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Tillement, O.

Tomita, M.

Totsuka, K.

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. 112, 1940–1949 (1958).
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Vahala, K. J.

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033803 (2004).
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D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
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K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
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L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled erbium microlasers on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
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M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking,” Science 346, 972–975 (2014).
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T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
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Wong, Z. J.

L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking,” Science 346, 972–975 (2014).
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B.-B. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, Y.-C. Liu, X.-F. Jiang, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021116 (2011).
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V. Huet, A. Rasoloniaina, P. Guillemé, P. Rochard, P. Féron, M. Mortier, A. Levenson, K. Bencheikh, A. Yacomotti, and Y. Dumeige, “Millisecond Photon Lifetime in a Slow-Light Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133902 (2016).
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X. Yang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, H. Yilmaz, F.-C. Lei, G.-L. Long, and L. Yang, “Raman gain induced mode evolution and on-demand coupling control in whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express 23, 29573–29583 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lei, B. Peng, Ş. K. Özemedir, G. L. Long, and L. Yang, “Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101112 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jing, S. K. Özdemir, X.-Y. Lü, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and F. Nori, “PT-Symmetric Phonon Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053604 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346, 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Özemdir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

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X. Yang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, H. Yilmaz, F.-C. Lei, G.-L. Long, and L. Yang, “Raman gain induced mode evolution and on-demand coupling control in whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express 23, 29573–29583 (2015).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematics of the experimental setup. VOA: variable optical attenuator; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; PD: photodetector; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; and PC: polarization controller; (b) Illustration describing the way to tune overlap between the probe and control signals in time domain; (c) Energy levels of erbium.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Emission spectrum of Er3+-doped microtoroid with pump in 1440 nm; (b) Lasing characteristics for optical modes λ s 1 = 1534 nm and λ s 2 = 1552 nm ; (c) Responses in transmission spectra of signal s1 with increasing pump power 0 μW, 31 μW and 74 μW when signal s2 is turned off.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental and simulation results of the normalized transmission spectra for probe signal s1: red line with center wavelength at 1534 nm, input power 291 nW, and frequency-scanning speed 3.9 THz/s; and for control signal s2: blue line with center wavelength at 1552 nm, input power 430 nW, and frequency-scanning speed 3.1 THz/s. (a)–(e) Responses of the transmission spectra when we tune the overlap between two signals in time domain. The right panels show zooms of the dashed line areas. Here, all the blue lines have been moved upward by 1.5 with respect to the normalized transmission. The parameters are R = 35 μm, Ap = 1.5 × 10−8 cm2, A s 1 = 1.5 × 10 8 cm 2 , A s 2 = 1.55 × 10 8 cm 2 , ns = 1.35, np = 1.35, Γ s 1 σ s 1 a = 4.1 × 10 21 cm 2 , Γ s 1 σ s 1 e = 9.86 × 10 21 cm 2 , Γ s 2 σ s 2 a = 5.5 × 10 21 cm 2 , Γ s 2 σ s 2 e = 1.51 × 10 21 cm 2 , σ p a = 7.9 × 10 21 cm 2 , σ p e = 4.0 × 10 21 cm 2 , Ntotal = 7.5 × 1018 ions/cm3, τ21 = 6 ms and τ32 = 38 μs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)–(d) Experimental and simulation results of the transmission spectra when tuning the overlap of two signals in time domain. Right panels are zooms of the dashed line areas. Signal s1: red line, input power 3.5 μW, and frequency-scanning speed 7.8 THz/s. Signal s2: blue line, input power 430 nW, and frequency-scanning speed 6.2 THz/s. Here, all the blue lines have been moved upward by 1 with respect to the normalized transmission. The other parameters are the same with those in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation results for the corresponding optical gains of the probe signal s1 (red lines) and the control signal s2 (blue lines) using the parameters in Fig. 3. Black and green dashed lines indicate the intrinsic decay rates. (a)–(e) and (f)–(j) correspond to the gains of two signals in Figs. 3(a)–3(e) respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulation results for the corresponding optical gains of the probe signal s1 (red lines) and the control signal s2 (blue lines) using the parameters in Fig. 4. The dashed lines indicate the intrinsic decay rates. (a)–(d) and (e)–(h) correspond to the gains of two signals in Figs. 4(a)–4(e) respectively.

Equations (6)

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d a p d t = ( i Δ ω p κ p 0 + κ p e x t g p 2 ) a p κ p e x t a p i n ,
d a s 1 ( s 2 ) d t = ( i Δ ω s 1 ( s 2 ) κ s 1 ( s 2 ) 0 + κ s 1 ( s 2 ) e x t g s 1 ( s 2 ) 2 ) a s 1 ( s 2 ) κ s 1 ( s 2 ) e x t a s 1 ( s 2 ) i n .
g s 1 ( s 2 ) = c n s 1 ( s 2 ) Γ s 1 ( s 2 ) ( σ s 1 ( s 2 ) e N 2 σ s 1 ( s 2 ) a N 1 ) ,
g p = c n p ( σ p e N 3 σ p a N 1 ) ,
d N 2 d t = N 3 τ 32 N 2 τ 21 + C s 1 Γ s 1 ( σ s 1 a N 1 σ s 1 e N 2 ) | a s 1 | 2 + C s 2 Γ s 2 ( σ s 2 a N 1 σ s 2 e N 2 ) | a s 2 | 2 ,
d N 3 d t = N 3 τ 32 + C p ( σ p a N 1 σ p e N 3 ) | a p | 2 .

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