Abstract

Optical amplifiers in all ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum exhibit an essential characteristic, namely the input signal during the propagation in the amplifier medium is multiplied by the avalanche effect of the stimulated emission to produce exponential growth. We perform a theoretical study motivated and supported by experimental data on a He gas amplifier driven by intense 30-fs-long laser pulses and seeded with attosecond pulse trains generated in a separated Ne gas jet. We demonstrate that the strong-field theory in the frame of high harmonic generation fully supports the appearance of the avalanche effect in the amplification of extreme ultraviolet attosecond pulse trains. We theoretically separate and identify different physical processes taking part in the interaction and we demonstrate that X-ray parametric amplification dominates over others. In particular, we identify strong-field mediated intrapulse X-ray parametric processes as decisive for amplification at the single-atom level. We confirm that the amplification takes place at photon energies where the amplifier is seeded and when the seed pulses are perfectly synchronized with the driving strong field in the amplifier. Furthermore, propagation effects, phase matching and seed synchronization can be exploited to tune the amplified spectral range within the seed bandwidth.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181919 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Quantum path interference and multiple electron scattering in soft x-ray high-order harmonic generation,” Photonics 2(1), 104–123 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 96(1), 43–50 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Time-resolved optical pump X-ray absorption probe spectroscopy in the range up to 1 keV with 20 fs resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2643–2651 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39(13), S275–S281 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  15. A. A. Svidzinsky, L. Yuan, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum amplification by superradiant emission of radiation,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041001 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. C. Serrat, “Broadband spectral-phase control in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013825 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. Serrat, “Coherent extreme ultraviolet light amplification by strong-field-enhanced forward scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133902 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. Serrat, D. Roca, and J. Seres, “Coherent amplification of attosecond light pulses in the water-window spectral region,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4867–4872 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. Seres, E. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Classical model of strong-field parametric amplification of soft x rays,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013822 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. V. Dao, K. B. Dinh, and P. Hannaford, “Perturbative optical parametric amplification in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7175 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and M. Ivanov, “XUV lasing during strong-field-assisted transient absorption in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 93(2), 021402 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Corrigendum: The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(8), 1563 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).
  27. S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford University Press, 1995).
  28. D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and M. Ivanov, “XUV lasing during strong-field-assisted transient absorption in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 93(2), 021402 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

L. V. Dao, K. B. Dinh, and P. Hannaford, “Perturbative optical parametric amplification in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7175 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Serrat, D. Roca, and J. Seres, “Coherent amplification of attosecond light pulses in the water-window spectral region,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4867–4872 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Quantum path interference and multiple electron scattering in soft x-ray high-order harmonic generation,” Photonics 2(1), 104–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. Serrat, “Broadband spectral-phase control in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013825 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, “Coherent extreme ultraviolet light amplification by strong-field-enhanced forward scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Svidzinsky, L. Yuan, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum amplification by superradiant emission of radiation,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041001 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

C. Serrat, “Broadband spectral amplitude control in high-order harmonic generation,” Appl. Sci. 2(4), 816–830 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Classical model of strong-field parametric amplification of soft x rays,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013822 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electron-ion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033002 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 96(1), 43–50 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Time-resolved optical pump X-ray absorption probe spectroscopy in the range up to 1 keV with 20 fs resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2643–2651 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Fleischer and N. Moiseyev, “Amplification of high-order harmonics using weak perturbative high-frequency radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 010102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic Enhancement of High-Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39(13), S275–S281 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181919 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Corrigendum: The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(8), 1563 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Corrigendum: The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(8), 1563 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anscombe, M. P.

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39(13), S275–S281 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. L.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auge, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aurand, B.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Quantum path interference and multiple electron scattering in soft x-ray high-order harmonic generation,” Photonics 2(1), 104–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagnoud, V.

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and M. Ivanov, “XUV lasing during strong-field-assisted transient absorption in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 93(2), 021402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39(13), S275–S281 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bredtmann, T.

T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and M. Ivanov, “XUV lasing during strong-field-assisted transient absorption in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 93(2), 021402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brizuela, F.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chelkowski, S.

T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and M. Ivanov, “XUV lasing during strong-field-assisted transient absorption in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 93(2), 021402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clevis, T. T. J.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahlström, J. M.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dao, L. V.

L. V. Dao, K. B. Dinh, and P. Hannaford, “Perturbative optical parametric amplification in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7175 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

DiMauro, L. F.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Corrigendum: The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(8), 1563 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dinh, K. B.

L. V. Dao, K. B. Dinh, and P. Hannaford, “Perturbative optical parametric amplification in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7175 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ecker, B.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fleischer, A.

A. Fleischer and N. Moiseyev, “Amplification of high-order harmonics using weak perturbative high-frequency radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 010102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gaarde, M. B.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electron-ion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gademann, G.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electron-ion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaffney, N. S.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hannaford, P.

L. V. Dao, K. B. Dinh, and P. Hannaford, “Perturbative optical parametric amplification in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7175 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hauri, C. P.

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39(13), S275–S281 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, A.

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39(13), S275–S281 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernández-García, C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heyl, C. M.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hochhaus, D.

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, A.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K. L.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic Enhancement of High-Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and M. Ivanov, “XUV lasing during strong-field-assisted transient absorption in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 93(2), 021402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaron-Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, D.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electron-ion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kanai, T.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic Enhancement of High-Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelkensberg, F.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electron-ion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39(13), S275–S281 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kielpinski, D.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kornelis, W.

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39(13), S275–S281 (2006).
[Crossref]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Krausz, F.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kroon, D.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuehl, T.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Quantum path interference and multiple electron scattering in soft x-ray high-order harmonic generation,” Photonics 2(1), 104–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laban, D. E.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landgraf, B.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Quantum path interference and multiple electron scattering in soft x-ray high-order harmonic generation,” Photonics 2(1), 104–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauritsson, J.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic Enhancement of High-Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moiseyev, N.

A. Fleischer and N. Moiseyev, “Amplification of high-order harmonics using weak perturbative high-frequency radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 010102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mücke, O. D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic Enhancement of High-Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Namba, S.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Notermans, R. P. M. J. W.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, A. J.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pullen, M. G.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quiney, H. M.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rading, L.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roca, D.

Rudawski, P.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sang, R. T.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electron-ion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schlup, P.

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39(13), S275–S281 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

A. A. Svidzinsky, L. Yuan, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum amplification by superradiant emission of radiation,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seres, E.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Quantum path interference and multiple electron scattering in soft x-ray high-order harmonic generation,” Photonics 2(1), 104–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Classical model of strong-field parametric amplification of soft x rays,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013822 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 96(1), 43–50 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Time-resolved optical pump X-ray absorption probe spectroscopy in the range up to 1 keV with 20 fs resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2643–2651 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181919 (2006).
[Crossref]

Seres, J.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Quantum path interference and multiple electron scattering in soft x-ray high-order harmonic generation,” Photonics 2(1), 104–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, D. Roca, and J. Seres, “Coherent amplification of attosecond light pulses in the water-window spectral region,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4867–4872 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Classical model of strong-field parametric amplification of soft x rays,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013822 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 96(1), 43–50 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181919 (2006).
[Crossref]

Serrat, C.

C. Serrat, D. Roca, and J. Seres, “Coherent amplification of attosecond light pulses in the water-window spectral region,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4867–4872 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Serrat, “Broadband spectral-phase control in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013825 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, “Coherent extreme ultraviolet light amplification by strong-field-enhanced forward scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Serrat, “Broadband spectral amplitude control in high-order harmonic generation,” Appl. Sci. 2(4), 816–830 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siu, W. K.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electron-ion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Quantum path interference and multiple electron scattering in soft x-ray high-order harmonic generation,” Photonics 2(1), 104–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Classical model of strong-field parametric amplification of soft x rays,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013822 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 96(1), 43–50 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Time-resolved optical pump X-ray absorption probe spectroscopy in the range up to 1 keV with 20 fs resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2643–2651 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181919 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svidzinsky, A. A.

A. A. Svidzinsky, L. Yuan, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum amplification by superradiant emission of radiation,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, E. J.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic Enhancement of High-Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electron-ion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wallace, W. C.

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winkler, G.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, L.

A. A. Svidzinsky, L. Yuan, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum amplification by superradiant emission of radiation,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zimmer, D.

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 96(1), 43–50 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181919 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

C. Serrat, “Broadband spectral amplitude control in high-order harmonic generation,” Appl. Sci. 2(4), 816–830 (2012).
[Crossref]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Time-resolved optical pump X-ray absorption probe spectroscopy in the range up to 1 keV with 20 fs resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2643–2651 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39(13), S275–S281 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. V. Dao, K. B. Dinh, and P. Hannaford, “Perturbative optical parametric amplification in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7175 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electron-ion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13(3), 033002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Photonics (1)

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Quantum path interference and multiple electron scattering in soft x-ray high-order harmonic generation,” Photonics 2(1), 104–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (5)

A. Fleischer and N. Moiseyev, “Amplification of high-order harmonics using weak perturbative high-frequency radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 010102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Classical model of strong-field parametric amplification of soft x rays,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013822 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, “Broadband spectral-phase control in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013825 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and M. Ivanov, “XUV lasing during strong-field-assisted transient absorption in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 93(2), 021402 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic Enhancement of High-Order Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Laban, A. J. Palmer, W. C. Wallace, N. S. Gaffney, R. P. M. J. W. Notermans, T. T. J. Clevis, M. G. Pullen, D. Jiang, H. M. Quiney, I. V. Litvinyuk, D. Kielpinski, and R. T. Sang, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high-order harmonic generation from successive sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Serrat, “Coherent extreme ultraviolet light amplification by strong-field-enhanced forward scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

A. A. Svidzinsky, L. Yuan, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum amplification by superradiant emission of radiation,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Corrigendum: The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(8), 1563 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Other (1)

S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford University Press, 1995).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup and the theoretical method. Both the experiments and the theory are based on an assembly of two jets for achieving and describing amplification of attosecond pulse trains. By decomposing the dipole matrix elements of the time-dependent dipole moment four different scattering processes can be identified, as indicated, of which x4 is much smaller than the others and can be neglected (see text for details). At the bottom part, the physical interpretations of the four processes are presented.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Single atom calculations. The case of a single attosecond XUV pulse [(a), (c) and (e)] and a train of XUV pulses [(b), (d) and (f)] in He (Ip = 24.587 eV) was calculated. In (a) and (b) the IR and XUV fields are shown. The IR pulse is an 800 nm, 7 × 1014 W/cm2 peak intensity pulse of 26 fs (FWHM) Gaussian temporal profile [black dotted lines in (a) and (b)]. The XUV field consists of Gaussian 200 as pulses, with peak intensity of 7 × 104 W/cm2 (i.e. 10−10 times the IR peak intensity). In (b) the pulse train has a super Gaussian envelope of 15 fs. The IR carrier envelope phase (CEP) is perfectly synchronized with the CEP of the XUV pulses, and the repetition rate in the XUV pulse train is half the period of the IR pulse. The different contribution from the time-dependent dipole moment factors to the spectra are shown in (c)-(f). The spectrum from the x4 is negligible and not shown. Note that the vertical axis in (d) is in logarithmic scale. In (g) the absorption spectrum for a single attosecond XUV seed pulse is shown together with the normalized seed spectrum, which demonstrates IXPA (inset).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Delay dependent amplification. Single atom calculations for the case of a weak attosecond XUV pulse train interacting together with a strong IR pulse with He (Ip = 24.587 eV). The IR pulse is a 800 nm, 7 × 1014 W/cm2 peak intensity pulse of 26 fs, CEP = 0. The XUV field consists on Gaussian 200 as pulses, CEP = 0, with peak intensity of 700 W/cm2 (i.e. 10−12 times the IR peak intensity). The XUV pulse train has a super Gaussian envelope of 15 fs width. The repetition rate of the train corresponds to half the period of the IR pulse [see Fig. 2(b)].(a) Integrated HHG yield enhancement for different values of the central photon energy of the XUV pulse train, as indicated, as a function of the delay between the IR pulse and the XUV pulse train. The XUV peak intensity has been chosen slightly increasing with the central photon energy for clarity of the figure. The delay is given in parts of half a cycle of the IR pulse, in radians, so that 2π rad ≡ λIR/c 2.66 fs. Note that for the weak XUV peak intensity used in the present calculation the single-atom enhancement is small. (c), (e) and (g) Spectra for the case that the XUV train peak is advanced 0.3325 fs (-π/4 rad) with respect to the IR pulse. (d), (f) and (h) Spectra for the case that the XUV train peak and the IR pulse peaks are perfectly synchronized. From up to down the XUV pulse trains centered at 100 eV, 120 eV, and 140 eV (green, purple and blue dashed curves, respectively) are shown, and (b) the black solid line show the HHG spectrum obtained with the IR laser pulse alone.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Delay dependent amplification for different amplifying gas pressures, as indicated. The simulations (a)-(c) show how the spectral region that is amplified depends on the delay and the gas pressure. The shape of the IR field is clearly reproduced. (d) The measurement where delay was produced by changing the distance between the gas jets reproduces the calculation in the corresponding delay range. The propagation distance was 3 mm for the calculation and measurement. The delay conversion is π rad ≈40 mm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured and (b) calculated spectra at increasing gas pressures and corresponding iteration numbers in the second gas jet, respectively. (a) In the He parametric amplifier, the generated high-harmonic spectra are altered when the amplifier is seeded (brown dashed curves) from an independent HHG source compared to the spontaneously generated spectra without seed (black solid curves). The spectra are normalized to the seed and so directly show the magnitude of the amplification. (b) The numerical simulations reproduce very well the behavior of the spectra of the seeded and unseeded amplifier.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The avalanche effect in HHG can be observed during propagation (or increased He gas pressure) in the amplifier jet. In the different panels, the spectrally integrated intensities of few harmonic lines are plotted. Both the measurements (marks) and the calculations (solid/dashed lines) were performed for the seeded (brown dashed lines) and the unseeded (black solid lines) amplifier.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Decomposed calculation of the seeded harmonic source. The three dominating contributions namely the HHG (x1, blue), the EI + IXPA2 (x2, green) and the XPA + IXPA3 (x3, black) are plotted separately. The contribution from XPA + IXPA3 dominates during the propagation (iteration number), however its dominance over the effect of IE + IXPA2 (x3/x2, pink) decreases at higher XUV intensities.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Simulation performed with 8 × 1014 W/cm2 IR peak intensity. (a) The figure shows how the regular phase mismatch induced by neutral gas and free electron dispersion is negligible at the region of the experimental parameters. (b) Calculations performed at 5 mbar where pressure-induced phase matching is achieved. The dashed lines correspond to the calculations neglecting the parametric amplification.

Equations (14)

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x(t)=i 0 t dt' ( π ε+i(tt')/2 ) 3/2 × d * [ p st (t,t')+A(t)] e i S st (t,t') d[ p st (t,t')+A(t')]E(t')+c.c.
p st (t,t')= 1 tt' t' t dt''A(t'') ,
S st (t,t')= I p (tt') 1 2 p st 2 (t,t')(tt')+ 1 2 t' t dt'' A 2 (t'')
d(k)=i 2 7/2 (2 I p ) 5/4 π k ( k 2 +2 I p ) 3 .
x IR,XUV (t)=i 0 t dt' ( π ε+i(tt')/2 ) 3/2 × d * [ p st (t,t')+A(t)] e i S st (t,t') d[ p st (t,t')+A(t')] E IR,XUV (t')+c.c.
x(t) x IR (t).
x IR (t)i 0 t dt' ( 2 14 (2 I p ) 5 π (ε+i(tt')/2) 3 ) 1/2 e i S IR st (t,t') E IR (t')× d 1 (t,t')+ d 2 (t,t')+ d 3 (t,t')+ d 4 (t,t') ( [ p IR st (t,t')+ A IR (t)] 2 +2 I p ) 3 ( [ p IR st (t,t')+ A IR (t')] 2 +2 I p ) 3 +c.c.,
d 1 (t,t')=[ p IR st (t,t')+ A IR (t)][ p IR st (t,t')+ A IR (t')],
d 2 (t,t')=[ p IR st (t,t')+ A IR (t)] A XUV (t'),
d 3 (t,t')=[ p IR st (t,t')+ A IR (t')] A XUV (t),
d 4 (t,t')= A XUV (t) A XUV (t').
p st (t,t') p IR st (t,t')= 1 tt' t' t dt'' A IR (t'') ,
S st (t,t') S IR st (t,t')= I p (tt') 1 2 ( p IR st ) 2 (t,t')(tt')+ 1 2 t' t dt'' A IR 2 (t'') ,
A= A IR + A XUV A IR

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