Abstract

We demonstrate a frequency diverse, multistatic microwave imaging system based on a set of transmit and receive, radiating, planar cavity apertures. The cavities consist of double-sided, copper-clad circuit boards, with a series of circular radiating irises patterned into the upper conducting plate. The iris arrangement is such that for any given transmitting and receiving aperture pair, a Mills-Cross pattern is formed from the overlapped patterns. The Mills-Cross distribution provides optimum coverage of the imaging scene in the spatial Fourier domain (k-space). The Mills-Cross configuration of the apertures produces measurement modes that are diverse and consistent with the computational imaging approach used for frequency-diverse apertures, yet significantly minimizes the redundancy of information received from the scene. We present a detailed analysis of the Mills-Cross aperture design, with numerical simulations that predict the performance of the apertures as part of an imaging system. Images reconstructed using fabricated apertures are presented, confirming the anticipated performance.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (6)

J. Laviada, A. Arboleya-Arboleya, Y. Alvarez-Lopez, C. Garcia-Gonzalez, and F. Las-Heras, “Phaseless synthetic aperture radar with efficient sampling for broadband near-field imaging: theory and validation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(2), 573–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, A. Kirmani, V. K. Goyal, and J. H. Shapiro, “Photon-efficient computational 3-D and reflectivity imaging with single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imag. 1(2), 112–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, J. H. Juesas, and W. Blackwell, “A single-transceiver compressive reflector antenna for high-sensing-capacity imaging,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 968–971 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, J. Gollub, G. Lipworth, A. Rose, and D. R. Smith, “Resolution of the frequency diverse metamaterial aperture imager,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 150, 97–107 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Fromenteze, O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, J. Gollub, C. Decroze, D. Carsenat, and D. R. Smith, “Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 194104 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Lipworth, A. Rose, O. Yurduseven, V. R. Gowda, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, P. Trofatter, J. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, “Comprehensive simulation platform for a metamaterial imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9343–9353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

J. Hunt, J. Gollub, T. Driscoll, G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, M. S. Reynolds, D. J. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial microwave holographic imaging system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(10), 2109–2119 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fallahpour, J. T. Case, M. T. Ghasr, and R. Zoughi, “Piecewise and Wiener filter-based SAR techniques for monostatic microwave imaging of layered structures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(1), 282–294 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Yurduseven, “Indirect microwave holographic imaging of concealed ordnance for airport security imaging systems,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 146, 7–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Smith, O. Yurduseven, B. Livingstone, and V. Schejbal, “Microwave imaging using indirect holographic techniques,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 56(1), 104–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. H. Ku, P. Schmalenberg, O. Inac, O. D. Gurbuz, J. S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 77–81-GHz 16-element phased-array receiver with ±50° beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(11), 2823–2832 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

A. Moreira, P. Prats-Iraola, M. Younis, G. Krieger, I. Hajnsek, and K. P. Papathanassiou, “A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. Mag. 1(1), 6–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Elsdon, O. Yurduseven, and D. Smith, “Early stage breast cancer detection using indirect microwave holography,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 405–419 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for computational imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shrekenhamer, C. M. Watts, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz single pixel imaging with an optically controlled dynamic spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12507–12518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, J. Hunt, D. L. Marks, T. Driscoll, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on the physical layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(8), 1603–1612 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Fast full-color computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23068–23074 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, F. Quivira, and C. M. Rappaport, “SAR imaging of suicide bombers wearing concealed explosive threats,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 125, 255–272 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Qi, I. Ocket, D. Schreurs, and B. Nauwelaers, “A system-level simulator for indoor mmW SAR imaging and its applications,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23811–23820 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and A. E. Fathy, “Advanced system level simulation platform for three-dimensional UWB through-wall imaging SAR using time-domain approach,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 50(5), 1986–2000 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Demirci, H. Cetinkaya, E. Yigit, C. Ozdemir, and A. A. Vertiy, “A study on millimeter-wave imaging of concealed objects: application using back-projection algorithm,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 128, 457–477 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. K. Amineh, J. McCombe, and N. K. Nikolova, “Microwave holographic imaging using the antenna phaseless radiation pattern,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 11, 1529–1532 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

D. H. Shin, C. W. Tan, B. G. Lee, J. J. Lee, and E. S. Kim, “Resolution-enhanced three-dimensional image reconstruction by use of smart pixel mapping in computational integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 47(35), 6656–6665 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

Q. Fang, P. M. Meaney, and K. D. Paulsen, “Singular value analysis of the Jacobian matrix in microwave image reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(8), 2371–2380 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Withington, G. Saklatvala, and M. P. Hobson, “Partially coherent analysis of imaging and interferometric phased arrays: noise, correlations, and fluctuations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(6), 1340–1348 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. W. Doerry and F. M. Dickey, “Synthetic aperture radar,” Opt. Photonics News 15(11), 28–33 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. J. Fenn, D. H. Temme, W. P. Delaney, and W. E. Courtney, “The development of phased array radar technology,” Linc. Lab. J. 12(2), 321–340 (2000).

1990 (1)

R. T. Hoctor and S. A. Kassam, “The unifying role of the coarray in aperture synthesis for coherent and incoherent imaging,” Proc. IEEE 78(4), 735–752 (1990).
[Crossref]

Alvarez-Lopez, Y.

J. Laviada, A. Arboleya-Arboleya, Y. Alvarez-Lopez, C. Garcia-Gonzalez, and F. Las-Heras, “Phaseless synthetic aperture radar with efficient sampling for broadband near-field imaging: theory and validation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(2), 573–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amineh, R. K.

R. K. Amineh, J. McCombe, and N. K. Nikolova, “Microwave holographic imaging using the antenna phaseless radiation pattern,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 11, 1529–1532 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arboleya-Arboleya, A.

J. Laviada, A. Arboleya-Arboleya, Y. Alvarez-Lopez, C. Garcia-Gonzalez, and F. Las-Heras, “Phaseless synthetic aperture radar with efficient sampling for broadband near-field imaging: theory and validation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(2), 573–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baraniuk, R. G.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blackwell, W.

J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, J. H. Juesas, and W. Blackwell, “A single-transceiver compressive reflector antenna for high-sensing-capacity imaging,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 968–971 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bowman, R.

Brady, D.

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for computational imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, J. Hunt, D. L. Marks, T. Driscoll, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on the physical layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(8), 1603–1612 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brady, D. J.

Carsenat, D.

T. Fromenteze, O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, J. Gollub, C. Decroze, D. Carsenat, and D. R. Smith, “Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 194104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Case, J. T.

M. Fallahpour, J. T. Case, M. T. Ghasr, and R. Zoughi, “Piecewise and Wiener filter-based SAR techniques for monostatic microwave imaging of layered structures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(1), 282–294 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cetinkaya, H.

S. Demirci, H. Cetinkaya, E. Yigit, C. Ozdemir, and A. A. Vertiy, “A study on millimeter-wave imaging of concealed objects: application using back-projection algorithm,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 128, 457–477 (2012).
[Crossref]

Charvat, G. L.

T. S. Ralston, G. L. Charvat, and J. E. Peabody, “Real-time Through-wall imaging using an ultrawideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) phased array radar system,” IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology, 551–558 (2010).

G. L. Charvat, L. C. Kempel, E. J. Rothwell, and C. M. Coleman, “An ultrawideband (UWB) switched-antenna-array radar imaging system,” IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology, 543–550, (2010).

Choi, K.

Coleman, C. M.

G. L. Charvat, L. C. Kempel, E. J. Rothwell, and C. M. Coleman, “An ultrawideband (UWB) switched-antenna-array radar imaging system,” IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology, 543–550, (2010).

Cossairt, O. S.

Courtney, W. E.

A. J. Fenn, D. H. Temme, W. P. Delaney, and W. E. Courtney, “The development of phased array radar technology,” Linc. Lab. J. 12(2), 321–340 (2000).

Davenport, M. A.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Decroze, C.

T. Fromenteze, O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, J. Gollub, C. Decroze, D. Carsenat, and D. R. Smith, “Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 194104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Delaney, W. P.

A. J. Fenn, D. H. Temme, W. P. Delaney, and W. E. Courtney, “The development of phased array radar technology,” Linc. Lab. J. 12(2), 321–340 (2000).

Demirci, S.

S. Demirci, H. Cetinkaya, E. Yigit, C. Ozdemir, and A. A. Vertiy, “A study on millimeter-wave imaging of concealed objects: application using back-projection algorithm,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 128, 457–477 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dickey, F. M.

A. W. Doerry and F. M. Dickey, “Synthetic aperture radar,” Opt. Photonics News 15(11), 28–33 (2004).
[Crossref]

Doerry, A. W.

A. W. Doerry and F. M. Dickey, “Synthetic aperture radar,” Opt. Photonics News 15(11), 28–33 (2004).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, T.

Duarte, M. F.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Edgar, M. P.

Elsdon, M.

M. Elsdon, O. Yurduseven, and D. Smith, “Early stage breast cancer detection using indirect microwave holography,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 405–419 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fallahpour, M.

M. Fallahpour, J. T. Case, M. T. Ghasr, and R. Zoughi, “Piecewise and Wiener filter-based SAR techniques for monostatic microwave imaging of layered structures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(1), 282–294 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

Q. Fang, P. M. Meaney, and K. D. Paulsen, “Singular value analysis of the Jacobian matrix in microwave image reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(8), 2371–2380 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fathy, A. E.

Y. Wang and A. E. Fathy, “Advanced system level simulation platform for three-dimensional UWB through-wall imaging SAR using time-domain approach,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 50(5), 1986–2000 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fenn, A. J.

A. J. Fenn, D. H. Temme, W. P. Delaney, and W. E. Courtney, “The development of phased array radar technology,” Linc. Lab. J. 12(2), 321–340 (2000).

Fromenteze, T.

T. Fromenteze, O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, J. Gollub, C. Decroze, D. Carsenat, and D. R. Smith, “Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 194104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Gonzalez, C.

J. Laviada, A. Arboleya-Arboleya, Y. Alvarez-Lopez, C. Garcia-Gonzalez, and F. Las-Heras, “Phaseless synthetic aperture radar with efficient sampling for broadband near-field imaging: theory and validation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(2), 573–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ghasr, M. T.

M. Fallahpour, J. T. Case, M. T. Ghasr, and R. Zoughi, “Piecewise and Wiener filter-based SAR techniques for monostatic microwave imaging of layered structures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(1), 282–294 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gollub, J.

T. Fromenteze, O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, J. Gollub, C. Decroze, D. Carsenat, and D. R. Smith, “Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 194104 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, J. Gollub, G. Lipworth, A. Rose, and D. R. Smith, “Resolution of the frequency diverse metamaterial aperture imager,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 150, 97–107 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Lipworth, A. Rose, O. Yurduseven, V. R. Gowda, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, P. Trofatter, J. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, “Comprehensive simulation platform for a metamaterial imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9343–9353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hunt, J. Gollub, T. Driscoll, G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, M. S. Reynolds, D. J. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial microwave holographic imaging system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(10), 2109–2119 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gowda, V. R.

Goyal, V. K.

D. Shin, A. Kirmani, V. K. Goyal, and J. H. Shapiro, “Photon-efficient computational 3-D and reflectivity imaging with single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imag. 1(2), 112–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gurbuz, O. D.

B. H. Ku, P. Schmalenberg, O. Inac, O. D. Gurbuz, J. S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 77–81-GHz 16-element phased-array receiver with ±50° beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(11), 2823–2832 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hajnsek, I.

A. Moreira, P. Prats-Iraola, M. Younis, G. Krieger, I. Hajnsek, and K. P. Papathanassiou, “A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. Mag. 1(1), 6–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hall, T. E.

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hobson, M. P.

Hoctor, R. T.

R. T. Hoctor and S. A. Kassam, “The unifying role of the coarray in aperture synthesis for coherent and incoherent imaging,” Proc. IEEE 78(4), 735–752 (1990).
[Crossref]

Horisaki, R.

Hunt, J.

Imani, M. F.

O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, J. Gollub, G. Lipworth, A. Rose, and D. R. Smith, “Resolution of the frequency diverse metamaterial aperture imager,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 150, 97–107 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Lipworth, A. Rose, O. Yurduseven, V. R. Gowda, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, P. Trofatter, J. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, “Comprehensive simulation platform for a metamaterial imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9343–9353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fromenteze, O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, J. Gollub, C. Decroze, D. Carsenat, and D. R. Smith, “Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 194104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Inac, O.

B. H. Ku, P. Schmalenberg, O. Inac, O. D. Gurbuz, J. S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 77–81-GHz 16-element phased-array receiver with ±50° beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(11), 2823–2832 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jonathan, P.

Juesas, J. H.

J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, J. H. Juesas, and W. Blackwell, “A single-transceiver compressive reflector antenna for high-sensing-capacity imaging,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 968–971 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kassam, S. A.

R. T. Hoctor and S. A. Kassam, “The unifying role of the coarray in aperture synthesis for coherent and incoherent imaging,” Proc. IEEE 78(4), 735–752 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kelly, K. F.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kempel, L. C.

G. L. Charvat, L. C. Kempel, E. J. Rothwell, and C. M. Coleman, “An ultrawideband (UWB) switched-antenna-array radar imaging system,” IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology, 543–550, (2010).

Kim, E. S.

Kirmani, A.

D. Shin, A. Kirmani, V. K. Goyal, and J. H. Shapiro, “Photon-efficient computational 3-D and reflectivity imaging with single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imag. 1(2), 112–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krieger, G.

A. Moreira, P. Prats-Iraola, M. Younis, G. Krieger, I. Hajnsek, and K. P. Papathanassiou, “A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. Mag. 1(1), 6–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ku, B. H.

B. H. Ku, P. Schmalenberg, O. Inac, O. D. Gurbuz, J. S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 77–81-GHz 16-element phased-array receiver with ±50° beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(11), 2823–2832 (2014).
[Crossref]

Las-Heras, F.

J. Laviada, A. Arboleya-Arboleya, Y. Alvarez-Lopez, C. Garcia-Gonzalez, and F. Las-Heras, “Phaseless synthetic aperture radar with efficient sampling for broadband near-field imaging: theory and validation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(2), 573–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laska, J. N.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laviada, J.

J. Laviada, A. Arboleya-Arboleya, Y. Alvarez-Lopez, C. Garcia-Gonzalez, and F. Las-Heras, “Phaseless synthetic aperture radar with efficient sampling for broadband near-field imaging: theory and validation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(2), 573–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. G.

Lee, J. J.

Lee, J. S.

B. H. Ku, P. Schmalenberg, O. Inac, O. D. Gurbuz, J. S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 77–81-GHz 16-element phased-array receiver with ±50° beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(11), 2823–2832 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, S.

Lipworth, G.

Livingstone, B.

D. Smith, O. Yurduseven, B. Livingstone, and V. Schejbal, “Microwave imaging using indirect holographic techniques,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 56(1), 104–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marks, D. L.

Martinez-Lorenzo, J. A.

J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, J. H. Juesas, and W. Blackwell, “A single-transceiver compressive reflector antenna for high-sensing-capacity imaging,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 968–971 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, F. Quivira, and C. M. Rappaport, “SAR imaging of suicide bombers wearing concealed explosive threats,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 125, 255–272 (2012).
[Crossref]

McCombe, J.

R. K. Amineh, J. McCombe, and N. K. Nikolova, “Microwave holographic imaging using the antenna phaseless radiation pattern,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 11, 1529–1532 (2012).
[Crossref]

McMakin, D. L.

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001).
[Crossref]

Meaney, P. M.

Q. Fang, P. M. Meaney, and K. D. Paulsen, “Singular value analysis of the Jacobian matrix in microwave image reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(8), 2371–2380 (2006).
[Crossref]

Miau, D.

Moreira, A.

A. Moreira, P. Prats-Iraola, M. Younis, G. Krieger, I. Hajnsek, and K. P. Papathanassiou, “A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. Mag. 1(1), 6–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mrozack, A.

Nauwelaers, B.

Nayar, S. K.

Nikolova, N. K.

R. K. Amineh, J. McCombe, and N. K. Nikolova, “Microwave holographic imaging using the antenna phaseless radiation pattern,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 11, 1529–1532 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. K. Nikolova, “Microwave imaging for breast cancer,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 12(7), 78–94 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ocket, I.

Odabasi, H.

G. Lipworth, A. Rose, O. Yurduseven, V. R. Gowda, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, P. Trofatter, J. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, “Comprehensive simulation platform for a metamaterial imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9343–9353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, J. Gollub, G. Lipworth, A. Rose, and D. R. Smith, “Resolution of the frequency diverse metamaterial aperture imager,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 150, 97–107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ozdemir, C.

S. Demirci, H. Cetinkaya, E. Yigit, C. Ozdemir, and A. A. Vertiy, “A study on millimeter-wave imaging of concealed objects: application using back-projection algorithm,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 128, 457–477 (2012).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

Padilla, W. J.

Papathanassiou, K. P.

A. Moreira, P. Prats-Iraola, M. Younis, G. Krieger, I. Hajnsek, and K. P. Papathanassiou, “A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. Mag. 1(1), 6–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Paulsen, K. D.

Q. Fang, P. M. Meaney, and K. D. Paulsen, “Singular value analysis of the Jacobian matrix in microwave image reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(8), 2371–2380 (2006).
[Crossref]

Peabody, J. E.

T. S. Ralston, G. L. Charvat, and J. E. Peabody, “Real-time Through-wall imaging using an ultrawideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) phased array radar system,” IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology, 551–558 (2010).

Prats-Iraola, P.

A. Moreira, P. Prats-Iraola, M. Younis, G. Krieger, I. Hajnsek, and K. P. Papathanassiou, “A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. Mag. 1(1), 6–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qi, F.

Quivira, F.

J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, F. Quivira, and C. M. Rappaport, “SAR imaging of suicide bombers wearing concealed explosive threats,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 125, 255–272 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ralston, T. S.

T. S. Ralston, G. L. Charvat, and J. E. Peabody, “Real-time Through-wall imaging using an ultrawideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) phased array radar system,” IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology, 551–558 (2010).

Rappaport, C. M.

J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, F. Quivira, and C. M. Rappaport, “SAR imaging of suicide bombers wearing concealed explosive threats,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 125, 255–272 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rebeiz, G. M.

B. H. Ku, P. Schmalenberg, O. Inac, O. D. Gurbuz, J. S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 77–81-GHz 16-element phased-array receiver with ±50° beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(11), 2823–2832 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, M.

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for computational imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reynolds, M. S.

Rose, A.

O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, J. Gollub, G. Lipworth, A. Rose, and D. R. Smith, “Resolution of the frequency diverse metamaterial aperture imager,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 150, 97–107 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Lipworth, A. Rose, O. Yurduseven, V. R. Gowda, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, P. Trofatter, J. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, “Comprehensive simulation platform for a metamaterial imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9343–9353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothwell, E. J.

G. L. Charvat, L. C. Kempel, E. J. Rothwell, and C. M. Coleman, “An ultrawideband (UWB) switched-antenna-array radar imaging system,” IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology, 543–550, (2010).

Saklatvala, G.

Schejbal, V.

D. Smith, O. Yurduseven, B. Livingstone, and V. Schejbal, “Microwave imaging using indirect holographic techniques,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 56(1), 104–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmalenberg, P.

B. H. Ku, P. Schmalenberg, O. Inac, O. D. Gurbuz, J. S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 77–81-GHz 16-element phased-array receiver with ±50° beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(11), 2823–2832 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schreurs, D.

Shapiro, J. H.

D. Shin, A. Kirmani, V. K. Goyal, and J. H. Shapiro, “Photon-efficient computational 3-D and reflectivity imaging with single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imag. 1(2), 112–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sheen, D. M.

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shin, D.

D. Shin, A. Kirmani, V. K. Goyal, and J. H. Shapiro, “Photon-efficient computational 3-D and reflectivity imaging with single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imag. 1(2), 112–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shin, D. H.

Shiozaki, K.

B. H. Ku, P. Schmalenberg, O. Inac, O. D. Gurbuz, J. S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 77–81-GHz 16-element phased-array receiver with ±50° beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(11), 2823–2832 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shrekenhamer, D.

Smith, D.

D. Smith, O. Yurduseven, B. Livingstone, and V. Schejbal, “Microwave imaging using indirect holographic techniques,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 56(1), 104–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Elsdon, O. Yurduseven, and D. Smith, “Early stage breast cancer detection using indirect microwave holography,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 405–419 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, J. Gollub, G. Lipworth, A. Rose, and D. R. Smith, “Resolution of the frequency diverse metamaterial aperture imager,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 150, 97–107 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Lipworth, A. Rose, O. Yurduseven, V. R. Gowda, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, P. Trofatter, J. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, “Comprehensive simulation platform for a metamaterial imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9343–9353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fromenteze, O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, J. Gollub, C. Decroze, D. Carsenat, and D. R. Smith, “Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 194104 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hunt, J. Gollub, T. Driscoll, G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, M. S. Reynolds, D. J. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial microwave holographic imaging system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(10), 2109–2119 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for computational imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, J. Hunt, D. L. Marks, T. Driscoll, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on the physical layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(8), 1603–1612 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, B.

Sun, T.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takhar, D.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tan, C. W.

Temme, D. H.

A. J. Fenn, D. H. Temme, W. P. Delaney, and W. E. Courtney, “The development of phased array radar technology,” Linc. Lab. J. 12(2), 321–340 (2000).

Trofatter, P.

Vertiy, A. A.

S. Demirci, H. Cetinkaya, E. Yigit, C. Ozdemir, and A. A. Vertiy, “A study on millimeter-wave imaging of concealed objects: application using back-projection algorithm,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 128, 457–477 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang and A. E. Fathy, “Advanced system level simulation platform for three-dimensional UWB through-wall imaging SAR using time-domain approach,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 50(5), 1986–2000 (2012).
[Crossref]

Watts, C. M.

Welsh, S. S.

Withington, S.

Yigit, E.

S. Demirci, H. Cetinkaya, E. Yigit, C. Ozdemir, and A. A. Vertiy, “A study on millimeter-wave imaging of concealed objects: application using back-projection algorithm,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 128, 457–477 (2012).
[Crossref]

Younis, M.

A. Moreira, P. Prats-Iraola, M. Younis, G. Krieger, I. Hajnsek, and K. P. Papathanassiou, “A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. Mag. 1(1), 6–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yurduseven, O.

O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, J. Gollub, G. Lipworth, A. Rose, and D. R. Smith, “Resolution of the frequency diverse metamaterial aperture imager,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 150, 97–107 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Lipworth, A. Rose, O. Yurduseven, V. R. Gowda, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, P. Trofatter, J. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, “Comprehensive simulation platform for a metamaterial imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9343–9353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fromenteze, O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, J. Gollub, C. Decroze, D. Carsenat, and D. R. Smith, “Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 194104 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Yurduseven, “Indirect microwave holographic imaging of concealed ordnance for airport security imaging systems,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 146, 7–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Smith, O. Yurduseven, B. Livingstone, and V. Schejbal, “Microwave imaging using indirect holographic techniques,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 56(1), 104–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Elsdon, O. Yurduseven, and D. Smith, “Early stage breast cancer detection using indirect microwave holography,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 405–419 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zoughi, R.

M. Fallahpour, J. T. Case, M. T. Ghasr, and R. Zoughi, “Piecewise and Wiener filter-based SAR techniques for monostatic microwave imaging of layered structures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(1), 282–294 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Fromenteze, O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, J. Gollub, C. Decroze, D. Carsenat, and D. R. Smith, “Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 194104 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. (1)

D. Smith, O. Yurduseven, B. Livingstone, and V. Schejbal, “Microwave imaging using indirect holographic techniques,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 56(1), 104–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (2)

R. K. Amineh, J. McCombe, and N. K. Nikolova, “Microwave holographic imaging using the antenna phaseless radiation pattern,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 11, 1529–1532 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, J. H. Juesas, and W. Blackwell, “A single-transceiver compressive reflector antenna for high-sensing-capacity imaging,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 968–971 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. Mag. (1)

A. Moreira, P. Prats-Iraola, M. Younis, G. Krieger, I. Hajnsek, and K. P. Papathanassiou, “A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. Mag. 1(1), 6–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

N. K. Nikolova, “Microwave imaging for breast cancer,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 12(7), 78–94 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (3)

M. Fallahpour, J. T. Case, M. T. Ghasr, and R. Zoughi, “Piecewise and Wiener filter-based SAR techniques for monostatic microwave imaging of layered structures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(1), 282–294 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Laviada, A. Arboleya-Arboleya, Y. Alvarez-Lopez, C. Garcia-Gonzalez, and F. Las-Heras, “Phaseless synthetic aperture radar with efficient sampling for broadband near-field imaging: theory and validation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(2), 573–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Fang, P. M. Meaney, and K. D. Paulsen, “Singular value analysis of the Jacobian matrix in microwave image reconstruction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(8), 2371–2380 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Comput. Imag. (1)

D. Shin, A. Kirmani, V. K. Goyal, and J. H. Shapiro, “Photon-efficient computational 3-D and reflectivity imaging with single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imag. 1(2), 112–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. (1)

Y. Wang and A. E. Fathy, “Advanced system level simulation platform for three-dimensional UWB through-wall imaging SAR using time-domain approach,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 50(5), 1986–2000 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. H. Ku, P. Schmalenberg, O. Inac, O. D. Gurbuz, J. S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 77–81-GHz 16-element phased-array receiver with ±50° beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(11), 2823–2832 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Linc. Lab. J. (1)

A. J. Fenn, D. H. Temme, W. P. Delaney, and W. E. Courtney, “The development of phased array radar technology,” Linc. Lab. J. 12(2), 321–340 (2000).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

A. W. Doerry and F. M. Dickey, “Synthetic aperture radar,” Opt. Photonics News 15(11), 28–33 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. T. Hoctor and S. A. Kassam, “The unifying role of the coarray in aperture synthesis for coherent and incoherent imaging,” Proc. IEEE 78(4), 735–752 (1990).
[Crossref]

Prog. Electromagnetics Res. (5)

O. Yurduseven, M. F. Imani, H. Odabasi, J. Gollub, G. Lipworth, A. Rose, and D. R. Smith, “Resolution of the frequency diverse metamaterial aperture imager,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 150, 97–107 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Yurduseven, “Indirect microwave holographic imaging of concealed ordnance for airport security imaging systems,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 146, 7–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, F. Quivira, and C. M. Rappaport, “SAR imaging of suicide bombers wearing concealed explosive threats,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 125, 255–272 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Elsdon, O. Yurduseven, and D. Smith, “Early stage breast cancer detection using indirect microwave holography,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 405–419 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Demirci, H. Cetinkaya, E. Yigit, C. Ozdemir, and A. A. Vertiy, “A study on millimeter-wave imaging of concealed objects: application using back-projection algorithm,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 128, 457–477 (2012).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for computational imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. M. Siebert, Circuits, Signals, and Systems (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1985).

O. Yurduseven, V. R. Gowda, J. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, “Printed Aperiodic Cavity for Computational Microwave Imaging,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Comp. Lett. (in production) (2016).

D. L. Marks, J. Gollub, and D. R. Smith, “Spatially resolving antenna arrays using frequency diversity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (in production) (2016).

M. Pastorino, Microwave Imaging (Wiley, 2010).

G. L. Charvat, L. C. Kempel, E. J. Rothwell, and C. M. Coleman, “An ultrawideband (UWB) switched-antenna-array radar imaging system,” IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology, 543–550, (2010).

D. J. Brady, Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2009).

T. S. Ralston, G. L. Charvat, and J. E. Peabody, “Real-time Through-wall imaging using an ultrawideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) phased array radar system,” IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology, 551–558 (2010).

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