Abstract

A hollow-core fiber using anisotropic anti-resonant tubes in the cladding is proposed for low loss and effectively single-mode guidance. We show that the loss performance and higher-order mode suppression is significantly improved by using symmetrically distributed anisotropic anti-resonant tubes in the cladding, elongated in the radial direction, when compared to using isotropic, i.e. circular, anti-resonant tubes. The effective single-mode guidance of the proposed fiber is achieved by enhancing the coupling between the cladding modes and higher-order-core modes by suitably engineering the anisotropic anti-resonant elements. With a silica-based fiber design aimed at 1.06 µm, we show that the loss extinction ratio between the higher-order core modes and the fundamental core mode can be more than 1000 in the range 1.0-1.65 µm, while the leakage loss of the fundamental core mode is below 15 dB/km in the same range.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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  1. J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. P. S. J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, “Hollow-core photonic crystal fibres for gas-based nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 278–286 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Humbert, J. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. Russell, D. Williams, P. Roberts, and B. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1477–1484 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. F. Gèrôme, P. Dupriez, J. Clowes, J. C. Knight, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power tunable femtosecond soliton source using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber, and its use for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2381–2386 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. Gérôme, K. Cook, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Delivery of sub-100fs pulses through 8m of hollow-core fiber using soliton compression,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7126–7131 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 µm with negative curvature silica glass fibers: a new solution for minimally invasive surgical procedures,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(2), 193–205 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Bao, K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, P. U. Jepsen, and O. Bang, “Fabrication and characterization of porous-core honeycomb bandgap THz fibers,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29507–29517 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. A. Argyros and J. Pla, “Hollow-core polymer fibres with a kagome lattice: potential for transmission in the infrared,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7713–7719 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. B. Debord, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, Y. Y. Wang, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part I: Arc curvature effect on confinement loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28597–28608 (2013).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. M. S. Habib, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Low-loss Hollow-core Anti-Resonant Fibers with Semi-Circular Nested Tubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4402107 (2016).
  24. R. Guobin, W. Zhi, L. Shuqin, and J. Shuisheng, “Mode classification and degeneracy in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 11(11), 1310–1321 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. Michieletto, J. K. Lyngsø, C. Jakobsen, O. Bang, and T. T. Alkeskjold, “Hollow-core fibres for high power pulse delivery,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7103–7119 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. S. Habib, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Low-loss Hollow-core Anti-Resonant Fibers with Semi-Circular Nested Tubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4402107 (2016).

M. Michieletto, J. K. Lyngsø, C. Jakobsen, O. Bang, and T. T. Alkeskjold, “Hollow-core fibres for high power pulse delivery,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7103–7119 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (4)

2013 (5)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdolvand, A.

P. S. J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, “Hollow-core photonic crystal fibres for gas-based nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 278–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alharbi, M.

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argyros, A.

Astapovich, M. S.

Bache, M.

M. S. Habib, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Low-loss Hollow-core Anti-Resonant Fibers with Semi-Circular Nested Tubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4402107 (2016).

M. S. Habib, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Low-loss hollow-core silica fibers with adjacent nested anti-resonant tubes,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17394–17406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baddela, N.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

Bao, H.

Beaudou, B.

Belardi, W.

Benabid, F.

B. Debord, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, Y. Y. Wang, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part I: Arc curvature effect on confinement loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28597–28608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(2), 87–124 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bierlich, J.

Biriukov, A. S.

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

Bradley, T.

Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

P. S. J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, “Hollow-core photonic crystal fibres for gas-based nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 278–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

Churbanov, M. F.

Clowes, J.

Cook, K.

Couny, F.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debord, B.

Dianov, E. M.

Dupriez, P.

Février, S.

Fokoua, E. N.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fourcade-Dutin, C.

Frosch, T.

George, A. K.

Gérôme, F.

Gèrôme, F.

Gray, D. R.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guobin, R.

Habib, M. S.

M. S. Habib, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Low-loss Hollow-core Anti-Resonant Fibers with Semi-Circular Nested Tubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4402107 (2016).

M. S. Habib, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Low-loss hollow-core silica fibers with adjacent nested anti-resonant tubes,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17394–17406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hand, D. P.

Hartung, A.

Hayes, J. R.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hölzer, P.

P. S. J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, “Hollow-core photonic crystal fibres for gas-based nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 278–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

Humbert, G.

Jakobsen, C.

Jepsen, P. U.

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

W. Belardi and J. C. Knight, “Hollow antiresonant fibers with low bending loss,” Opt. Express 22(8), 10091–10096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Belardi and J. C. Knight, “Hollow antiresonant fibers with reduced attenuation,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1853–1856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Belardi and J. C. Knight, “Effect of core boundary curvature on the confinement losses of hollow antiresonant fibers,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21912–21917 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 µm with negative curvature silica glass fibers: a new solution for minimally invasive surgical procedures,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(2), 193–205 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11153–11158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Gèrôme, P. Dupriez, J. Clowes, J. C. Knight, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power tunable femtosecond soliton source using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber, and its use for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2381–2386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Gérôme, K. Cook, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Delivery of sub-100fs pulses through 8m of hollow-core fiber using soliton compression,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7126–7131 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobelke, J.

Kolyadin, A. N.

Kosolapov, A. F.

Light, P. S.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lyngsø, J. K.

Maier, R. R. J.

Mangan, B.

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michieletto, M.

Nielsen, K.

Petrovich, M. N.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pla, J.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Poletti, F.

F. Poletti, “Nested antiresonant nodeless hollow core fiber,” Opt. Express 22(20), 23807–23828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Popp, J.

Pryamikov, A. D.

Rasmussen, H. K.

Raymer, M. G.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roberts, P.

Roberts, P. J.

F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(2), 87–124 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P.

Russell, P. S.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

P. S. J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, “Hollow-core photonic crystal fibres for gas-based nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 278–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, M. A.

Schwuchow, A.

Shephard, J. D.

Shiryaev, V. S.

Shuisheng, J.

Shuqin, L.

Snopatin, G. E.

Travers, J. C.

P. S. J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, “Hollow-core photonic crystal fibres for gas-based nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 278–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

Urich, A.

Viale, P.

Vincetti, L.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, Y. Y.

Wheeler, N. V.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Williams, D.

Yu, F.

Zhi, W.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. S. Habib, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Low-loss Hollow-core Anti-Resonant Fibers with Semi-Circular Nested Tubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4402107 (2016).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(2), 87–124 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

P. S. J. Russell, P. Hölzer, W. Chang, A. Abdolvand, and J. C. Travers, “Hollow-core photonic crystal fibres for gas-based nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 278–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 279–284 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (16)

R. Guobin, W. Zhi, L. Shuqin, and J. Shuisheng, “Mode classification and degeneracy in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 11(11), 1310–1321 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, J. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. Russell, D. Williams, P. Roberts, and B. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1477–1484 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Gérôme, K. Cook, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Delivery of sub-100fs pulses through 8m of hollow-core fiber using soliton compression,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7126–7131 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Argyros and J. Pla, “Hollow-core polymer fibres with a kagome lattice: potential for transmission in the infrared,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7713–7719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Gèrôme, P. Dupriez, J. Clowes, J. C. Knight, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power tunable femtosecond soliton source using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber, and its use for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2381–2386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. S. Shiryaev, M. S. Astapovich, G. E. Snopatin, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of CO2-laser power delivery through chalcogenide-glass fiber with negative-curvature hollow core,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25723–25728 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11153–11158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Bao, K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, P. U. Jepsen, and O. Bang, “Fabrication and characterization of porous-core honeycomb bandgap THz fibers,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29507–29517 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Kolyadin, A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Light transmission in negative curvature hollow core fiber in extremely high material loss region,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9514–9519 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the considered HC-AR fibers, keeping fixed the core radius R = 15 µm and silica strut thickness t = 0.42 µm. The structural parameters shown in the figure are those that optimized the leakage loss at 1.06 μm. The figures are scaled to indicate their relative size.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated leakage loss at 1.06 µm as a function of (a) air-hole radius for circular AR tubes and (b) ellipticity of the AR tubes keeping rx = 15 µm. Inset: FM field profiles at 1.06 µm. (c) Loss vs. wavelength for different HC-AR fibers (dashed line: λ = 1.06 μm). All structures have the same core radius R = 15 µm and uniform silica strut thickness t = 0.42 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated (a) leakage loss and (b) fraction of power in silica (FOPS) vs. wavelength for different strut thicknesses. Solid lines and dashed lines are calculated for t = 0.42 µm and t = 0.35 µm respectively; (c) Leakage loss and (d) FOPS vs strut thickness at 1.06 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Relative effective index, loss and HOMER vs. ellipticity for λ = 1.06 µm. (b) Spectral loss and HOMER curves (full lines: η = 0.61, dashed lines: η = 0.65). t = 0.42 μm was used.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Wavelength dependence of HOMER for circular (r = 10.2µm) and elliptical (η = 0.61) AR tubes (b) Bend loss vs bend radius for circular (r = 10.2µm) and elliptical (η = 0.65) AR tubes with t = 0.42 µm. The FM profiles are shown in the right hand side for a 10 cm bending radius.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Loss vs. wavelength (b) HOMER (c-d) Bending loss vs. bending radius for different HC-AR fibers. All structures have the same core radius R = 15 µm and uniform silica strut thickness t = 0.42 µm. All fiber designs are optimized at 1.06 µm to give minimum leakage loss. The contour plots of the fundamental air-core mode distribution are shown in the right hand side for a 10 cm bending radius. The color of the frame corresponds to the color of the line in the plot.

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