Abstract

We present the first down-conversion intensity modulated-direct detection (IM-DD) RF photonic link that achieves frequency down-conversion using the nonlinear optical phase modulation inside a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator. The nonlinear phase modulation is very sensitive and it can enable high RF-to-IF conversion efficiency. Furthermore, the link linearity is enhanced by canceling the nonlinear distortions from the nonlinear phase modulation and the MZ interferometer. Proof-of-concept measurement was performed. The down-conversion IM-DD link demonstrated 28dB improvement in distortion levels over that of a conventional IM-DD link using a LiNbO3 MZ modulator.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Jin, L. Xu, P. Herczfeld, A. Bhardwaj, and Y. Li, “Recent progress in attenuation counter-propagating optical phase-locked loops for high-dynamic-range radio frequency photonic links,” Photon. Res. 2(4), B45–B53 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, “Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41(12), 2383–2391 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Li, P. Herczfeld, A. Rosen, M. Bystrom, and T. Berceli, “Optical domain down-conversion of microwave signals for high dynamic range microwave fiber optics links,” in IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, (IEEE 2006), pp. 1–4.
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Y. Tu, M. S. Rasras, D.M. Gill, S.S. Patel, Y.K. Chen, A.E. White, A Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L.C. Kimerling, “Silicon RF-Photonic filter and down-converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 3019–3028 (2010).
  5. D. Zibar, L. A. Johansson, H. F. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, M. J. W. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Investigation of a novel optical phase demodulator based on a sampling phase-locked loop,” IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, (IEEE 2006), pp. 1–4.
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. Klamkin, D. Zibar, L. A. Coldren, M. J. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Optical phase demodulation of a 10GHz RF signal using optical sampling,” in Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications, (COTA 2008), CtuC3.
  7. T. R. Clark, S. R. O’Connor, and M. L. Dennis, “A phase-modulation I/Q-demodulation microwave-to-digital photonic link,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(11), 3039–3058 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. F. Li, R. Y. Wang, P. Herczfeld, J. Klamkin, L. Johansson, and J. Bowers, “RF frequency down-conversion with quadratic electro-optic effect,” in IEEE MTTS Int Microw Symp., (IEEE 2009), pp.153–156.
    [Crossref]
  9. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. L. Sharma and R. K. Purohit, Semiconductor Heterojunctions (Pergamon, 1974), Chap. 1.

2014 (1)

2010 (2)

T. R. Clark, S. R. O’Connor, and M. L. Dennis, “A phase-modulation I/Q-demodulation microwave-to-digital photonic link,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(11), 3039–3058 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Tu, M. S. Rasras, D.M. Gill, S.S. Patel, Y.K. Chen, A.E. White, A Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L.C. Kimerling, “Silicon RF-Photonic filter and down-converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 3019–3028 (2010).

1993 (1)

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, “Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41(12), 2383–2391 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[Crossref]

Alamo, J. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[Crossref]

Beals, M.

Beattie, J.

Bennett, B. R.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, A.

Bulmer, C. H.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, “Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41(12), 2383–2391 (1993).
[Crossref]

Burns, W. K.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, “Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41(12), 2383–2391 (1993).
[Crossref]

Carothers, D.

Chen, Y.K.

Clark, T. R.

T. R. Clark, S. R. O’Connor, and M. L. Dennis, “A phase-modulation I/Q-demodulation microwave-to-digital photonic link,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(11), 3039–3058 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dennis, M. L.

T. R. Clark, S. R. O’Connor, and M. L. Dennis, “A phase-modulation I/Q-demodulation microwave-to-digital photonic link,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(11), 3039–3058 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gill, D.M.

Gopalakrishnan, G. K.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, “Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41(12), 2383–2391 (1993).
[Crossref]

Herczfeld, P.

Jin, S.

Kimerling, L.C.

Li, Y.

Michel, J.

O’Connor, S. R.

T. R. Clark, S. R. O’Connor, and M. L. Dennis, “A phase-modulation I/Q-demodulation microwave-to-digital photonic link,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(11), 3039–3058 (2010).
[Crossref]

Patel, S.S.

Pomerene, A

Rasras, M. S.

Soref, R. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[Crossref]

Tu, K. Y.

White, A.E.

Xu, L.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, “Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41(12), 2383–2391 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. (1)

T. R. Clark, S. R. O’Connor, and M. L. Dennis, “A phase-modulation I/Q-demodulation microwave-to-digital photonic link,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(11), 3039–3058 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Other (5)

D. Zibar, L. A. Johansson, H. F. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, M. J. W. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Investigation of a novel optical phase demodulator based on a sampling phase-locked loop,” IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, (IEEE 2006), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. Klamkin, D. Zibar, L. A. Coldren, M. J. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Optical phase demodulation of a 10GHz RF signal using optical sampling,” in Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications, (COTA 2008), CtuC3.

Y. Li, P. Herczfeld, A. Rosen, M. Bystrom, and T. Berceli, “Optical domain down-conversion of microwave signals for high dynamic range microwave fiber optics links,” in IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, (IEEE 2006), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Y. F. Li, R. Y. Wang, P. Herczfeld, J. Klamkin, L. Johansson, and J. Bowers, “RF frequency down-conversion with quadratic electro-optic effect,” in IEEE MTTS Int Microw Symp., (IEEE 2009), pp.153–156.
[Crossref]

B. L. Sharma and R. K. Purohit, Semiconductor Heterojunctions (Pergamon, 1974), Chap. 1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Down-conversion IM-DD RF photonic link using nonlinear phase modulation inside an MZ modulator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 MQW MZ modulator used in measurement. (a) Modulator waveguide structure; (b) MZ modulator layout.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 MQW MZ modulator fabrication. (a) SEM image of the deep-ridge waveguide; (b) SEM image of the waveguide after p-contact metal deposition; (c) the fabricated MQW MZ modulator.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 IMD3 measurement at IF output. (a) Down-conversion IM-DD link; (b) LiNbO3 MZM link under similar modulation index.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 OIP3 measurement. (a) OIP measurement at 2GHz RF. (b) OIP3 vs RF frequencies.

Equations (7)

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V out = I PD Z PD sin(Δθ)
Δθ=αexp( A RF cos ω RF t+ A LO cos ω LO t η V T )
V π =π/ Δ θ IF A RF =π/( 1 2 α A LO η 2 V T 2 + 1 16 α A LO 3 η 4 V T 4 + 1 384 α A LO 5 η 6 V T 6 )
G= I PD Z PD ( 1 2 α A LO η 2 V T 2 + 1 16 α A LO 3 η 4 V T 4 + 1 384 α A LO 5 η 6 V T 6 )
IMD 3 NPM = 1 16 I PD Z PD α A RF 3 A LO η 4 V T 4 (1+ 1 8 A LO 2 η 2 V T 2 + 1 240 A LO 4 η 4 V T 4 )( cos ω 1 t+cos ω 2 t )
IMD 3 MZ = 1 64 I PD Z PD α 3 A RF 3 A LO 3 η 6 V T 6 (1+ 1 8 A LO 2 η 2 V T 2 + 1 192 A LO 4 η 4 V T 4 ) 3 ( cos ω 1 t+cos ω 2 t )
V π =π/ Δ θ IF A RF =π/ 0.35 0.0141 =0.127V

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