Abstract

We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on graphene-silicon microring resonator (GSMR). Using such graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device, we experimentally demonstrate up and down wavelength conversion of a 10-Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal by exploiting degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) progress in the fabricated GSMR. We study the conversion efficiency as a function of the pump power. In addition, the resonant wavelength of GSMR is tuned by changing the temperature from 20°C to 40°C. We evaluate the bit-error rate (BER) performance for up and down wavelength conversion. The observed optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for QPSK up and down wavelength conversion are less than 1.4 dB at a BER of 1 × 10−3. The BER performance as a function of the pump power for up wavelength conversion is also assessed. The minimum OSNR penalty is less than 0.8 dB when the pump power is 13.3 dBm.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (3)

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100 Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Gajda, L. Zimmermann, M. Jazayerifar, G. Winzer, H. Tian, R. Elschner, T. Richter, C. Schubert, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Highly efficient CW parametric conversion at 1550 nm in SOI waveguides by reverse biased p-i-n junction,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13100–13107 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kalbac, A. Reina-Cecco, H. Farhat, J. Kong, L. Kavan, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “The influence of strong electron and hole doping on the Raman intensity of chemical vapor-deposition graphene,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6055–6063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pasquazi, R. Ahmad, M. Rochette, M. Lamont, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, and D. J. Moss, “All-optical wavelength conversion in an integrated ring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3858–3863 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, and R. R. Panepucci, “Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 936–938 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Ackert, J. J.

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, R.

Aroca, R.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100 Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100 Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buljan, H.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

Canciamilla, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandrasekhar, S.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100 Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. K.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100 Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. T.

Deng, L.

Ding, R.

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100 Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

M. Kalbac, A. Reina-Cecco, H. Farhat, J. Kong, L. Kavan, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “The influence of strong electron and hole doping on the Raman intensity of chemical vapor-deposition graphene,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6055–6063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elschner, R.

Essiambre, R. J.

Farhat, H.

M. Kalbac, A. Reina-Cecco, H. Farhat, J. Kong, L. Kavan, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “The influence of strong electron and hole doping on the Raman intensity of chemical vapor-deposition graphene,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6055–6063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, G.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, C.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gajda, A.

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, T.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hale, P. J.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hone, J.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hone, J. C.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

Huang, Y.

Jablan, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jazayerifar, M.

Ji, M.

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalbac, M.

M. Kalbac, A. Reina-Cecco, H. Farhat, J. Kong, L. Kavan, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “The influence of strong electron and hole doping on the Raman intensity of chemical vapor-deposition graphene,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6055–6063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kavan, L.

M. Kalbac, A. Reina-Cecco, H. Farhat, J. Kong, L. Kavan, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “The influence of strong electron and hole doping on the Raman intensity of chemical vapor-deposition graphene,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6055–6063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knights, A. P.

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kong, J.

M. Kalbac, A. Reina-Cecco, H. Farhat, J. Kong, L. Kavan, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “The influence of strong electron and hole doping on the Raman intensity of chemical vapor-deposition graphene,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6055–6063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwong, D. L.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-L.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lamont, M.

Li, Q.

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Lim, C. H. Y. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. M.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Little, B. E.

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100 Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Logan, D. F.

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Martinez, J. A.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, and R. R. Panepucci, “Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 936–938 (2008).
[Crossref]

McMillan, J. F.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Melloni, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mikhailov, S. A.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moger, J.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morandotti, R.

Morichetti, F.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moss, D. J.

Mueller, T.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nawrocka, M. S.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, and R. R. Panepucci, “Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 936–938 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padmaraju, K.

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Panepucci, R. R.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, and R. R. Panepucci, “Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 936–938 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pasquazi, A.

Petermann, K.

Petrone, N.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reina-Cecco, A.

M. Kalbac, A. Reina-Cecco, H. Farhat, J. Kong, L. Kavan, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “The influence of strong electron and hole doping on the Raman intensity of chemical vapor-deposition graphene,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6055–6063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richter, T.

Rochette, M.

Samarelli, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savchenko, A. K.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, C.

Soljacic, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sorel, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tian, H.

Tillack, B.

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valdes-Garcia, A.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Zande, A.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, and R. R. Panepucci, “Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 936–938 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Winzer, G.

Winzer, P. J.

Wong, C. W.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, J.

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

Yu, M.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, L.

ACS Nano (2)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kalbac, A. Reina-Cecco, H. Farhat, J. Kong, L. Kavan, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “The influence of strong electron and hole doping on the Raman intensity of chemical vapor-deposition graphene,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6055–6063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, N. Petrone, A. van der Zande, J. C. Hone, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100 Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

Q. Li, Y. Liu, K. Padmaraju, R. Ding, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s silicon microring resonator-based BPSK link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka, and R. R. Panepucci, “Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 936–938 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. van der Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, and F. X. Kartner, “Maximizing the thermo-optic tuning range of silicon photonic structures,” In Photonics in Switching (2007, pp. 67–68.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Raman spectrum of the graphene sample. (b) The Fermi level (EF) is lower than half the photon energy (-νℎ/2, blue dashed line) and there are no electrons available for the interband transition. (c) SEM image of the GSGM resonator. The inset shows the detailed view of the coupling region. Red dashed lines show the outline of the silicon waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of up (a) and down (b) wavelength conversion based on degenerate FWM in GSMR.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for degenerate FWM based up and down wavelength conversion in GSMR. ECL: external cavity laser; AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; EDFA: erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier; TF: tunable filter; OC: optical coupler; PC: polarization controller; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; VOA: variable optical attenuator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured degenerate FWM spectra for (a) up and (b) down wavelength conversion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimentally measured and fitted conversion efficiency versus input pump power for (a) up and (b) down wavelength conversion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured resonant wavelength of GSMR versus temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured BER versus received OSNR for up and down wavelength conversion of QPSK signal. Insets show constellations of QPSK.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured BER versus received OSNR for up wavelength conversion of QPSK signal when pump power increases from 9.3 to 13.3 dBm.

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