Abstract

We report the optical properties of localized surface plasmon (LSP)-enhanced green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) containing gold (Au) nanoparticles embedded in a p-GaN layer. The photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) intensities of a green LED with Au nanoparticles were enhanced by the coupling between excitons and LSPs. Excitation power-dependent PL and injection current-dependent EL measurements revealed that the blue-shift of PL and EL peaks with increasing carrier density was smaller for the LSP-enhanced LED compared with that for a conventional LED. The increased optical output power and decrease in blue-shift of the LED with Au nanoparticles were attributed to the increased radiative recombination efficiency of carriers induced by the LSP-coupling process and the compensation of the polarization-induced electric fields with LSP-enhanced local fields, both of which suppressed the quantum-confined Stark effect.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, and G. M. Yang, “Influence of strain relaxation on structural and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1166–1170 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. T. Romano, M. D. McCluskey, C. G. Van de Walle, J. E. Northrup, D. P. Bour, M. Kneissl, T. Suski, and J. Jun, “Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3950–3952 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical Study of Orientation Dependence of Piezoelectric Effects in Wurtzite Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures and Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), 413–416 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. Z. Lin, R. Hao, G. Li, and S. Zhang, “Effect of Si doping in barriers of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on the performance of green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 022102 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y.-S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500-540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. L. Sun, S. Zhang, F. Liu, and M. Han, “Influence of localized surface plasmons on carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells covered with Ag nanoparticles for enhanced photoluminescence,” Superlattices Microstruct. 86, 418–424 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Influence of the quantum-confined Stark effect in an quantum well on its coupling with surface plasmon for light emission enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183114 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

Z. Lin, R. Hao, G. Li, and S. Zhang, “Effect of Si doping in barriers of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on the performance of green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, S. Zhang, F. Liu, and M. Han, “Influence of localized surface plasmons on carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells covered with Ag nanoparticles for enhanced photoluminescence,” Superlattices Microstruct. 86, 418–424 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500-540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Influence of the quantum-confined Stark effect in an quantum well on its coupling with surface plasmon for light emission enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183114 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y.-S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, and G. M. Yang, “Influence of strain relaxation on structural and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1166–1170 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical Study of Orientation Dependence of Piezoelectric Effects in Wurtzite Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures and Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), 413–416 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. T. Romano, M. D. McCluskey, C. G. Van de Walle, J. E. Northrup, D. P. Bour, M. Kneissl, T. Suski, and J. Jun, “Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3950–3952 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Adivarahan, V.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical Study of Orientation Dependence of Piezoelectric Effects in Wurtzite Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures and Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), 413–416 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical Study of Orientation Dependence of Piezoelectric Effects in Wurtzite Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures and Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), 413–416 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500-540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baker, T. J.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bour, D. P.

L. T. Romano, M. D. McCluskey, C. G. Van de Walle, J. E. Northrup, D. P. Bour, M. Kneissl, T. Suski, and J. Jun, “Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3950–3952 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, M. G.

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Byeon, C. C.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Influence of the quantum-confined Stark effect in an quantum well on its coupling with surface plasmon for light emission enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183114 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chitnis, A.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. H.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, C. Y.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, and G. M. Yang, “Influence of strain relaxation on structural and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1166–1170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y. H.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Eliashevich, I.

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, I.

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fujita, S.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fujito, K.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grahn, H. T.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, M.

L. Sun, S. Zhang, F. Liu, and M. Han, “Influence of localized surface plasmons on carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells covered with Ag nanoparticles for enhanced photoluminescence,” Superlattices Microstruct. 86, 418–424 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, S. H.

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, R.

Z. Lin, R. Hao, G. Li, and S. Zhang, “Effect of Si doping in barriers of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on the performance of green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haskell, B. A.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hong, S. H.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. F.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Inoue, K.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Izumi, T.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jun, J.

L. T. Romano, M. D. McCluskey, C. G. Van de Walle, J. E. Northrup, D. P. Bour, M. Kneissl, T. Suski, and J. Jun, “Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3950–3952 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kaneta, A.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. W.

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S. E.

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karlicek, R. F.

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, Y.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, Y.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ke, C. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. A.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. H.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. S.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, and G. M. Yang, “Influence of strain relaxation on structural and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1166–1170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. O.

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y.-S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y.-S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-S.

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y.-S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

L. T. Romano, M. D. McCluskey, C. G. Van de Walle, J. E. Northrup, D. P. Bour, M. Kneissl, T. Suski, and J. Jun, “Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3950–3952 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuokstis, E.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kwon, M. K.

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y.-S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lau, K. M.

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. Y.

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. Y.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, and G. M. Yang, “Influence of strain relaxation on structural and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1166–1170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. M.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Z. Lin, R. Hao, G. Li, and S. Zhang, “Effect of Si doping in barriers of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on the performance of green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lim, J. H.

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y.-S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, P. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, R. Hao, G. Li, and S. Zhang, “Effect of Si doping in barriers of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on the performance of green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

L. Sun, S. Zhang, F. Liu, and M. Han, “Influence of localized surface plasmons on carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells covered with Ag nanoparticles for enhanced photoluminescence,” Superlattices Microstruct. 86, 418–424 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. F.

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. C.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Influence of the quantum-confined Stark effect in an quantum well on its coupling with surface plasmon for light emission enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z. D.

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mandavilli, V.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[Crossref]

Masui, H.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

McCluskey, M. D.

L. T. Romano, M. D. McCluskey, C. G. Van de Walle, J. E. Northrup, D. P. Bour, M. Kneissl, T. Suski, and J. Jun, “Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3950–3952 (1999).
[Crossref]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merai, V.

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, D.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nering, J.

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Northrup, J. E.

L. T. Romano, M. D. McCluskey, C. G. Van de Walle, J. E. Northrup, D. P. Bour, M. Kneissl, T. Suski, and J. Jun, “Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3950–3952 (1999).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. H.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Omae, K.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Osinsky, A.

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Park, I. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y.-S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y.-S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pattison, P. M.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, Y. D.

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romano, L. T.

L. T. Romano, M. D. McCluskey, C. G. Van de Walle, J. E. Northrup, D. P. Bour, M. Kneissl, T. Suski, and J. Jun, “Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3950–3952 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sajou, S.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sakai, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sakai, S.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurman, M.

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Seo, S. B.

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y.-S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shatalov, M.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J. H.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stall, R.

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sugahara, T.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, S. Zhang, F. Liu, and M. Han, “Influence of localized surface plasmons on carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells covered with Ag nanoparticles for enhanced photoluminescence,” Superlattices Microstruct. 86, 418–424 (2015).
[Crossref]

Suski, T.

L. T. Romano, M. D. McCluskey, C. G. Van de Walle, J. E. Northrup, D. P. Bour, M. Kneissl, T. Suski, and J. Jun, “Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3950–3952 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical Study of Orientation Dependence of Piezoelectric Effects in Wurtzite Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures and Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), 413–416 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, W.

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500-540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, C. A.

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

L. T. Romano, M. D. McCluskey, C. G. Van de Walle, J. E. Northrup, D. P. Bour, M. Kneissl, T. Suski, and J. Jun, “Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3950–3952 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

Waltereit, P.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wetzel, C.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamada, N.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yamaoka, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Influence of the quantum-confined Stark effect in an quantum well on its coupling with surface plasmon for light emission enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183114 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, G. M.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, and G. M. Yang, “Influence of strain relaxation on structural and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1166–1170 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yeh, D. M.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Influence of the quantum-confined Stark effect in an quantum well on its coupling with surface plasmon for light emission enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

L. Sun, S. Zhang, F. Liu, and M. Han, “Influence of localized surface plasmons on carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells covered with Ag nanoparticles for enhanced photoluminescence,” Superlattices Microstruct. 86, 418–424 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, R. Hao, G. Li, and S. Zhang, “Effect of Si doping in barriers of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on the performance of green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500-540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Small Wavelength Shift and Narrow Spectral Linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y.-S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. T. Romano, M. D. McCluskey, C. G. Van de Walle, J. E. Northrup, D. P. Bour, M. Kneissl, T. Suski, and J. Jun, “Phase separation in InGaN multiple quantum wells annealed at high nitrogen pressures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3950–3952 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, D. M. Yeh, and C. C. Yang, “Influence of the quantum-confined Stark effect in an quantum well on its coupling with surface plasmon for light emission enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183114 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, D. Nakagawa, J. Wang, T. Sugahara, and S. Sakai, “Photoluminescence investigation of InGaN/GaN single quantum well and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3571–3573 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500-540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, C. S. Kim, and G. M. Yang, “Influence of strain relaxation on structural and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with high indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1166–1170 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

C. A. Tran, R. F. Karlicek, M. Schurman, A. Osinsky, V. Merai, Y. Li, I. Eliashevich, M. G. Brown, J. Nering, I. Ferguson, and R. Stall, “Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and its relation to brightness of blue and green LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1–4), 397–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical Study of Orientation Dependence of Piezoelectric Effects in Wurtzite Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures and Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2), 413–416 (2000).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, R. Hao, G. Li, and S. Zhang, “Effect of Si doping in barriers of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on the performance of green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 022102 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-Brightness InGaN Blue, Green and Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Well Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (2)

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. (1)

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and Nonradiative Recombination Processes in GaN-Based Semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

L. Sun, S. Zhang, F. Liu, and M. Han, “Influence of localized surface plasmons on carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells covered with Ag nanoparticles for enhanced photoluminescence,” Superlattices Microstruct. 86, 418–424 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the structure of LSP-enhanced green LEDs with Au nanoparticles embedded in the p-GaN layer. (b) AFM image of Au nanoparticles deposited on a p-GaN spacer-layer after thermal annealing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Room-temperature PL spectra of InGaN/GaN MQWs with and without Au nanoparticles. The inset shows the temperature-dependent integrated PL intensity of the MQWs with and without Au nanoparticles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation power-dependent PL spectra of MQWs (a) without and (b) with Au nanoparticles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) EL spectra of LSP-enhanced green LEDs with and without Au nanoparticles measured with increasing injection current at room-temperature. (b) EL emission wavelength of LSP-enhanced green LEDs with and without Au nanoparticles as a function of injection current.

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