Abstract

Layered semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials for the mid-infrared are grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a single material system, doped and undoped InAs. The onset wavelength for metamaterial behavior can be tuned from 5.8μm to beyond 10μm, while the fill factor ranges from 0.25 to 0.75, resulting in designer optical behavior. The reflection and transmission behavior were studied by Fourier transform spectroscopy and modeled using effective medium theory. We also conducted a geometric optics experiment to demonstrate negative refraction of our materials.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

A. A. Krokhin, J. Arriaga, L. N. Gumen, and V. P. Drachev, “High-frequency homogenization for layered hyperbolic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 93(7), 075418 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, Z. Li, T. S. Luk, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195147 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9681–9689 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, and F. Henneberger, “Negative refraction at telecommunication wavelengths through plasmon-photon hybridization,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30079–30087 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Vasilantonakis, M. E. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 345–353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Papadakis, P. Yeh, and H. A. Atwater, “Retrieval of material parameters for uniaxial metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(15), 155406 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. Law, R. Liu, and D. Wasserman, “Doped semiconductors with band-edge plasma frequencies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 052601 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Shekhar, J. Atkinson, and Z. Jacob, “Hyperbolic metamaterials: fundamentals and applications,” Nano Converg. 1(1), 1–17 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 948–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ait-El-Aoud, A.-G. Kussow, H. M. Jaradat, and A. Akyurtlu, “Experimental Demonstration of Negative Index of Refraction in Magnetic Semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Tschikin, S.-A. Biehs, R. Messina, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “On the limits of the effective description of hyperbolic materials in the presence of surface waves,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105101 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Law, L. Yu, and D. Wasserman, “Epitaxial growth of engineered metals for mid-infrared plasmonics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 31, 03C121 (2013).

S. Law, V. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Towards nano-scale photonics with micro-scale photons: the opportunities and challenges of mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nanophotonics 2(2), 103–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

O. Kidwai, S. V. Zhukovsky, and J. E. Sipe, “Effective-medium approach to planar multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials: Strengths and limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 053842 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Law, D. C. Adams, A. M. Taylor, and D. Wasserman, “Mid-infrared designer metals,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12155–12165 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, and E. E. Narimanov, “Broadband Purcell effect: Radiative decay engineering with metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, W. Newman, C. L. Cortes, and Z. Jacob, “Applications of Hyperbolic Metamaterial Substrates,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2012, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, and M. Noginov, “Control of spontaneous emission in a volume of functionalized hyperbolic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E. Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Controlling spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1863–1865 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Hao and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic wave scatterings by anisotropic metamaterials: Generalized 4x4 transfer-matrix method,” Phys. Rev. B. 77, 094201 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).

2004 (1)

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2244–2246 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

P. Lalanne and D. Lemercier-Lalanne, “On the effective medium theory of subwavelength periodic structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(10), 2063–2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

Adams, D. C.

Ait-El-Aoud, Y.

Y. Ait-El-Aoud, A.-G. Kussow, H. M. Jaradat, and A. Akyurtlu, “Experimental Demonstration of Negative Index of Refraction in Magnetic Semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

Akyurtlu, A.

Y. Ait-El-Aoud, A.-G. Kussow, H. M. Jaradat, and A. Akyurtlu, “Experimental Demonstration of Negative Index of Refraction in Magnetic Semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alekseyev, L.

A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arriaga, J.

A. A. Krokhin, J. Arriaga, L. N. Gumen, and V. P. Drachev, “High-frequency homogenization for layered hyperbolic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 93(7), 075418 (2016).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, J.

P. Shekhar, J. Atkinson, and Z. Jacob, “Hyperbolic metamaterials: fundamentals and applications,” Nano Converg. 1(1), 1–17 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

G. T. Papadakis, P. Yeh, and H. A. Atwater, “Retrieval of material parameters for uniaxial metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(15), 155406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Babicheva, V. E.

Barnakov, Y. A.

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, and M. Noginov, “Control of spontaneous emission in a volume of functionalized hyperbolic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E. Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Controlling spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1863–1865 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belov, P.

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 948–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ben-Abdallah, P.

M. Tschikin, S.-A. Biehs, R. Messina, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “On the limits of the effective description of hyperbolic materials in the presence of surface waves,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biehs, S.-A.

M. Tschikin, S.-A. Biehs, R. Messina, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “On the limits of the effective description of hyperbolic materials in the presence of surface waves,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Black, P.

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, and M. Noginov, “Control of spontaneous emission in a volume of functionalized hyperbolic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9681–9689 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonner, C. E.

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, and M. Noginov, “Control of spontaneous emission in a volume of functionalized hyperbolic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E. Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Controlling spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1863–1865 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boreman, G. D.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Braun, P. X.

A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
[Crossref]

Buchwald, W. R.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L.

A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cleary, J. W.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cortes, C. L.

Y. Guo, W. Newman, C. L. Cortes, and Z. Jacob, “Applications of Hyperbolic Metamaterial Substrates,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2012, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Davids, P. S.

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dickson, W.

N. Vasilantonakis, M. E. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 345–353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

A. A. Krokhin, J. Arriaga, L. N. Gumen, and V. P. Drachev, “High-frequency homogenization for layered hyperbolic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 93(7), 075418 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dryden, D.

Edwards, O.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Evans, P.

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J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
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A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
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Y. Guo, W. Newman, C. L. Cortes, and Z. Jacob, “Applications of Hyperbolic Metamaterial Substrates,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2012, 1–9 (2012).
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A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
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Y. Guo, W. Newman, C. L. Cortes, and Z. Jacob, “Applications of Hyperbolic Metamaterial Substrates,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2012, 1–9 (2012).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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Kan, J. J.

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
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Y. Ait-El-Aoud, A.-G. Kussow, H. M. Jaradat, and A. Akyurtlu, “Experimental Demonstration of Negative Index of Refraction in Magnetic Semiconductors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 791–797 (2013).
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S. Law, V. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Towards nano-scale photonics with micro-scale photons: the opportunities and challenges of mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nanophotonics 2(2), 103–130 (2013).
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Li, Z.

L. Sun, Z. Li, T. S. Luk, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
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S. Law, R. Liu, and D. Wasserman, “Doped semiconductors with band-edge plasma frequencies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 052601 (2014).
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Liu, Z.

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
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J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
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Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).

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D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
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L. Sun, Z. Li, T. S. Luk, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195147 (2015).
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Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
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Medhi, G.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
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M. Tschikin, S.-A. Biehs, R. Messina, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “On the limits of the effective description of hyperbolic materials in the presence of surface waves,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105101 (2013).
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D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2244–2246 (2004).
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G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
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Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, and E. E. Narimanov, “Broadband Purcell effect: Radiative decay engineering with metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181105 (2012).
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M. A. Noginov, H. Li, Y. A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E. Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Controlling spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1863–1865 (2010).
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A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
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N. Vasilantonakis, M. E. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 345–353 (2015).
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Nataraj, G.

Newman, W.

Y. Guo, W. Newman, C. L. Cortes, and Z. Jacob, “Applications of Hyperbolic Metamaterial Substrates,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2012, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

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T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, and M. Noginov, “Control of spontaneous emission in a volume of functionalized hyperbolic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151115 (2011).
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Noginov, M. A.

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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peale, R. E.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poddubny, A.

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 948–957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Podolskiy, V.

S. Law, V. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Towards nano-scale photonics with micro-scale photons: the opportunities and challenges of mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nanophotonics 2(2), 103–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

Podolskiy, V. A.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollard, R.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rye, P.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2244–2246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sadofev, S.

Schurig, D.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2244–2246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sen Choa, F.

A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shahzad, M.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaginov, M. Y.

Shaner, E. A.

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shekhar, P.

P. Shekhar, J. Atkinson, and Z. Jacob, “Hyperbolic metamaterials: fundamentals and applications,” Nano Converg. 1(1), 1–17 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sipe, J. E.

O. Kidwai, S. V. Zhukovsky, and J. E. Sipe, “Effective-medium approach to planar multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials: Strengths and limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 053842 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sivco, D. L.

A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, P. Kolinko, and P. Rye, “Partial focusing of radiation by a slab of indefinite media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2244–2246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

Z. Jacob, I. I. Smolyaninov, and E. E. Narimanov, “Broadband Purcell effect: Radiative decay engineering with metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, W. R. Buchwald, J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, G. D. Boreman, and O. Edwards, “Infrared surface plasmons on heavily doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sridhar, A.

A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).

Sun, L.

L. Sun, Z. Li, T. S. Luk, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. M.

Tschikin, M.

M. Tschikin, S.-A. Biehs, R. Messina, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “On the limits of the effective description of hyperbolic materials in the presence of surface waves,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tumkur, T.

T. Tumkur, G. Zhu, P. Black, Y. A. Barnakov, C. E. Bonner, and M. Noginov, “Control of spontaneous emission in a volume of functionalized hyperbolic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vasilantonakis, N.

N. Vasilantonakis, M. E. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 345–353 (2015).
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Wasserman, D.

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S. Law, R. Liu, and D. Wasserman, “Doped semiconductors with band-edge plasma frequencies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 052601 (2014).
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S. Law, L. Yu, and D. Wasserman, “Epitaxial growth of engineered metals for mid-infrared plasmonics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 31, 03C121 (2013).

S. Law, V. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Towards nano-scale photonics with micro-scale photons: the opportunities and challenges of mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nanophotonics 2(2), 103–130 (2013).
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A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
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Wurtz, G. A.

N. Vasilantonakis, M. E. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 345–353 (2015).
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G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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Xiong, Y.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
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Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).

Yang, X.

L. Sun, Z. Li, T. S. Luk, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195147 (2015).
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Ye, Z.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
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Yeh, P.

G. T. Papadakis, P. Yeh, and H. A. Atwater, “Retrieval of material parameters for uniaxial metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(15), 155406 (2015).
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J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
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Yu, L.

S. Law, L. Yu, and D. Wasserman, “Epitaxial growth of engineered metals for mid-infrared plasmonics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 31, 03C121 (2013).

Zayats, A. V.

N. Vasilantonakis, M. E. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 345–353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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Zhang, X.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).

Zhong, Y.

Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
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Zhou, L.

J. Hao and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic wave scatterings by anisotropic metamaterials: Generalized 4x4 transfer-matrix method,” Phys. Rev. B. 77, 094201 (2008).
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A. J. Hoffman, A. Sridhar, P. X. Braun, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, L. Cheng, F. Sen Choa, D. L. Sivco, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, and C. Gmachl, “Midinfrared semiconductor optical metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 122411 (2009).
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M. Tschikin, S.-A. Biehs, R. Messina, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “On the limits of the effective description of hyperbolic materials in the presence of surface waves,” J. Opt. 15(10), 105101 (2013).
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S. Law, R. Liu, and D. Wasserman, “Doped semiconductors with band-edge plasma frequencies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 052601 (2014).
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J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. (1)

S. Law, L. Yu, and D. Wasserman, “Epitaxial growth of engineered metals for mid-infrared plasmonics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 31, 03C121 (2013).

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

N. Vasilantonakis, M. E. Nasir, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Bulk plasmon-polaritons in hyperbolic nanorod metamaterial waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 345–353 (2015).
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Nano Converg. (1)

P. Shekhar, J. Atkinson, and Z. Jacob, “Hyperbolic metamaterials: fundamentals and applications,” Nano Converg. 1(1), 1–17 (2014).
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Nanophotonics (1)

S. Law, V. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Towards nano-scale photonics with micro-scale photons: the opportunities and challenges of mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nanophotonics 2(2), 103–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
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D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Poddubny, I. Iorsh, P. Belov, and Y. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 948–957 (2013).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

O. Kidwai, S. V. Zhukovsky, and J. E. Sipe, “Effective-medium approach to planar multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials: Strengths and limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 053842 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

L. Sun, Z. Li, T. S. Luk, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195147 (2015).
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A. A. Krokhin, J. Arriaga, L. N. Gumen, and V. P. Drachev, “High-frequency homogenization for layered hyperbolic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 93(7), 075418 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. T. Papadakis, P. Yeh, and H. A. Atwater, “Retrieval of material parameters for uniaxial metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 91(15), 155406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

J. Hao and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic wave scatterings by anisotropic metamaterials: Generalized 4x4 transfer-matrix method,” Phys. Rev. B. 77, 094201 (2008).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
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Science (1)

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Top view schematic of optical setup for angled transmission and reflection measurements. Inset shows razor blade position for negative refraction experiments, as seen from the sample position.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental TM reflection for samples with plasma wavelengths 5.8μm (a), 6.7μm (c), and 9.5μm (e) for various angles, as indicated in the legend. For all samples, fill factor is ~0.5. Simulated TM reflection using EMT for samples with plasma wavelengths 5.8μm (b), 6.7μm (d), and 9.5μm (f). Arrows indicate plasma wavelength. Dotted lines are simulated reflection data that are not shown on the experimental plots due to the inaccessibly high angle.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Data for Sample 1. Experimental (a) and simulated (b) TE reflection, experimental (c) and simulated (d) TM transmission, and experimental (e) and simulated (f) TE transmission. Other samples look similar. Both experimental and simulated TM and TE transmission data has been normalized to 1 for easier comparison of the relevant features.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Parallel (red) and perpendicular (gray) permittivity for samples with plasma wavelengths 5.8μm (a), 6.7μm (b), and 9.5μm (c). Gray shaded region indicates HMM behavior.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental TM reflection for Sample 4 (a), Sample 3 (c), and Sample 5 (e) for various angles, as indicated in the legend. For all samples, plasma wavelength is ~9.5μm. Simulated TM reflection using EMT for Sample 4 (b), Sample 3 (d), and Sample 5 (f). Dotted lines are simulated reflection data that are not shown on the experimental plots due to the inaccessibly high angle.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Parallel (red) and perpendicular (gray) permittivity for Sample 4 (a), Sample 3 (b), and Sample 5 (c). Note the different y-axis scales. Gray region indicates HMM behavior.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Schematic of negative refraction measurement setup. When negative refraction occurs, the beam shifts to the right with respect to normal refraction. (b) Negative refraction data for Sample 1 shown for a blade blocking the left (black) or right (red) side of the transmitted beam for both TM-polarized light (solid) and TE-polarized light (dotted). (c) Negative refraction data for TM-polarized light with the blade in the left position for Sample 1 (black), Sample 2 (blue), and Sample 3 (green). Data for Samples 1 and 2 is cut off when reflection goes to 1, as it becomes very noisy. Arrows indicate plasma wavelength. In figure (c), Sample 1 data has been shifted vertically by 0.05, while Sample 3 data has been shifted vertically by −0.05 for visual clarity.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Experimental and Modeled Hyperbolic Metamaterial Data

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε || = ε m +η ε d 1+η ε = 1+η 1/ ε m +η/ ε d
ε m = ε s ( 1 ω p 2 ω 2 +iωΓ )
ω p 2 = n e 2 ε s ε o m (n)

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