Abstract

We demonstrate a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) generating four-level amplitude shift keying (4ASK) signals at symbol rates of up to 64 GBd both at room temperature and at an elevated temperature of 80°C. The measured line rate of 128 Gbit/s corresponds to the highest value demonstrated for silicon-based MZM so far. We report bit error ratios of 10−10 (64 GBd BPSK), 10−5 (36 GBd 4ASK), and 4 × 10−3 (64 GBd 4ASK) at room temperature. At 80 °C, the respective bit error ratios are 10−10, 10−4, and 1.3 × 10−2. The high-temperature experiments were performed in regular oxygen-rich ambient atmosphere.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: The next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 951–959 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. S. Orcutt, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Leu, M. Georgas, J. Shainline, E. Zgraggen, H. Li, J. Sun, M. Weaver, S. Urošević, M. Popović, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12222–12232 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, X. Xiong, R. Bojko, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss strip-loaded slot waveguides in sSilicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25061–25067 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. Schindler, D. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM signaling at 160 Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aroca, R.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

Aydinlik, M.

J. Geyer, C. R. Doerr, M. Aydinlik, N. Nadarajah, A. Caballero, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Practical implementation of higher order modulation beyond 16-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2015 (OSA, 2015), p. Th1B.1.
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Bale, D. H.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Block, B. A.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 951–959 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Bojko, R.

Bolten, J.

Brosi, J.

C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC) (VDE, 2007).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, Y.-K. Chen, J. H. Sinsky, and G. Raybon, “Silicon in-phase/quadrature modulator with on-chip optical equalizer,” in 40th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.4.5.
[Crossref]

Caballero, A.

J. Geyer, C. R. Doerr, M. Aydinlik, N. Nadarajah, A. Caballero, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Practical implementation of higher order modulation beyond 16-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2015 (OSA, 2015), p. Th1B.1.
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

Chang, F.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, Y.-K. Chen, J. H. Sinsky, and G. Raybon, “Silicon in-phase/quadrature modulator with on-chip optical equalizer,” in 40th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.4.5.
[Crossref]

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

Diebold, S.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, R.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: The next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, X. Xiong, R. Bojko, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss strip-loaded slot waveguides in sSilicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25061–25067 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinu, R.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

J. Geyer, C. R. Doerr, M. Aydinlik, N. Nadarajah, A. Caballero, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Practical implementation of higher order modulation beyond 16-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2015 (OSA, 2015), p. Th1B.1.
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, Y.-K. Chen, J. H. Sinsky, and G. Raybon, “Silicon in-phase/quadrature modulator with on-chip optical equalizer,” in 40th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.4.5.
[Crossref]

Elder, D.

Elder, D. L.

Fedeli, J.-M.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, X. Xiong, R. Bojko, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss strip-loaded slot waveguides in sSilicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25061–25067 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fournier, M.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
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R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, X. Xiong, R. Bojko, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss strip-loaded slot waveguides in sSilicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25061–25067 (2010).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. Schindler, D. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM signaling at 160 Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
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L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
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C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC) (VDE, 2007).
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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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Harris, N. C.

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Hartmann, W.

Heni, W.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
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Hochberg, M.

Huang, S.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 951–959 (2012).
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S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353 (2012).
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J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
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Jen, A.

Jen, A. K.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
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Jen, A. K.-Y.

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353 (2012).
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Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 951–959 (2012).
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Jin, Z.

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353 (2012).
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Johnston, P. V.

Karl, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, W.-J.

Kober, S.

Koeber, S.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. Schindler, D. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM signaling at 160 Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koehnle, K.

Koenig, S.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koenigsmann, M.

Kohl, M.

Kohler, M.

Koos, C.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. Schindler, D. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM signaling at 160 Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC) (VDE, 2007).
[Crossref]

Korn, D.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. Schindler, D. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM signaling at 160 Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kutuvantavida, Y.

Lauermann, M.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. Schindler, D. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM signaling at 160 Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lawson, R.

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leu, J.

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. Schindler, D. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM signaling at 160 Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC) (VDE, 2007).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liao, Y.

Liff, S.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 951–959 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

Luo, J.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 951–959 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Malsam, D.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Melikyan, A.

Mikkelsen, B.

J. Geyer, C. R. Doerr, M. Aydinlik, N. Nadarajah, A. Caballero, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Practical implementation of higher order modulation beyond 16-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2015 (OSA, 2015), p. Th1B.1.
[Crossref]

Mizuochi, T.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moss, B.

Muehlbrandt, S.

Nadarajah, N.

J. Geyer, C. R. Doerr, M. Aydinlik, N. Nadarajah, A. Caballero, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Practical implementation of higher order modulation beyond 16-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2015 (OSA, 2015), p. Th1B.1.
[Crossref]

Novack, A.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: The next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Onohara, K.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Orcutt, J. S.

Pahl, K. P.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. Schindler, D. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM signaling at 160 Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfeifle, J.

Phillips-Sylvain, N.

Polishak, B. M.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 951–959 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Popovic, M.

Ram, R. J.

Rasmussen, C.

J. Geyer, C. R. Doerr, M. Aydinlik, N. Nadarajah, A. Caballero, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Practical implementation of higher order modulation beyond 16-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2015 (OSA, 2015), p. Th1B.1.
[Crossref]

Raybon, G.

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, Y.-K. Chen, J. H. Sinsky, and G. Raybon, “Silicon in-phase/quadrature modulator with on-chip optical equalizer,” in 40th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.4.5.
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ronniger, G.

Scherer, A.

Schindler, P.

Schindler, P. C.

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM signaling at 160 Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shainline, J.

Shi, Z.

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 951–959 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sinsky, J. H.

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, Y.-K. Chen, J. H. Sinsky, and G. Raybon, “Silicon in-phase/quadrature modulator with on-chip optical equalizer,” in 40th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.4.5.
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, V.

Sullivan, P.

Sullivan, P. A.

Sun, C.

Sun, J.

Sürgers, C.

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ummethala, S.

Uroševic, S.

Wahlbrink, T.

Waldow, M.

Wang, G.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Weaver, M.

Weimann, C.

Witzens, J.

Woessner, M.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wolf, S.

Xiao, X.

Xie, C.

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, Y.-K. Chen, J. H. Sinsky, and G. Raybon, “Silicon in-phase/quadrature modulator with on-chip optical equalizer,” in 40th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.4.5.
[Crossref]

Xiong, X.

Xu, H.

Xuan, Z.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: The next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Younkin, T. R.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 951–959 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Yu, Y.

Zgraggen, E.

Zhang, Y.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: The next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, P.

Zhou, X.-H.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 951–959 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zwick, T.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Solid State Circ. Mag. (1)

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: The next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. Schindler, D. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM signaling at 160 Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 951–959 (2012).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (9)

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, Y.-K. Chen, J. H. Sinsky, and G. Raybon, “Silicon in-phase/quadrature modulator with on-chip optical equalizer,” in 40th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2014) (2014), p. We.1.4.5.
[Crossref]

J. Geyer, C. R. Doerr, M. Aydinlik, N. Nadarajah, A. Caballero, C. Rasmussen, and B. Mikkelsen, “Practical implementation of higher order modulation beyond 16-QAM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2015 (OSA, 2015), p. Th1B.1.
[Crossref]

Y. Fang, L. Liu, C. Y. Wong, S. Zhang, T. Wang, G. N. Liu, and X. Xu, “Silicon IQ modulator based 480km 80x453.2Gb/s PDM-eOFDM transmission on 50GHz grid with SSMF and EDFA-only link,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf.2015 (OSA, 2015), p. M3G.5.
[Crossref]

B. Milivojevic, C. Raabe, A. Shastri, M. Webster, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Chattin, S. Wiese, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “112Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission over 2427km SSMF using small-size silicon photonic IQ modulator and low-power CMOS driver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference,2013 (OSA, 2013), p. OTh1D.1.
[Crossref]

W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “100 Gbit/s OOK using a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC),2015 (IEEE, 2015), p. PDP.1.4.
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, R. Palmer, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “64 GBd operation of a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at elevated temperature,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference,2015 (OSA, 2015), p. Tu2A.5.
[Crossref]

C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC) (VDE, 2007).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 61–63 (2012). [Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012)].
[Crossref]

D. Chang, F. Yu, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, X. Shi, X. Xu, and Q. Xiong, “FPGA verification of a single QC-LDPC code for 100 Gb/s optical systems without error floor down to BER of 10−15,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2011), p. OTuN2.
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept of the silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator. (a) Schematic and cross-section of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). Standard silicon strip waveguides and multimode interference coupler (MMI) form the waveguide interferometer. The phase shifter in each arm are based on a slot waveguide (rail width wrail = 240 nm, slot width wslot = 120 nm). A coplanar ground-signal-ground (GSG) RF transmission line carries the modulation signal and is electrically connected to the slot via n-doped silicon slabs (thickness hslab = 70 nm). A gate voltage UGate between the Si substrate and the SOI device layer can be used to improve the conductivity of the silicon slab by electron accumulation at the slab-BOX interface, and hence increases the bandwidth of the device. The commercially available electro-optic (EO) organic material SEO100 from Soluxra, specified for an operating temperature of up to 85 °C, is deposited on the chip via spin coating, and serves as a nonlinear cladding. A poling voltage Upol applied to the floating ground electrodes (G) aligns the chromophores (black arrows) when heating the EO material to its glass transition temperature close to 140 °C. After cooling, the orientation of the chromophores remains fixed. A modulating RF field (red arrows) applied to the GSG line results in push-pull operation of the phase modulator sections. (b) Distribution of the dominant electric field component Ex,opt of the fundamental quasi-TE mode of the slot waveguide. (c) The electrical modulation field component Ex,RF is strongly confined to the slot. The good overlap of optical and modulating fields results in an efficient modulation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the experimental setup. Electrical multilevel drive signals at symbol rates of 36 GBd and 64 GBd are generated by an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG, Micram Instruments, AWG6020) with up to 72 GSa/s. The DC bias voltage for adjusting the operating point is applied to the MZM via a bias-T (not drawn), and the transmission line is terminated with 50 Ohm to avoid reflections. An external-cavity laser (ECL) at 1565 nm is used as an optical source and is coupled to the MZM chip via fibers and grating couplers. The optical output signal is amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and subsequently received by an optical modulation analyzer (OMA) in a homodyne configuration.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Evaluation of the signal generation experiment. The top row depicts the measured eye diagrams and constellation diagrams for operation at room temperature. In the bottom row the corresponding data for operation at 80 °C is shown. (a) Signaling with 36 GBd 4ASK (72 Gbit/s) without pre-emphasis. At room temperature: EVMm = 9.0%, estimated BER is 1 × 10−5 (too few errors are measured within our record length of 62.5 µs for determining a reliable BER). At 80 °C: EVMm = 10.3% is slightly increased, estimated BER is 1 × 10−4. The peak-to-peak voltage at the modulator is measured to be 2 Vpp. (b) BPSK signaling at 64 GBd with pre-emphasis, error free performance (no errors measured in recording), both at room temperature and at 80 °C. The EVMm indicates a BER < 10−10. (c) 64 GBd 4ASK signaling (128 Gbit/s) with pre-emphasis. At room temperature: EVMm = 15.0%, BER = 4.3 × 10−3. At 80 °C: EVMm = 17.6%, BER = 1.3 × 10−2.

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