Abstract

The strong coupling between excitons and Fabry-Pérot (F-P) cavity modes in tungsten sulfide (WS2) thin layers was studied. By using home-made micro-reflectance spectroscopic technique, we observed the anti-crossing behavior between cavity mode and excitons with flake’s thickness dependence. Giant Rabi splitting of ~270 meV for A exciton and ~780 meV for B exciton were obtained from the fitting of the cavity polariton dispersions by use of the coupled oscillators model.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  2. R. F. Frindt and A. D. Yoffe, “Physical properties of layer structures - optical properties and photoconductivity of thin crystals,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 273(1352), 69–83 (1963).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  5. K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  16. R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, and R. A. de Groot, “Electronic structure of MoSe2, MoS2, and WSe2. II. The nature of the optical band gaps,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(12), 6203–6206 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. L. Sun, H. Dong, W. Xie, J. Lu, Z. Chen, X. Shen, and W. Lu, “Strong bound exciton-photon coupling in ZnO whispering gallery microcavity,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30227–30232 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. L. Sun, H. Dong, W. Xie, Z. An, X. Shen, and Z. Chen, “Quasi-whispering gallery modes of exciton-polaritons in a ZnO microrod,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15371–15376 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. P. Domokos and H. Ritsch, “Mechanical effects of light in optical resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 1098–1130 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  27. S. Dufferwiel, S. Schwarz, F. Withers, A. A. P. Trichet, F. Li, M. Sich, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, C. Clark, A. Nalitov, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, K. S. Novoselov, J. M. Smith, M. S. Skolnick, D. N. Krizhanovskii, and A. I. Tartakovskii, “Exciton-polaritons in van der Waals heterostructures embedded in tunable microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8579 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. J. H. Jiang and S. John, “Photonic Architectures for Equilibrium High-Temperature Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dichalcogenide Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7432 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. Y. N. Gartstein, X. Li, and C. Zhang, “Exciton polaritons in transition-metal dichalcogenides and their direct excitation via energy transfer,” Phys. Rev. B 92(7), 075445 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. D. W. Latzke, W. T. Zhang, A. Suslu, T. R. Chang, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. Tongay, J. Q. Wu, A. Bansil, and A. Lanzara, “Electronic structure, spin-orbit coupling, and interlayer interaction in bulk MoS2 and WS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235202 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. R. Beal, W. Y. Liang, and H. P. Hughes, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of reflectivity spectra of 3R-WS2 and 2H-WSe2,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 9(12), 2449–2457 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  32. L. Q. Su, Y. F. Yu, L. Y. Cao, and Y. Zhang, “Effects of substrate type and material-substrate bonding on high-temperature behavior of monolayer WS2,” Nano Res. 8(8), 2686–2697 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. A. Molina and L. Wirtz, “Phonons in single-layer and few-layer MoS2and WS2,” Phys. Rev. B 84(15), 155413 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  35. M. Slootsky, X. Liu, V. M. Menon, and S. R. Forrest, “Room temperature Frenkel-Wannier-Mott hybridization of degenerate excitons in a strongly coupled microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 076401 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. B. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Cui, “Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS₂,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9218 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, and S. G. Louie, “Optical spectrum of MoS2: many-body effects and diversity of exciton states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 216805 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 026803 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. J. Wainstain, C. Delalande, D. Gendt, M. Voos, J. Bloch, V. Thierry-Mieg, and R. Planel, “Dynamics of polaritons in a semiconductor multiple-quantum-well microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 7269–7278 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  40. R. J. Holmes and S. R. Forrest, “Strong exciton-photon coupling and exciton hybridization in a thermally evaporated polycrystalline film of an organic small molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 186404 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (12)

H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, C. Roquelet, A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of Excitonic Rydberg States in Monolayer MoS2 and WS2 by Photoluminescence Excitation Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2992–2997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chernikov, A. M. van der Zande, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, A. Velauthapillai, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(12), 126802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, R. Xin, Z. Yu, Y. Pan, Z. Y. Ong, X. Wei, J. Wang, H. Nan, Z. Ni, Y. Wu, T. Chen, Y. Shi, B. Wang, G. Zhang, Y. W. Zhang, and X. Wang, “High-Performance Monolayer WS2 Field-Effect Transistors on High-κ Dielectrics,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5230–5234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kim, H. Kim, J. U. Lee, H. B. Lee, D. H. Choi, J. H. Lee, W. H. Lee, S. H. Jhang, B. H. Park, H. Cheong, S. W. Lee, and H. J. Chung, “Engineering Optical and Electronic Properties of WS2 by Varying the Number of Layers,” ACS Nano 9(7), 6854–6860 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wu, S. Buckley, J. R. Schaibley, L. Feng, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, F. Hatami, W. Yao, J. Vučković, A. Majumdar, and X. Xu, “Monolayer semiconductor nanocavity lasers with ultralow thresholds,” Nature 520(7545), 69–72 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct Observation of Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption and Its Saturation in WS2 and MoS2 Monolayer and Few-Layer Films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Cui, “Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS₂,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dufferwiel, S. Schwarz, F. Withers, A. A. P. Trichet, F. Li, M. Sich, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, C. Clark, A. Nalitov, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, K. S. Novoselov, J. M. Smith, M. S. Skolnick, D. N. Krizhanovskii, and A. I. Tartakovskii, “Exciton-polaritons in van der Waals heterostructures embedded in tunable microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8579 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. N. Gartstein, X. Li, and C. Zhang, “Exciton polaritons in transition-metal dichalcogenides and their direct excitation via energy transfer,” Phys. Rev. B 92(7), 075445 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. W. Latzke, W. T. Zhang, A. Suslu, T. R. Chang, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. Tongay, J. Q. Wu, A. Bansil, and A. Lanzara, “Electronic structure, spin-orbit coupling, and interlayer interaction in bulk MoS2 and WS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235202 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Su, Y. F. Yu, L. Y. Cao, and Y. Zhang, “Effects of substrate type and material-substrate bonding on high-temperature behavior of monolayer WS2,” Nano Res. 8(8), 2686–2697 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Cui, “Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS₂,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 026803 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Slootsky, X. Liu, V. M. Menon, and S. R. Forrest, “Room temperature Frenkel-Wannier-Mott hybridization of degenerate excitons in a strongly coupled microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(7), 076401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Jiang and S. John, “Photonic Architectures for Equilibrium High-Temperature Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dichalcogenide Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7432 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Galfsky, Z. Sun, F. Xia, E. Lin, Y.-H. Lee, S. Kéna-Cohen, and V. M. Menon, “Strong light–matter coupling in two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 30–34 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Pospischil, M. M. Furchi, and T. Mueller, “Solar-energy conversion and light emission in an atomic monolayer p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 257–261 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Ross, P. Klement, A. M. Jones, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, K. Kitamura, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrically tunable excitonic light-emitting diodes based on monolayer WSe2 p-n junctions,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 268–272 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, and S. G. Louie, “Optical spectrum of MoS2: many-body effects and diversity of exciton states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 216805 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sun, H. Dong, W. Xie, J. Lu, Z. Chen, X. Shen, and W. Lu, “Strong bound exciton-photon coupling in ZnO whispering gallery microcavity,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30227–30232 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

S. A. Molina and L. Wirtz, “Phonons in single-layer and few-layer MoS2and WS2,” Phys. Rev. B 84(15), 155413 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sun, H. Dong, W. Xie, Z. An, X. Shen, and Z. Chen, “Quasi-whispering gallery modes of exciton-polaritons in a ZnO microrod,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15371–15376 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. J. Holmes and S. R. Forrest, “Strong exciton-photon coupling and exciton hybridization in a thermally evaporated polycrystalline film of an organic small molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(18), 186404 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. Wainstain, C. Delalande, D. Gendt, M. Voos, J. Bloch, V. Thierry-Mieg, and R. Planel, “Dynamics of polaritons in a semiconductor multiple-quantum-well microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 7269–7278 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Rytz and G. Calzaferri, “Electronic transition oscillator strengths in solids: An extended Huckel tight-binding approach,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(29), 5664–5674 (1997).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

C. Sourisseau, M. Fouassier, M. Alba, A. Ghorayeb, and O. Gorochov, “Resonance Raman, inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics studies of 2H-WS2,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 3(1–2), 119–123 (1989).

1987 (1)

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, and R. A. de Groot, “Electronic structure of MoSe2, MoS2, and WSe2. II. The nature of the optical band gaps,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(12), 6203–6206 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

A. R. Beal and W. Y. Liang, “Excitons in 2H-WSe2 and 3R-WS2,” J. Phys. Chem. 9(12), 2459–2466 (1976).

A. R. Beal, W. Y. Liang, and H. P. Hughes, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of reflectivity spectra of 3R-WS2 and 2H-WSe2,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 9(12), 2449–2457 (1976).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

R. F. Frindt and A. D. Yoffe, “Physical properties of layer structures - optical properties and photoconductivity of thin crystals,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 273(1352), 69–83 (1963).
[Crossref]

Alba, M.

C. Sourisseau, M. Fouassier, M. Alba, A. Ghorayeb, and O. Gorochov, “Resonance Raman, inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics studies of 2H-WS2,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 3(1–2), 119–123 (1989).

An, Z.

Aslan, O. B.

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bansil, A.

D. W. Latzke, W. T. Zhang, A. Suslu, T. R. Chang, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. Tongay, J. Q. Wu, A. Bansil, and A. Lanzara, “Electronic structure, spin-orbit coupling, and interlayer interaction in bulk MoS2 and WS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beal, A. R.

A. R. Beal and W. Y. Liang, “Excitons in 2H-WSe2 and 3R-WS2,” J. Phys. Chem. 9(12), 2459–2466 (1976).

A. R. Beal, W. Y. Liang, and H. P. Hughes, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of reflectivity spectra of 3R-WS2 and 2H-WSe2,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 9(12), 2449–2457 (1976).
[Crossref]

Berkdemir, A.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berkelbach, T. C.

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H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
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Yim, C.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct Observation of Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption and Its Saturation in WS2 and MoS2 Monolayer and Few-Layer Films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
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R. F. Frindt and A. D. Yoffe, “Physical properties of layer structures - optical properties and photoconductivity of thin crystals,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 273(1352), 69–83 (1963).
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Y. Cui, R. Xin, Z. Yu, Y. Pan, Z. Y. Ong, X. Wei, J. Wang, H. Nan, Z. Ni, Y. Wu, T. Chen, Y. Shi, B. Wang, G. Zhang, Y. W. Zhang, and X. Wang, “High-Performance Monolayer WS2 Field-Effect Transistors on High-κ Dielectrics,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5230–5234 (2015).
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H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
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L. Q. Su, Y. F. Yu, L. Y. Cao, and Y. Zhang, “Effects of substrate type and material-substrate bonding on high-temperature behavior of monolayer WS2,” Nano Res. 8(8), 2686–2697 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Y. Cui, R. Xin, Z. Yu, Y. Pan, Z. Y. Ong, X. Wei, J. Wang, H. Nan, Z. Ni, Y. Wu, T. Chen, Y. Shi, B. Wang, G. Zhang, Y. W. Zhang, and X. Wang, “High-Performance Monolayer WS2 Field-Effect Transistors on High-κ Dielectrics,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5230–5234 (2015).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

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Nature (1)

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H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of experimental set-up for micro-reflectance measurements. The illuminating light passes through a beam splitter (BS) to enter a microscope and then focuses on samples. Field stop (FP) is introduced to reduce the signal from background. (b) Optical image of a WS2 thin flake. (c) AFM image of the flake on SiO2/Si, with a thickness of 32 nm. (d) Raman spectra with excitation wavelength of 532 nm. The inset gives Raman spectra of mono-layer, 32 nm and bulk WS2, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance spectra for WS2 flakes with d = 25 nm (black), d = 54 nm (red) and d = 70 nm (blue). R is raw data of sample, Rsub is white light source. The vertical red dashed lines label A- and B-exciton, respectively. The inset is a schematic of F-P cavity formed in the WS2 flake.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thickness-dependent reflectance spectra of WS2 flakes at various thickness ranging from 49 nm to 76 nm. The red dashed curves depict the cavity polaritons dispersion (LPB and MPB). The blue dashed lines indicate A- and B-exciton of WS2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The red squares with error bars are the cavity polariton dispersions extracted from the thickness-dependent reflectance spectra. The black solid lines are theoretically fitting calculated by coupled oscillator model for strong coupling. A- and B-exciton are labeled by dashed lines, and bare cavity mode (EC) is shown as dot-dashed curve. (b) The fractions of each cavity polariton modes, in which, black triangles represent cavity photons, red forks represent A exciton and blue circles stand for B exciton.

Equations (1)

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( E C g A g B g A E A 0 g B 0 E B ).

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