Abstract

The carrier-envelop-phase (CEP) dependence of nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of atomic Ar with few-cycle elliptically polarized laser pulse is investigated using 2D classical ensemble method. We distinguish two particular recollision channels in NSDI, which are recollision-impact ionization (RII) and recollision-induced excitation with subsequent ionization (RESI). We separate the RII and RESI channels according to the delay time between recollision and final double ionization. By tracing the history of the trajectories, we find the electron correlation spectra as well as the competition between the two channels are sensitively dependent on the laser field CEP. Finally, control can be achieved between the two channels by varying the CEP.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  6. J. Guo and X. Liu, “Exploration of nonsequential-double-ionization dynamics of Mg atoms in linearly and circularly polarized laser fields with different potentials,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023405 (2013).
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  7. A. Tong, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Electron dynamics of molecular double ionization by circularly polarized laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074308(2013).
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  8. T. Wang, X. Ge, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Sensitivity of strong-field double ionization to the initial ensembles in circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 033420 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. Z. Yuan, D. Ye, Z. Xia, and L. Fu, “Intensity-dependent two-electron emission dynamics with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 063417 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Dong, L. Zhang, H. Bai, and T. Zhang, “Scaling law of nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033409 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Xu, F. He, T. Sang, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Experimental observation of the elusive double-peak structure in R-dependent strong-field ionization rate of H2+,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13527 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. Z. Xia, F. Ye, Y. Han, and J. Liu, “Momentum distribution of near zero-energy photoelectrons in the strong-field tunneling ionization in the long wavelength limit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11473 (2015).
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  17. B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
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  18. X. Liu and C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, “Nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133006 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Effects of elliptical polarization on strong-field short-pulse double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103007 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical polarization and probability of double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083001 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical trajectories in nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 12, 093047 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013431 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. D. Gillen, M. A. Walker, and L. D. Van Woerkom, “Enhanced double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 043413 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. Guo and G. N. Gibson, “Ellipticity effects on single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 040701 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  29. F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollision and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. R. Panfili, J. H. Eberly, and S. L. Haan, “Comparing classical and quantum dynamics of strong-field double ionization,” Opt. Express 8, 431 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. X. Wang, J. Tian, and J. H. Eberly, “Angular correlation in strong-field double ionization under circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073001 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073002 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  34. C. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Contribution of recollision ionization to the cross-shaped structure in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express 21, 11382 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. M. Kitzler and M. Lezius, “Spatial control of recollision wave packet with attosecond precision,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253001 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  36. L. Chen, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Attosecond-resolved electron emission in nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043425 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  37. L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  38. L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

Z. Yuan, D. Ye, Z. Xia, and L. Fu, “Intensity-dependent two-electron emission dynamics with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 063417 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Dong, L. Zhang, H. Bai, and T. Zhang, “Scaling law of nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033409 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, F. He, T. Sang, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Experimental observation of the elusive double-peak structure in R-dependent strong-field ionization rate of H2+,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13527 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Xia, F. Ye, Y. Han, and J. Liu, “Momentum distribution of near zero-energy photoelectrons in the strong-field tunneling ionization in the long wavelength limit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11473 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

L. Zhang, H. Bai, and T. Zhang, “Double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold Intensity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023410 (2014).

T. Wang, X. Ge, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Sensitivity of strong-field double ionization to the initial ensembles in circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 033420 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

L. Chen, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Attosecond-resolved electron emission in nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043425 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Guo and X. Liu, “Exploration of nonsequential-double-ionization dynamics of Mg atoms in linearly and circularly polarized laser fields with different potentials,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023405 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Tong, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Electron dynamics of molecular double ionization by circularly polarized laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074308(2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, J. Tian, and J. H. Eberly, “Angular correlation in strong-field double ionization under circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Contribution of recollision ionization to the cross-shaped structure in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express 21, 11382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, T Shaaran, and M. T. Nygren, “Time-delayed nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses: Importance of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053405 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Walker, X. Liu, P. J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1011 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Mauger, A. Kamor, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Mechanism of delayed double ionization in a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 063001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical polarization and probability of double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical trajectories in nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 12, 093047 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollision and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Effects of elliptical polarization on strong-field short-pulse double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103007 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073002 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Kitzler and M. Lezius, “Spatial control of recollision wave packet with attosecond precision,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253001 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

X. Liu and C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, “Nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133006 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

R. Panfili, J. H. Eberly, and S. L. Haan, “Comparing classical and quantum dynamics of strong-field double ionization,” Opt. Express 8, 431 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Gillen, M. A. Walker, and L. D. Van Woerkom, “Enhanced double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 043413 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Guo and G. N. Gibson, “Ellipticity effects on single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 040701 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405,658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostine, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agostine, P.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostine, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, H.

S. Dong, L. Zhang, H. Bai, and T. Zhang, “Scaling law of nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033409 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, H. Bai, and T. Zhang, “Double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold Intensity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023410 (2014).

Baltuška, A.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben, S.

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ben-Itzhak, I.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bergues, B.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Betsch, K. J.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camus, N.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chandre, C.

F. Mauger, A. Kamor, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Mechanism of delayed double ionization in a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 063001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollision and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Attosecond-resolved electron emission in nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043425 (2013).
[Crossref]

Corcum, P. B.

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L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
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X. Liu and C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, “Nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133006 (2004).
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B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
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Fischer, D.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
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D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
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Z. Yuan, D. Ye, Z. Xia, and L. Fu, “Intensity-dependent two-electron emission dynamics with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 063417 (2015).
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C. Guo and G. N. Gibson, “Ellipticity effects on single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 040701 (2001).
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C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
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Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405,658–661 (2000).
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C. Guo and G. N. Gibson, “Ellipticity effects on single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 040701 (2001).
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C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
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Guo, J.

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
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T. Wang, X. Ge, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Sensitivity of strong-field double ionization to the initial ensembles in circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 033420 (2014).
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J. Guo and X. Liu, “Exploration of nonsequential-double-ionization dynamics of Mg atoms in linearly and circularly polarized laser fields with different potentials,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023405 (2013).
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Haan, S. L.

Han, Y.

Z. Xia, F. Ye, Y. Han, and J. Liu, “Momentum distribution of near zero-energy photoelectrons in the strong-field tunneling ionization in the long wavelength limit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11473 (2015).
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Hao, X.

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013431 (2013).
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He, F.

H. Xu, F. He, T. Sang, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Experimental observation of the elusive double-peak structure in R-dependent strong-field ionization rate of H2+,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13527 (2015).
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Herrwerth, O.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
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Ho, P. J.

B. Walker, X. Liu, P. J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1011 (2012).
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Höhr, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
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A. Tong, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Electron dynamics of molecular double ionization by circularly polarized laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074308(2013).
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C. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Contribution of recollision ionization to the cross-shaped structure in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express 21, 11382 (2013).
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L. Chen, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Attosecond-resolved electron emission in nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043425 (2013).
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L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
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Jagutzki, O.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405,658–661 (2000).
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Johnson, N. G.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
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Jones, R. R.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
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B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
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Kaldun, A.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
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L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
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Keeffe, K. O.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
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Kheifets, A.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
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Kitzler, M.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
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L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
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M. Kitzler and M. Lezius, “Spatial control of recollision wave packet with attosecond precision,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253001 (2005).
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M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
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Kling, M. F.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kling, Nora G.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Korn, G.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kübel, M.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kulander, K. C.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostine, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

M. Kitzler and M. Lezius, “Spatial control of recollision wave packet with attosecond precision,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253001 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liao, Q.

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lindner, F.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

H. Xu, F. He, T. Sang, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Experimental observation of the elusive double-peak structure in R-dependent strong-field ionization rate of H2+,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13527 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Z. Xia, F. Ye, Y. Han, and J. Liu, “Momentum distribution of near zero-energy photoelectrons in the strong-field tunneling ionization in the long wavelength limit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11473 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, X. Ge, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Sensitivity of strong-field double ionization to the initial ensembles in circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 033420 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Guo and X. Liu, “Exploration of nonsequential-double-ionization dynamics of Mg atoms in linearly and circularly polarized laser fields with different potentials,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023405 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Walker, X. Liu, P. J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1011 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, “Nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133006 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lu, P.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Contribution of recollision ionization to the cross-shaped structure in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express 21, 11382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Attosecond-resolved electron emission in nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043425 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Tong, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Electron dynamics of molecular double ionization by circularly polarized laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074308(2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mauger, F.

F. Mauger, A. Kamor, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Mechanism of delayed double ionization in a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 063001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollision and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mergel, V.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405,658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moshammer, R.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
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Neumayer, P.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nibarger, J. P.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nygren, M. T.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, T Shaaran, and M. T. Nygren, “Time-delayed nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses: Importance of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Panfili, R.

Paulus, G. G.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pfeifer, T.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rathje, T.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roither, S.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rottke, H.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandner, W.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sang, T.

H. Xu, F. He, T. Sang, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Experimental observation of the elusive double-peak structure in R-dependent strong-field ionization rate of H2+,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13527 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sayler, A. M.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostine, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schätzel, M. G.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schöffler, M.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schöter, C. D.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senftleben, A.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shaaran, T

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, T Shaaran, and M. T. Nygren, “Time-delayed nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses: Importance of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shafir, D.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sheehy, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostine, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spielberger, L.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405,658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Staudte, A.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405,658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

X. Wang, J. Tian, and J. H. Eberly, “Angular correlation in strong-field double ionization under circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, A.

A. Tong, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Electron dynamics of molecular double ionization by circularly polarized laser pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074308(2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trump, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

M. Kübel, Nora G. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Nonsequential double ionization of N2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023418 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. 3, 813 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405,658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Uzer, T.

F. Mauger, A. Kamor, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Mechanism of delayed double ionization in a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 063001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollision and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Woerkom, L. D.

G. D. Gillen, M. A. Walker, and L. D. Van Woerkom, “Enhanced double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 043413 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, M.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405,658–661 (2000).
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Walker, B.

B. Walker, X. Liu, P. J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1011 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostine, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, M. A.

G. D. Gillen, M. A. Walker, and L. D. Van Woerkom, “Enhanced double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 043413 (2001).
[Crossref]

Walther, H.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, X. Ge, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Sensitivity of strong-field double ionization to the initial ensembles in circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 033420 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. Tian, and J. H. Eberly, “Angular correlation in strong-field double ionization under circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical trajectories in nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 12, 093047 (2010).
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X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical polarization and probability of double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Effects of elliptical polarization on strong-field short-pulse double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103007 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weber, Th.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405,658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Weckenbrock, M.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405,658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wittmann, M.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schöter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. CrespoLopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

M. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, W. Li, X. Hao, and J. Chen, “Coulomb-potential effects in nonsequential double ionization under elliptical polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xia, Z.

Z. Yuan, D. Ye, Z. Xia, and L. Fu, “Intensity-dependent two-electron emission dynamics with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 063417 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Xia, F. Ye, Y. Han, and J. Liu, “Momentum distribution of near zero-energy photoelectrons in the strong-field tunneling ionization in the long wavelength limit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11473 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, Y. Wang, C. Wang, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, X. Liu, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Laser-sub-cycle two-dimensional electron-momentum mapping using orthogonal two-color fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061401 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, X. Xie, S. Roither, Y. Zhou, P. Lu, D. Kartashov, M. Schöffler, D. Shafir, P. B. Corcum, A. Baltuška, A. Staudte, and M. Kitzler, “Subcycle control of electron-electron correlation in double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 193002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, F. He, T. Sang, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Experimental observation of the elusive double-peak structure in R-dependent strong-field ionization rate of H2+,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13527 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
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Ye, D.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The CEP-dependent double ionization yield versus laser intensity. To guide the eye, pink dashed curve marks out the SDI area, next to which a green vertical line marks the laser field intensity I0 = 1.0PW/cm2, which is used in the calculation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correlation spectra of double electron momenta in major polarization direction for different CEPs. They show a cross-like structure or assemble in the first quadrant (actually, the underlying different double ionization channels just are RESI and RII, which will be talked about in details. see details below).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) (b) The final double ionization time (tDI) versus the recollision time (tr) for two typical CEPs (φ = 0.25π and φ = 0.625π). The cluster B1 and B2 represent the two channels (RESI and RII). (c) (d) Counts of delay time for the two typical CEPs. The statistic results show the different channels with some peaks of counts. In this way, RESI and RII channels with longer and shorter delay time can be recorded, and the boundary of the two channels is set to be 0.4 cycle time delay.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two typical classical trajectories of double ionized electrons. (a) shows the trajectories of two electrons (corresponds to the cluster B1 for φ = 0.25π) in RESI channel where a shorter travel of the outer electron (red line) colliding the inner one (black line), lower energy transfer enable the inner electron to be excited for a moment and then ionized with subsequent laser field. (b) shows the RII channel (corresponds to the cluster B2 for φ = 0.625π), where the outer electron (red line) in a longer elliptical recollision orbit with higher energy could impact the inner one (black line) and make it ionized directly.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlation spectra of double-electron momenta for different CEPs, which shows the different NSDI channels (the upper panel shows the RII channel and the lower panel shows the RESI channel). This is just the separating image of the blended one, see in Fig. 2. RIIs spectra mainly assemble in the first quadrant while RESIs shows a cross-like structure. The boundary of the two channels is set to be 0.4 cycle time delay as well.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ratio between definite ionization mechanism and total ionization versus CEPs. Two channels can be appropriately turned off or turned on respectively. In addition, their behaviors change following a π cycle on account of circular symmetry for Ar atom. The boundary of the two channels is set to be 0.4 cycle time delay as well.

Equations (3)

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H 0 = i 2 ( | p i | 2 2 2 | r i | 2 + a 2 ) + 1 | r 1 r 2 | 2 + b 2 = E tot ,
H = H 0 + ( r 1 + r 2 ) · E ( t ) .
E ( t ) = E 0 f ( t ) [ x ^ sin ( ω t + φ ) + y ^ ε cos ( ω t + φ ) ]

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