Abstract

Strip-slot waveguide mode converters for TE0 have been widely investigated. Here we demonstrate a polarization-insensitive converter numerically and experimentally. The polarization-insensitive performance is achieved by matching the optical field distribution of the 2-fold image of the Multimode Interference (MMI) and the TE0 (TM0) mode of a slot waveguide. The working principle for this MMI-based mode converter is thoroughly analyzed with the quantitatively evaluated optical field overlap ratio that is theoretically derived from the orthonormal relation of eigenmodes. Based on the analysis, the MMI-based polarization-insensitive converters are then simulated and fabricated. The simulation and measurement results indicate that the proposed scheme is a robust design since it is not only polarization-insensitive but also wavelength-insensitive and fabrication-tolerant. Moreover, the mode converter is as small as 1.22 μm × 4 μm while the measured conversion efficiencies are 95.9% for TE0 and 96.6% for TM0. All these excellent properties make the proposed mode converter an ideal solution for coupling light between strip and slot waveguides when both TE and TM polarizations are considered.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “CMOS-Compatible Fabrication of Silicon-Based Sub-100-nm Slot Waveguide With Efficient Channel-Slot Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 10–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

2009 (3)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, N. Zhu, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, D. Dai, and S. He, “Ultracompact low-loss coupler between strip and slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1498–1500 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (2)

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging - principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

W. S. Cleveland, “Robust Locally Weighted Regression and Smoothing Scatterplots,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 74(368), 829–836 (1979).
[Crossref]

Alasaarela, T.

Alloatti, L.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Alasaarela, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, R. Palmer, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and S. Honkanen, “Reduced propagation loss in silicon strip and slot waveguides coated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11529–11538 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient strip to strip-loaded slot mode converter in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bolten, J.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Chen, S.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “CMOS-Compatible Fabrication of Silicon-Based Sub-100-nm Slot Waveguide With Efficient Channel-Slot Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 10–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cleveland, W. S.

W. S. Cleveland, “Robust Locally Weighted Regression and Smoothing Scatterplots,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 74(368), 829–836 (1979).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

Dalton, L. R.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Deng, Q.

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Elder, D. L.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Erickson, D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, N. N.

Freude, W.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Alasaarela, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, R. Palmer, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and S. Honkanen, “Reduced propagation loss in silicon strip and slot waveguides coated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11529–11538 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, S.

Heni, W.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hiltunen, M.

Hochberg, M.

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient strip to strip-loaded slot mode converter in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

Honkanen, S.

Karl, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karvonen, L.

Kee, J. S.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “CMOS-Compatible Fabrication of Silicon-Based Sub-100-nm Slot Waveguide With Efficient Channel-Slot Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 10–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. J.

Kim, G.

Kim, G. H.

Kim, K. J.

Kimerling, L. C.

Klug, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koeber, S.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koenig, S.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Korn, D.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Alasaarela, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, R. Palmer, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and S. Honkanen, “Reduced propagation loss in silicon strip and slot waveguides coated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11529–11538 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, O. K.

Lauermann, M.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. M.

Leuthold, J.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Alasaarela, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, R. Palmer, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and S. Honkanen, “Reduced propagation loss in silicon strip and slot waveguides coated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11529–11538 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient strip to strip-loaded slot mode converter in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

Liu, L.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient strip to strip-loaded slot mode converter in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “CMOS-Compatible Fabrication of Silicon-Based Sub-100-nm Slot Waveguide With Efficient Channel-Slot Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 10–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Michel, J.

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, R.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Alasaarela, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, R. Palmer, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and S. Honkanen, “Reduced propagation loss in silicon strip and slot waveguides coated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11529–11538 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging - principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pomerene, A.

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient strip to strip-loaded slot mode converter in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

Säynätjoki, A.

Schindler, P. C.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging - principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “CMOS-Compatible Fabrication of Silicon-Based Sub-100-nm Slot Waveguide With Efficient Channel-Slot Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 10–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, R.

Tang, Y.

Tervonen, A.

Thylén, L.

L. Thylén and L. Wosinski, “Integrated photonics in the 21st century,” Photonics Research 2(2), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wahlbrink, T.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waldow, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Woessner, M.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wosinski, L.

Xu, Q.

Yang, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “CMOS-Compatible Fabrication of Silicon-Based Sub-100-nm Slot Waveguide With Efficient Channel-Slot Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 10–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “CMOS-Compatible Fabrication of Silicon-Based Sub-100-nm Slot Waveguide With Efficient Channel-Slot Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 10–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “CMOS-Compatible Fabrication of Silicon-Based Sub-100-nm Slot Waveguide With Efficient Channel-Slot Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 10–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, N.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “CMOS-Compatible Fabrication of Silicon-Based Sub-100-nm Slot Waveguide With Efficient Channel-Slot Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 10–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. (1)

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient strip to strip-loaded slot mode converter in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
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W. S. Cleveland, “Robust Locally Weighted Regression and Smoothing Scatterplots,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 74(368), 829–836 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging - principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Photonics Research (1)

L. Thylén and L. Wosinski, “Integrated photonics in the 21st century,” Photonics Research 2(2), 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Q. Deng, X. Li, R. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Low-cost silicon photonic temperature sensor using broadband light source,” in The 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics(IEEE Photonics Society, Paris, France, 2014), p. P23.

Q. Deng, Q. Yan, L. Liu, X. Li, and Z. Zhou, “Highly compact polarization insensitive strip-slot waveguide mode converter,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, San Jose, California United States, 2015), pp. u5A-u53A.
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H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, “Hikari shuseki kairo (Optical integrated circuits),” (Ohmsha, Tokyo, 1985).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of MMI-based strip-slot mode converter. All results presented in this paper are based on a material platform of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) with SiO2 cladding, and the thickness of top silicon is H = 250 nm; All simulations in this paper are performed with 3D full vector finite element method (FEM) while the refractive index of Si and SiO2 are set to 3.48 and 1.45 respectively; The optical wavelength is 1550 nm if not specified; WST and WSL are widths of strip and slot waveguides while Wslot denotes the width of the slot which is located at the center of the slot waveguide and slot-taper; Wmmi (Lmmi) is the width (length) of the multimode region while L represents the total length of the mode converter; The Cartesian coordinate system used in this paper: z-direction, the propagation direction of waveguides, y-direction, the normal direction of top silicon/ buried oxide (BOX) interface; Embedded color plot, half of the simulated optical field (Ex) 3D-profile, cut across the central plane of waveguides, for TE0 mode conversion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of optical field distribution between the first 2-fold image in MMI region and the eigenmodes in slot waveguide with WSL = Wmmi = 1.22 μm and Wslot = 100 nm: (a) TE0 and (b) TM0 incidence. P, optical power flow density, E, electric field, H, magnetic field while the subscript indicates the component in a certain direction; L2, the first 2-fold image distance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode overlap ratio ( Γ ν ) between the first 2-fold image in the MMI region and the fundamental eigenmode in the slot waveguide with WSL = Wmmi: (a) TE0 and (b) TM0 incidence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Mode conversion efficiency between wide- (WSL = 1.22 μm) and narrow-width (WSL = 0.62 μm) slot waveguides versus taper angle (θ); Inset, the schematic for simulating the efficiency. (b) half of the corresponding simulated optical field 3D-profiles for cotθ=8 , cut across the central plane of waveguides. Wslot = 100 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The first 2-fold image distance (L2) versus the width of the MMI region (Wmmi); (b) Optical field evolution between strip and slot waveguides (Wmmi = 1.22 μm, Lmmi = 1.46 μm, L = 4 μm). Pin and Pout , the input and output optical power in the same mode, TE0 or TM0.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated mode conversion efficiency (η) with different widths and lengths of the MMI region: (a) ηΤΕ0 , (b) ηΤΜ0 and (c) ηΤΕ0ηΤΜ0 . The white dashed lines denotes possible dimensions for polarization-insensitive mode converters; Optical wavelength: 1550 nm; L = 4 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Measured wavelength dependence of mode conversion efficiency with L = 4 μm; the bottom inset shows the corresponding top-view SEM picture of the fabricated converters; the black solid lines are trend lines extracted with robust locally weighted regression. (b) Simulated (squares) and measured (dots) mode conversion efficiencies with different converter lengths at 1550 nm (wavelength in free space); The error bars show the standard deviation of the measured results.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 4 [ E × H * + E * × H ] z dxdy = δ ν,μ
{ E t = ν a ν E tv exp(j β ν z) H t = ν a ν H tv exp(j β ν z)
a ν exp(j β ν z)= b ν = 1 4 [ E t × H * + E * × H t ] z dxdy
Γ ν = | 1 4 [ E t × H * + E * × H t ] z dxdy | 2 1 4 [ E t × H t * + E t * × H t ] z dxdy

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