Abstract

The holographic polymer network formed in liquid crystal (LC) phase modulators via a He-Ne laser in this study demonstrates ultra-fast optically response and low light scattering. These advantages are mainly caused by the small LC domains and uniform polymer network when processing LC cells via holographic exposure to a He-Ne laser. The use of this method to fabricate LC cells as phase modulators results in a decay time of 49 μs under 2π phase modulation at room temperature. The predicted fast optical response can be achieved when operating devices at high temperatures.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

2014 (4)

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, and M. Ozaki, “Nematic liquid crystal nanocomposite with scattering-free, microsecond electro-optic response,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 916–923 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xiangjie, L. Cangli, D. Jiazhu, Z. Jiancheng, Z. Dayong, and L. Yongquan, “Morphology effect on the light scattering and dynamic response of polymer network liquid crystal phase modulator,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14757–14768 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023305 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Sun, R. A. Ramsey, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response sheared polymer network liquid crystals for display applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 87–90 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, H. Xu, H. Hu, Q. Gan, and A. N. Cartwright, “One-step fabrication of graded rainbow-colored holographic photopolymer reflection gratings,” Adv. Mater. 24(12), 1604–1609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Hsu and C. R. Sheu, “Using photopolymerization to achieve tunable liquid crystal lenses with coaxial bifocals,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4738–4746 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

J. Sun, H. Xian, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. Dyadyusha, and M. Kaczmarek, “Voltage-driven in-plane steering of nematicons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091106 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2004 (2)

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1261–1263 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings based on thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 6060–6065 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Q. Ma and D. K. Yang, “Freedericksz transition in polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(2), 1567–1573 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystals A critical examination of existing models,” Liq. Cryst. 8(2), 171–182 (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

W. H. De Jeu, “Physical properties of liquid crystalline materials in relation to their applications,” Liq. Cryst. 63(1), 83–109 (1981).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

I. Haller, “Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 10(2), 103–118 (1975).
[Crossref]

Assanto, G.

A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. Dyadyusha, and M. Kaczmarek, “Voltage-driven in-plane steering of nematicons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brandelik, D. M.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings based on thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

L. De Sio, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “POLICRYPS-based electrically switchable Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32696–32702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings based on thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cangli, L.

Caputo, R.

Cartwright, A. N.

K. Liu, H. Xu, H. Hu, Q. Gan, and A. N. Cartwright, “One-step fabrication of graded rainbow-colored holographic photopolymer reflection gratings,” Adv. Mater. 24(12), 1604–1609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandra, S.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings based on thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. P.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

J. Sun, R. A. Ramsey, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response sheared polymer network liquid crystals for display applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 87–90 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, H. Xian, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. C.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K. L.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V. G.

Dayong, Z.

De Jeu, W. H.

W. H. De Jeu, “Physical properties of liquid crystalline materials in relation to their applications,” Liq. Cryst. 63(1), 83–109 (1981).
[Crossref]

De Sio, L.

Dyadyusha, A.

A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. Dyadyusha, and M. Kaczmarek, “Voltage-driven in-plane steering of nematicons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Efron, U.

Fan, Y. H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gan, Q.

K. Liu, H. Xu, H. Hu, Q. Gan, and A. N. Cartwright, “One-step fabrication of graded rainbow-colored holographic photopolymer reflection gratings,” Adv. Mater. 24(12), 1604–1609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guo, Q.

Haller, I.

I. Haller, “Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 10(2), 103–118 (1975).
[Crossref]

Haseba, Y.

J. Sun, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023305 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, G.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hess, L. D.

Hsieh, P. J.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C. J.

Hu, H.

K. Liu, H. Xu, H. Hu, Q. Gan, and A. N. Cartwright, “One-step fabrication of graded rainbow-colored holographic photopolymer reflection gratings,” Adv. Mater. 24(12), 1604–1609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, Y.

Jiancheng, Z.

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiazhu, D.

Kaczmarek, M.

A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. Dyadyusha, and M. Kaczmarek, “Voltage-driven in-plane steering of nematicons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Karapinar, R.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 6060–6065 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, X.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, H. Xu, H. Hu, Q. Gan, and A. N. Cartwright, “One-step fabrication of graded rainbow-colored holographic photopolymer reflection gratings,” Adv. Mater. 24(12), 1604–1609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S. H.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, J. G.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lucchetta, D. E.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 6060–6065 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ma, R. Q.

R. Q. Ma and D. K. Yang, “Freedericksz transition in polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(2), 1567–1573 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manni, A.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 6060–6065 (2002).
[Crossref]

Natarajan, L. V.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings based on thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ni, S. B.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, M.

Peccianti, M.

A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. Dyadyusha, and M. Kaczmarek, “Voltage-driven in-plane steering of nematicons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Piccardi, A.

A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. Dyadyusha, and M. Kaczmarek, “Voltage-driven in-plane steering of nematicons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ramsey, R. A.

J. Sun, R. A. Ramsey, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response sheared polymer network liquid crystals for display applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 87–90 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rao, L.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, C. K.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings based on thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sheu, C. R.

Shiu, J. W.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Simoni, F.

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 6060–6065 (2002).
[Crossref]

Song, X. L.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Su, Y.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sukhov, A. V.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023305 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, R. A. Ramsey, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response sheared polymer network liquid crystals for display applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 87–90 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, H. Xian, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, R. L.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings based on thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tabiryan, N.

Tomlin, D.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings based on thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tondiglia, V. P.

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings based on thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[Crossref]

Umeton, C.

Veltri, A.

Wang, Y. J.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. S.

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystals A critical examination of existing models,” Liq. Cryst. 8(2), 171–182 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wu, D. Q.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, R. A. Ramsey, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response sheared polymer network liquid crystals for display applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 87–90 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, H. Xian, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystals A critical examination of existing models,” Liq. Cryst. 8(2), 171–182 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S.-T.

J. Sun, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023305 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xian, H.

J. Sun, H. Xian, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiangjie, Z.

Xu, H.

K. Liu, H. Xu, H. Hu, Q. Gan, and A. N. Cartwright, “One-step fabrication of graded rainbow-colored holographic photopolymer reflection gratings,” Adv. Mater. 24(12), 1604–1609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, J.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. K.

R. Q. Ma and D. K. Yang, “Freedericksz transition in polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(2), 1567–1573 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, Z.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yongquan, L.

Yoshida, H.

Zhao, H.

Zhao, X.

Zhong, E. W.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. L.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

K. Liu, H. Xu, H. Hu, Q. Gan, and A. N. Cartwright, “One-step fabrication of graded rainbow-colored holographic photopolymer reflection gratings,” Adv. Mater. 24(12), 1604–1609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J. Sun, H. Xian, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. Song, E. W. Zhong, Y. J. Wang, C. P. Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, J. G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluent,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. Dyadyusha, and M. Kaczmarek, “Voltage-driven in-plane steering of nematicons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, S.-T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(2), 023305 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (2)

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5(10), 1533–1538 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. V. Natarajan, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, R. L. Sutherland, S. Chandra, V. P. Tondiglia, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, “Switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal reflection gratings based on thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 15(12), 2477–2484 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 6060–6065 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J. Sun, R. A. Ramsey, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response sheared polymer network liquid crystals for display applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(2), 87–90 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. (1)

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (2)

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystals A critical examination of existing models,” Liq. Cryst. 8(2), 171–182 (1990).
[Crossref]

W. H. De Jeu, “Physical properties of liquid crystalline materials in relation to their applications,” Liq. Cryst. 63(1), 83–109 (1981).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

R. Q. Ma and D. K. Yang, “Freedericksz transition in polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(2), 1567–1573 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Solid State Chem. (1)

I. Haller, “Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 10(2), 103–118 (1975).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

U. Efron, Spatial Light Modulator Technology: Materials, Devices, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of normalized transmittance for variously completed PNLC cells under non-holographic and holographic exposure processes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical comparisons of PNLC cells processed with holographic and non-holographic exposure. (a) Cell observations via a light box with a pair of crossed polarizers when the cell rubbing direction is parallel or 45° with respect to incident polarization direction. (b) Visual observations of light scattering in the cells when applying voltages of 120 Vrms. Obviously, the H-13.5 cell shows better transmission than that in the NH-13.5 cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detailed observations in H-13.5 and NH-13.5 cell via a polarization microscope. (a) Optical image in H-13.5 cell. (b) Optical image in NH-13.5 cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparisons of optical transmittance and phase modulation with respect to applied voltages in completed LC cells. (a) V-T curves of two holographically exposed PNLC cells and an E7 LC cell. (b) Individual electric phase modulation in the H-13.5 and E7 LC cells during measurement at room temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase modulation versus electric signals in the H-13.5 cell. (a) 1π phase modulation with an applied voltage of 85 Vrms. (b) 2π phase modulation with an applied voltage of 185 Vrms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurements and curve fitting of optical birefringence and free relaxation time with respect to various temperatures in the H-13.5 PNLC cell.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparisons of γ1/K11 values with respect to various cell temperatures in the H-13.5 cell and pure E7 LC cell according to the multi-layer model.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Component Ratios of Two LC Mixtures in Weight Percentage (wt%)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Response Time and applied Voltages with respect to Phase modulation in the H-13.5 Cell as a phase Modulator

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Λ= λ 2 n o sinθ
V th =π K 11 ε 0 Δε
τ 0 γ 1 D 2 K 11 π 2
γ 1 K 11 =A exp( E a / k b T) (1T/ T c ) β

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