Abstract

An improved design for hollow core anti-resonant fibers (HAFs) is presented. A split cladding structure is introduced to reduce the fabrication distortion within design tolerance. We use numerical simulations to compare the Kagome fibers (KFs) and the proposed split cladding fibers (SCFs) over two normalized transmission bands. It reveals that SCFs are able to maintain the desired round shape of silica cladding walls, hence improving the confinement loss (CL) compared to the KF and is comparable to that of the nested antiresonant nodeless fiber (NANF) with the same core size. In addition, the SCF allows stacking multiple layers of cladding rings to control the CL. The influences of the number of cladding layers and the cladding gap width on the CL of the SCFs have been studied. SCF with three cladding rings is fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique. A measured attenuation spectrum matches well with the calculation prediction. The measured near field mode patterns also prove the feasibility of our fiber design.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. G. Welch, K. Cook, R. A. Correa, F. Gerôme, W. J. Wadsworth, A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, and J. C. Knight, “Solitons in hollow core photonic crystal fiber: engineering nonlinearity and compressing pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1644–1652 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. Z. Wang, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Efficient diode-pumped mid-infrared emission from acetylene-filled hollow-core fiber,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21872–21878 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. M. Jones, A. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, “Mid-infrared gas filled photonic crystal fiber laser based on population inversion,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2309–2316 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

F. Benabid, P. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
[Crossref]

M. G. Welch, K. Cook, R. A. Correa, F. Gerôme, W. J. Wadsworth, A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, and J. C. Knight, “Solitons in hollow core photonic crystal fiber: engineering nonlinearity and compressing pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1644–1652 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Pearce, G. S. Wiederhecker, C. G. Poulton, S. Burger, and P. St. J. Russell, “Models for guidance in kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12680–12685 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

F. Benabid, “Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber: new light guidance for new science and technology,” Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 364, 3439–3462 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3574–3576 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31(22), 1941–1943 (1995).
[Crossref]

Alharbi, M.

Allan, D. C.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argyros, A.

Atkin, D. M.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31(22), 1941–1943 (1995).
[Crossref]

Auguste, J.-L.

Beaudou, B.

Belardi, W.

Benabid, F.

B. Debord, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, Y. Y. Wang, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part I: Arc curvature effect on confinement loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28597–28608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, B. Debord, C. Fourcade-Dutin, D. Ghosh, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part II: Cladding effect on confinement and bend loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28609–28616 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Beaudou, F. Gerôme, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, T. D. Bradley, G. Humbert, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, and F. Benabid, “Millijoule laser pulse delivery for spark ignition through kagome hollow-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1430–1432 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 669–671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Jones, A. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, “Mid-infrared gas filled photonic crystal fiber laser based on population inversion,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2309–2316 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, P. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
[Crossref]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, “Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber: new light guidance for new science and technology,” Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 364, 3439–3462 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3574–3576 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biriukov, A. S.

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Blondy, J.-M.

Borrelli, N. F.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, T.

Bradley, T. D.

Burger, S.

Cook, K.

Correa, R. A.

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

Debord, B.

Dianov, E. M.

Farr, L.

Février, S.

Fiedler, T.

Fourcade-Dutin, C.

Gallagher, M. T.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerôme, F.

Gérôme, F.

Ghosh, D.

Gorbach, A. V.

Humbert, G.

Jones, A. M.

Kadel, R.

Knight, J. C.

Koch, K. W.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolyadin, A. N.

Kosolapov, A. F.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Light, P. S.

F. Benabid, P. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
[Crossref]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3574–3576 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mangan, B. J.

Mason, M. W.

Müller, D.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nampoothiri, A. V.

Pearce, G. J.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Poletti, F.

Poulton, C. G.

Pryamikov, A. D.

Ratanavis, A.

Raymer, M. G.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, P.

F. Benabid, P. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
[Crossref]

Roberts, P. J.

Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 669–671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(1), 236–244 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31(22), 1941–1943 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rudolph, W.

Russel, P. S. J.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31(22), 1941–1943 (1995).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. S. J.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabert, H.

Semjonov, S. L.

Setti, V.

Shepherd, T. J.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31(22), 1941–1943 (1995).
[Crossref]

Skryabin, D. V.

Smith, C. M.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

St. J. Russell, P.

Tomlinson, A.

Venkataraman, N.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viale, P.

Vincetti, L.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, Y. Y.

Wang, Z.

Washburn, B. R.

Welch, M. G.

West, J. A.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wheeler, N. V.

Wiederhecker, G. S.

Williams, D. P.

Yu, F.

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31(22), 1941–1943 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc (1)

F. Benabid, P. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nature (1)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (15)

Z. Wang, W. Belardi, F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Efficient diode-pumped mid-infrared emission from acetylene-filled hollow-core fiber,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21872–21878 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Jones, A. V. Nampoothiri, A. Ratanavis, T. Fiedler, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Kadel, F. Benabid, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and W. Rudolph, “Mid-infrared gas filled photonic crystal fiber laser based on population inversion,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2309–2316 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(1), 236–244 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Kolyadin, A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Light transmission in negative curvature hollow core fiber in extremely high material loss region,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9514–9519 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11153–11158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Pearce, G. S. Wiederhecker, C. G. Poulton, S. Burger, and P. St. J. Russell, “Models for guidance in kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12680–12685 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, B. Debord, C. Fourcade-Dutin, D. Ghosh, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part II: Cladding effect on confinement and bend loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28609–28616 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Debord, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, Y. Y. Wang, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part I: Arc curvature effect on confinement loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28597–28608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vincetti and V. Setti, “Extra loss due to Fano resonances in inhibited coupling fibers based on a lattice of tubes,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14350–14361 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, A. F. Kosolapov, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow-core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1441–1448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vincetti and V. Setti, “Waveguiding mechanism in tube lattice fibers,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23133–23146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Belardi and J. C. Knight, “Effect of core boundary curvature on the confinement losses of hollow antiresonant fibers,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21912–21917 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Poletti, “Nested antiresonant nodeless hollow core fiber,” Opt. Express 22(20), 23807–23828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. (1)

F. Benabid, “Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber: new light guidance for new science and technology,” Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 364, 3439–3462 (2006).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large pitch Kagome-structured hollow-core PCF,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CWF1.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber fabrication induced distortion in KF and proposed SCF structures. The surface tension of molten silica during the fiber drawing modifies the structures deviated from the ideal cases. TLF represents the ideal structure of the kagome fiber (KF). ISC represents the ideal structure of the split-cladding fiber (SCF) a, d, and t denote inner core radius, pitch size and core wall thickness respectively. The different wall shapes in the KF are indicated by 1 and 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Confinement loss and (b) effective refractive index with normalized frequency in different anti-resonant fiber structures: tube lattice fiber (TLF, green curve), kagome fiber (KF, blue curve), split cladding hollow core fiber (SCF, black curve), ideal split-cladding fiber (ISC, red curve) and nested antiresonant nodeless fiber (NANF, purple curve). All the fibers have the same inner core radius.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of confinement loss among different SCF structures: 1-ring split cladding hollow core fiber (1SCF, red solid line), 2-ring split cladding hollow core fiber (2SCF, blue dash line), 2SCF with second ring wall thickness t2 = 0.5t (black dotted line) and 2SCF with t2 = 1.08t (purple dotted line). All these structures have the same inner core radius a = 9.76 ��m, pitch size d = 11.8 ��m and core wall thickness t = 1 ��m.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of confinement loss between NANF and SCF in first resonant band (F < 1): NANF with the same geometry as in [10] (red line), 2SCF (magenta line), 2SCF with d2/d = 0.77 (blue line). All these structures have the same inner core radius a = 13 µm, d = 18.72 µm and t = 0.55 ��m. Inset shows the structure of 2SCF with smaller capillaries in second ring.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Confinement loss (blue line) and effective area (green line) of F = 2.63 vs. the normalized gap width, = w/a, where w is the gap width, a is the inner core radius. The a is assumed as 9.76 ��m.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The effective refractive indices of the fundamental mode (mode A) and cladding airy mode (mode B) at different gap widths. The mode A plots the same curve regardless of the gap width because the inner core radius is fixed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The fundamental mode (green – mode A) and a cladding mode (red – mode B) vs. the normalised gap width, g. The confinement loss (shown in blue dash line) peaks where effective index of mode A and mode B are matched.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) SEM of the fabricated 3-ring SCF. The fiber diameter is 282 μm with 47.7 μm core diameter, 19.5 μm pitch size, and 2.14 μm wall thickness. (b) Near field mode pattern at the output of 1.65 m long fabricated fiber when wavelength is 700 nm. (c) Near field mode pattern at the output of 1.65 m long fabricated fiber when wavelength is 1690 nm. (d) Measured attenuation of the fabricated fiber (deviation between the transmission of a 0.8 m fiber and a 1.65 m fiber), red dashed lines correspond to the calculated high resonant wavelengths.

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