Abstract

We demonstrate a III-nitride edge emitting laser diode (EELD) grown on a (2021) bulk GaN substrate with a GaN tunnel junction contact for hole injection. The tunnel junction was grown using a combination of metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) and ammonia-based molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) which allowed to be regrown over activated p-GaN. For a laser bar with dimensions of 1800 µm x 2.5 µm, without facet coatings, the threshold current was 284 mA (6.3 kA/cm2) and the single facet slope efficiency was 0.33 W/A (12% differential efficiency). A differential resistivity at high current density of 2.3 × 10−4 Ω cm2 was measured.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C.-C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. C.-C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111105 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).
  9. B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of low resistance ohmic contacts to p-type (20-2-1) GaN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 075007 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, and N. Kobayashi, “Ohmic Contact to p -GaN Using a Strained InGaN Contact Layer and Its Thermal Stability,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 2254–2256 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Yajima and L. Esaki, “Excess noise in narrow germanium p-n Junctions,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 13(11), 1281–1287 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  15. I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  16. S.-R. Jeon, Y.-H. Song, H.-J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3265–3267 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Rajan, “Tunneling-based carrier regeneration in cascaded GaN light emitting diodes to overcome efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081107 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Grundmann and U. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 2830–2833 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-tpe GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1258–1266 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, H. Search, C. Journals, A. Contact, M. Iopscience, and I. P. Address, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van De Walle, “Role of hydrogen in doping of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(13), 1829–1831 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Malinverni, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051107 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. K. Fujito, S. Kubo, and I. Fujimura, “Development of bulk GaN crystals and nonpolar/semipolar substrates by HVPE’,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 313–317 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. P. S. Hsu, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Misfit dislocation formation via pre-existing threading dislocation glide in (112-2) semipolar heteroepitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081912 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

M. Malinverni, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051107 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111105 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of low resistance ohmic contacts to p-type (20-2-1) GaN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 075007 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Rajan, “Tunneling-based carrier regeneration in cascaded GaN light emitting diodes to overcome efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C.-C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

P. S. Hsu, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Misfit dislocation formation via pre-existing threading dislocation glide in (112-2) semipolar heteroepitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081912 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C.-C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujito, S. Kubo, and I. Fujimura, “Development of bulk GaN crystals and nonpolar/semipolar substrates by HVPE’,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 313–317 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Grundmann and U. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 2830–2833 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, and N. Kobayashi, “Ohmic Contact to p -GaN Using a Strained InGaN Contact Layer and Its Thermal Stability,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 2254–2256 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

S.-R. Jeon, Y.-H. Song, H.-J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3265–3267 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van De Walle, “Role of hydrogen in doping of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(13), 1829–1831 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-tpe GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1258–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, H. Search, C. Journals, A. Contact, M. Iopscience, and I. P. Address, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

T. Yajima and L. Esaki, “Excess noise in narrow germanium p-n Junctions,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 13(11), 1281–1287 (1958).
[Crossref]

Address, I. P.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, H. Search, C. Journals, A. Contact, M. Iopscience, and I. P. Address, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Akyol, F.

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Rajan, “Tunneling-based carrier regeneration in cascaded GaN light emitting diodes to overcome efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

Avrutin, V.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

Cohen, D. A.

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Contact, A.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, H. Search, C. Journals, A. Contact, M. Iopscience, and I. P. Address, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Craven, M. D.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

David, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Delille, R. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

Den Baars, S. P.

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of low resistance ohmic contacts to p-type (20-2-1) GaN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 075007 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C.-C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. S. Hsu, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Misfit dislocation formation via pre-existing threading dislocation glide in (112-2) semipolar heteroepitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081912 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dmitriev, V. A.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Elhamri, S.

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ellis, B.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

Esaki, L.

T. Yajima and L. Esaki, “Excess noise in narrow germanium p-n Junctions,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 13(11), 1281–1287 (1958).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of low resistance ohmic contacts to p-type (20-2-1) GaN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 075007 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111105 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fay, P.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feezell, D.

C.-C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C.-C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fujimura, I.

K. Fujito, S. Kubo, and I. Fujimura, “Development of bulk GaN crystals and nonpolar/semipolar substrates by HVPE’,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 313–317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujito, K.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C.-C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. S. Hsu, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Misfit dislocation formation via pre-existing threading dislocation glide in (112-2) semipolar heteroepitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081912 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujito, S. Kubo, and I. Fujimura, “Development of bulk GaN crystals and nonpolar/semipolar substrates by HVPE’,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 313–317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Goodman, K.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grandjean, N.

M. Malinverni, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grundmann, M.

M. Grundmann and U. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 2830–2833 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hader, J.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hardy, M. T.

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsu, P. S.

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. S. Hsu, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Misfit dislocation formation via pre-existing threading dislocation glide in (112-2) semipolar heteroepitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081912 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

Hurni, C. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

Hwang, S. W.

S.-R. Jeon, Y.-H. Song, H.-J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3265–3267 (2001).
[Crossref]

Iopscience, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, H. Search, C. Journals, A. Contact, M. Iopscience, and I. P. Address, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Iveland, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-tpe GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1258–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, H. Search, C. Journals, A. Contact, M. Iopscience, and I. P. Address, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jang, H.-J.

S.-R. Jeon, Y.-H. Song, H.-J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3265–3267 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jena, D.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, S.-R.

S.-R. Jeon, Y.-H. Song, H.-J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3265–3267 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jomard, F.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Journals, C.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, H. Search, C. Journals, A. Contact, M. Iopscience, and I. P. Address, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kelchner, K. M.

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, N.

K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, and N. Kobayashi, “Ohmic Contact to p -GaN Using a Strained InGaN Contact Layer and Its Thermal Stability,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 2254–2256 (2003).
[Crossref]

Koch, S. W.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kosel, T.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozodoy, P.

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krames, M.

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

Krishnamoorthy, S.

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Rajan, “Tunneling-based carrier regeneration in cascaded GaN light emitting diodes to overcome efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kubo, S.

K. Fujito, S. Kubo, and I. Fujimura, “Development of bulk GaN crystals and nonpolar/semipolar substrates by HVPE’,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 313–317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kumakura, K.

K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, and N. Kobayashi, “Ohmic Contact to p -GaN Using a Strained InGaN Contact Layer and Its Thermal Stability,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 2254–2256 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leonard, J. T.

B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of low resistance ohmic contacts to p-type (20-2-1) GaN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 075007 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Makarona, E.

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

Makimoto, T.

K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, and N. Kobayashi, “Ohmic Contact to p -GaN Using a Strained InGaN Contact Layer and Its Thermal Stability,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 2254–2256 (2003).
[Crossref]

Malinverni, M.

M. Malinverni, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Margalith, T.

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martin, D.

M. Malinverni, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, L.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matulionis, A.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U.

M. Grundmann and U. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 2830–2833 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mitchel, W. C.

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, H. Search, C. Journals, A. Contact, M. Iopscience, and I. P. Address, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-tpe GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1258–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of low resistance ohmic contacts to p-type (20-2-1) GaN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 075007 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C.-C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. S. Hsu, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Misfit dislocation formation via pre-existing threading dislocation glide in (112-2) semipolar heteroepitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081912 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, H. Search, C. Journals, A. Contact, M. Iopscience, and I. P. Address, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-tpe GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1258–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

Neugebauer, J.

J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van De Walle, “Role of hydrogen in doping of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(13), 1829–1831 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nikitina, I. P.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nikolaev, A. E.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nurmikko, A. V.

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. H.

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ozden, I.

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

X. Ni, X. Li, J. Lee, S. Liu, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “Hot electron effects on efficiency degradation in InGaN light emitting diodes and designs to mitigate them,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pan, C.-C.

C.-C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C.-C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, P. S.

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peretti, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perrin, R.

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

Polyakov, A. Y.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pourhashemi, A.

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111105 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rajan, S.

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Rajan, “Tunneling-based carrier regeneration in cascaded GaN light emitting diodes to overcome efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Low resistance GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ren, F.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Romanov, A. E.

P. S. Hsu, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Misfit dislocation formation via pre-existing threading dislocation glide in (112-2) semipolar heteroepitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081912 (2011).
[Crossref]

Saxler, A.

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

Search, H.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, H. Search, C. Journals, A. Contact, M. Iopscience, and I. P. Address, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, H. Search, C. Journals, A. Contact, M. Iopscience, and I. P. Address, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-tpe GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1258–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

Simon, J.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smirnov, N. B.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Son, S. J.

S.-R. Jeon, Y.-H. Song, H.-J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3265–3267 (2001).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.-H.

S.-R. Jeon, Y.-H. Song, H.-J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3265–3267 (2001).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of low resistance ohmic contacts to p-type (20-2-1) GaN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 075007 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C.-C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. S. Hsu, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Misfit dislocation formation via pre-existing threading dislocation glide in (112-2) semipolar heteroepitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081912 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F. M.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

Takeuchi, T.

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

C.-C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C.-C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Teukam, Z.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Theys, B.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, M. R. Krames, C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).

Usikov, A. S.

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van De Walle, “Role of hydrogen in doping of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(13), 1829–1831 (1996).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, F.

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xing, H.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yajima, T.

T. Yajima and L. Esaki, “Excess noise in narrow germanium p-n Junctions,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 13(11), 1281–1287 (1958).
[Crossref]

Yang, G. M.

S.-R. Jeon, Y.-H. Song, H.-J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3265–3267 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yonkee, B. P.

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of low resistance ohmic contacts to p-type (20-2-1) GaN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 075007 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Young, E. C.

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. S. Hsu, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Misfit dislocation formation via pre-existing threading dislocation glide in (112-2) semipolar heteroepitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081912 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 026801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

C.-C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C.-C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (4)

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C.-C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van De Walle, “Role of hydrogen in doping of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(13), 1829–1831 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, B. Theys, F. Jomard, Z. Teukam, V. A. Dmitriev, A. E. Nikolaev, A. S. Usikov, and I. P. Nikitina, “Fermi level dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1834 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Malinverni, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051107 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar (20-2-1) GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a). A schematic of the laser diode structure is shown. The regrowth interface between the MBE and MOCVD materials is at the tunnel junction p-n interface. 1(b). An optical mode profile is shown near the active region. The simulated confinement factor was 3.4%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A pulsed LIV plot for an 1800 μm by 2.5 µm laser shows a threshold current of 284 mA (6.3 kA/cm2) and a differential efficiency of 0.33 W/A out of one uncoated facet.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a). The FWHM and peak wavelength are plotted as a function of current. 3(b). The measured laser spectra show a sharp increase in light around 444 nm indicative of lasing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a). Calculated band diagrams at a −0.5 V bias is shown with and without the addition of a 1014 cm−2 delta donor spike at the interface for a p-n junction with an acceptor concentration of 2 × 1020 cm−3 and a donor concentration of 1x1020 cm−3. The delta donor spike reduces the minimum tunneling distance at −0.5 V from 5.5 nm to 3.2 nm. 4(b). The minimum tunneling distance is plotted for different biases and delta donor densities for a p-n junction with an acceptor concentration of 2 × 1020 cm−3 and a donor concentration of 1x1020 cm−3.

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