Abstract

This paper investigates the effects of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on the switching voltages of polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films. The threshold and driving electric fields of PDLC film doped with 2.44 wt% ZnO NPs were 0.13 and 0.31 V/μm, respectively, with a contrast ratio of 26. The results of field emission scanning electron microscopy show that the size of the droplets in doped PDLC films increases with the doping concentration. The development of ZnO-doped PDLC films with low driving voltages greatly broadens the applicability of these devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (4)

2012 (2)

T.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Lee, C.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Lina, and W. Lee, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal nanocomposites comprising montmorillonite clay modified by conducting pentamerous oligoaniline,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(26), 13050–13056 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y.-D. Chen, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and K.-T. Cheng, “Particular thermally induced phase separation of liquid crystal and poly(N-vinyl carbazole) films and its application,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16777–16784 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Wang, and C.-W. Hsieh, “Polarization-independent and high-diffraction-efficiency Fresnel lenses based on blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 502–504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. Hinojosa and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of gold nanoparticles on electro-optical properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081114 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. W. Geis, T. M. Lyszczarz, R. M. Osgood, and B. R. Kimball, “30 to 50 ns liquid-crystal optical switches,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18886–18893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tang, E. S. G. Choo, L. Li, J. Ding, and J. Xue, “Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles with Tunable Emission Colors and Their Cell Labeling Applications,” Chem. Mater. 22(11), 3383–3388 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

W. Li, M. Zhu, X. Ding, B. Li, W. Huang, H. Cao, Z. Yang, and H. Yang, “Studies on electro-optical properties of polymer matrix/LC/SiO2 nanoparticles composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 111(3), 1449–1453 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. V. Yaroshchuk, L. O. Dolgov, and A. D. Kiselev, “Electro-optics and structural peculiarities of liquid crystal-nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051715 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Henry, S. C. Sharma, R. A. Ramsey, M. L. Cramer, and J. B. Atman, “Effects of formulation variables on liquid-crystal droplet size distributions in ultraviolet-cured polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 43(14), 404–410 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. M. Henry, R. A. Ramsey, and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of crosslinking agent, cure temperature, and UV flux on the electro-optical properties of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 42(3), 404–410 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6), 060701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Inhomogeneous nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with gradient refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(19), 3537–3539 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

E. A. Meulenkamp, “Synthesis and Growth of ZnO Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(29), 5566–5572 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. Amundson, “Electro-optic properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film: Temperature dependence and phase behavior,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 53(3), 2412–2422 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

H. Lin, H. Ding, and J. R. Kelly, “The Mechanism of Switching A PDLC Film,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 262(1), 99–109 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

P. S. Drzaic, “Polymer dispersed nematic liquid crystal for large area displays and light valves,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(6), 2142–2148 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, F.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

Amundson, K.

K. Amundson, “Electro-optic properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film: Temperature dependence and phase behavior,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 53(3), 2412–2422 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atman, J. B.

R. M. Henry, S. C. Sharma, R. A. Ramsey, M. L. Cramer, and J. B. Atman, “Effects of formulation variables on liquid-crystal droplet size distributions in ultraviolet-cured polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 43(14), 404–410 (2005).
[Crossref]

Campi, J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

W. Li, M. Zhu, X. Ding, B. Li, W. Huang, H. Cao, Z. Yang, and H. Yang, “Studies on electro-optical properties of polymer matrix/LC/SiO2 nanoparticles composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 111(3), 1449–1453 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-S.

Chen, Y.-D.

Cheng, K.-T.

Chernyshov, O. O.

Chien, L. C.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Choo, E. S. G.

X. Tang, E. S. G. Choo, L. Li, J. Ding, and J. Xue, “Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles with Tunable Emission Colors and Their Cell Labeling Applications,” Chem. Mater. 22(11), 3383–3388 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cramer, M. L.

R. M. Henry, S. C. Sharma, R. A. Ramsey, M. L. Cramer, and J. B. Atman, “Effects of formulation variables on liquid-crystal droplet size distributions in ultraviolet-cured polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 43(14), 404–410 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ding, H.

H. Lin, H. Ding, and J. R. Kelly, “The Mechanism of Switching A PDLC Film,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 262(1), 99–109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

X. Tang, E. S. G. Choo, L. Li, J. Ding, and J. Xue, “Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles with Tunable Emission Colors and Their Cell Labeling Applications,” Chem. Mater. 22(11), 3383–3388 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

W. Li, M. Zhu, X. Ding, B. Li, W. Huang, H. Cao, Z. Yang, and H. Yang, “Studies on electro-optical properties of polymer matrix/LC/SiO2 nanoparticles composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 111(3), 1449–1453 (2009).
[Crossref]

Doane, J. W.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Dolgov, L. O.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, L. O. Dolgov, and A. D. Kiselev, “Electro-optics and structural peculiarities of liquid crystal-nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051715 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drzaic, P. S.

P. S. Drzaic, “Polymer dispersed nematic liquid crystal for large area displays and light valves,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(6), 2142–2148 (1986).
[Crossref]

Duparré, A.

Erdmann, J. H.

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.-H.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Francl, J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

Geis, M. W.

Greening, B. K.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gundlach, D. J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hammond, M. S.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Henry, R. M.

R. M. Henry, S. C. Sharma, R. A. Ramsey, M. L. Cramer, and J. B. Atman, “Effects of formulation variables on liquid-crystal droplet size distributions in ultraviolet-cured polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 43(14), 404–410 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. M. Henry, R. A. Ramsey, and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of crosslinking agent, cure temperature, and UV flux on the electro-optical properties of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 42(3), 404–410 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hill, I. G.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hinojosa, A.

A. Hinojosa and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of gold nanoparticles on electro-optical properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081114 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C.-W.

Huang, J. R.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

W. Li, M. Zhu, X. Ding, B. Li, W. Huang, H. Cao, Z. Yang, and H. Yang, “Studies on electro-optical properties of polymer matrix/LC/SiO2 nanoparticles composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 111(3), 1449–1453 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jackson, T. N.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jamil, M.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

Jeon, Y. J.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

Kane, M. G.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.-W.

Kassam, S.

Kelly, J. R.

H. Lin, H. Ding, and J. R. Kelly, “The Mechanism of Switching A PDLC Film,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 262(1), 99–109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-K.

Kimball, B. R.

Kiselev, A. D.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, L. O. Dolgov, and A. D. Kiselev, “Electro-optics and structural peculiarities of liquid crystal-nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051715 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kundu, S.

Lavrentovich, O. D.

D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6), 060701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B.-R.

Lee, C.-H.

Lee, C.-J.

T.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Lee, C.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Lina, and W. Lee, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal nanocomposites comprising montmorillonite clay modified by conducting pentamerous oligoaniline,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(26), 13050–13056 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-Y.

T.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Lee, C.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Lina, and W. Lee, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal nanocomposites comprising montmorillonite clay modified by conducting pentamerous oligoaniline,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(26), 13050–13056 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. J.

Lee, J.-H.

Lee, S. H.

Lee, W.

T.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Lee, C.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Lina, and W. Lee, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal nanocomposites comprising montmorillonite clay modified by conducting pentamerous oligoaniline,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(26), 13050–13056 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

W. Li, M. Zhu, X. Ding, B. Li, W. Huang, H. Cao, Z. Yang, and H. Yang, “Studies on electro-optical properties of polymer matrix/LC/SiO2 nanoparticles composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 111(3), 1449–1453 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

X. Tang, E. S. G. Choo, L. Li, J. Ding, and J. Xue, “Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles with Tunable Emission Colors and Their Cell Labeling Applications,” Chem. Mater. 22(11), 3383–3388 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

W. Li, M. Zhu, X. Ding, B. Li, W. Huang, H. Cao, Z. Yang, and H. Yang, “Studies on electro-optical properties of polymer matrix/LC/SiO2 nanoparticles composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 111(3), 1449–1453 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. J.

Lin, C.-H.

Lin, H.

H. Lin, H. Ding, and J. R. Kelly, “The Mechanism of Switching A PDLC Film,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 262(1), 99–109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Lin and H.-S. Chen, “Electrically tunable-focusing and polarizer-free liquid crystal lenses for ophthalmic applications,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9428–9436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lina, M.-Y.

T.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Lee, C.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Lina, and W. Lee, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal nanocomposites comprising montmorillonite clay modified by conducting pentamerous oligoaniline,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(26), 13050–13056 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Meng, F.

L. Wang, F. Meng, Y. Sun, and H. Yang, “Effect of surfactant-modified ZnS:Mn nanoparticles on the electro-opticalproperties of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Compos., Part B Eng. 45(1), 780–784 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meulenkamp, E. A.

E. A. Meulenkamp, “Synthesis and Growth of ZnO Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(29), 5566–5572 (1998).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

Pishnyak, O. P.

D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6), 060701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramsey, R. A.

R. M. Henry, S. C. Sharma, R. A. Ramsey, M. L. Cramer, and J. B. Atman, “Effects of formulation variables on liquid-crystal droplet size distributions in ultraviolet-cured polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 43(14), 404–410 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. M. Henry, R. A. Ramsey, and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of crosslinking agent, cure temperature, and UV flux on the electro-optical properties of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 42(3), 404–410 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Inhomogeneous nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with gradient refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(19), 3537–3539 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rhee, J. T.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

Sharma, S. C.

A. Hinojosa and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of gold nanoparticles on electro-optical properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081114 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. M. Henry, S. C. Sharma, R. A. Ramsey, M. L. Cramer, and J. B. Atman, “Effects of formulation variables on liquid-crystal droplet size distributions in ultraviolet-cured polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 43(14), 404–410 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. M. Henry, R. A. Ramsey, and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of crosslinking agent, cure temperature, and UV flux on the electro-optical properties of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 42(3), 404–410 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sheraw, C. D.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6), 060701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, J.-Y.

Sun, Y.

L. Wang, F. Meng, Y. Sun, and H. Yang, “Effect of surfactant-modified ZnS:Mn nanoparticles on the electro-opticalproperties of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Compos., Part B Eng. 45(1), 780–784 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, X.

X. Tang, E. S. G. Choo, L. Li, J. Ding, and J. Xue, “Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles with Tunable Emission Colors and Their Cell Labeling Applications,” Chem. Mater. 22(11), 3383–3388 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Lee, C.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Lina, and W. Lee, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal nanocomposites comprising montmorillonite clay modified by conducting pentamerous oligoaniline,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(26), 13050–13056 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vaz, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Voloschenko, D.

D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6), 060701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, F. Meng, Y. Sun, and H. Yang, “Effect of surfactant-modified ZnS:Mn nanoparticles on the electro-opticalproperties of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Compos., Part B Eng. 45(1), 780–784 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-Y.

West, J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wu, B. G.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.-G.

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Inhomogeneous nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with gradient refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(19), 3537–3539 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xue, J.

X. Tang, E. S. G. Choo, L. Li, J. Ding, and J. Xue, “Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles with Tunable Emission Colors and Their Cell Labeling Applications,” Chem. Mater. 22(11), 3383–3388 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. K.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

L. Wang, F. Meng, Y. Sun, and H. Yang, “Effect of surfactant-modified ZnS:Mn nanoparticles on the electro-opticalproperties of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Compos., Part B Eng. 45(1), 780–784 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Li, M. Zhu, X. Ding, B. Li, W. Huang, H. Cao, Z. Yang, and H. Yang, “Studies on electro-optical properties of polymer matrix/LC/SiO2 nanoparticles composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 111(3), 1449–1453 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

W. Li, M. Zhu, X. Ding, B. Li, W. Huang, H. Cao, Z. Yang, and H. Yang, “Studies on electro-optical properties of polymer matrix/LC/SiO2 nanoparticles composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 111(3), 1449–1453 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yaroshchuk, O. V.

O. V. Yaroshchuk, L. O. Dolgov, and A. D. Kiselev, “Electro-optics and structural peculiarities of liquid crystal-nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051715 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M.

W. Li, M. Zhu, X. Ding, B. Li, W. Huang, H. Cao, Z. Yang, and H. Yang, “Studies on electro-optical properties of polymer matrix/LC/SiO2 nanoparticles composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 111(3), 1449–1453 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zumer, S.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1088–1090 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Inhomogeneous nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with gradient refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(19), 3537–3539 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Hinojosa and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of gold nanoparticles on electro-optical properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081114 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

X. Tang, E. S. G. Choo, L. Li, J. Ding, and J. Xue, “Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles with Tunable Emission Colors and Their Cell Labeling Applications,” Chem. Mater. 22(11), 3383–3388 (2010).
[Crossref]

Compos., Part B Eng. (1)

L. Wang, F. Meng, Y. Sun, and H. Yang, “Effect of surfactant-modified ZnS:Mn nanoparticles on the electro-opticalproperties of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Compos., Part B Eng. 45(1), 780–784 (2013).
[Crossref]

Curr. Sci. (1)

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101, 1544–1552 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. S. Drzaic, “Polymer dispersed nematic liquid crystal for large area displays and light valves,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(6), 2142–2148 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

W. Li, M. Zhu, X. Ding, B. Li, W. Huang, H. Cao, Z. Yang, and H. Yang, “Studies on electro-optical properties of polymer matrix/LC/SiO2 nanoparticles composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 111(3), 1449–1453 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

T.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Lee, C.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Lina, and W. Lee, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal nanocomposites comprising montmorillonite clay modified by conducting pentamerous oligoaniline,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(26), 13050–13056 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

E. A. Meulenkamp, “Synthesis and Growth of ZnO Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(29), 5566–5572 (1998).
[Crossref]

Journal of Polymer Science Part B (2)

R. M. Henry, R. A. Ramsey, and S. C. Sharma, “Effects of crosslinking agent, cure temperature, and UV flux on the electro-optical properties of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 42(3), 404–410 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. M. Henry, S. C. Sharma, R. A. Ramsey, M. L. Cramer, and J. B. Atman, “Effects of formulation variables on liquid-crystal droplet size distributions in ultraviolet-cured polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal cells,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B 43(14), 404–410 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1453–1465 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

H. Lin, H. Ding, and J. R. Kelly, “The Mechanism of Switching A PDLC Film,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 262(1), 99–109 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (2)

O. V. Yaroshchuk, L. O. Dolgov, and A. D. Kiselev, “Electro-optics and structural peculiarities of liquid crystal-nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051715 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Voloschenko, O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Effect of director distortions on morphologies of phase separation in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6), 060701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

K. Amundson, “Electro-optic properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film: Temperature dependence and phase behavior,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 53(3), 2412–2422 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (John & Sons, Inc., 2006), pp. 327–332.

J.-W. Chen, C.-R. Wang, T.-R. Chou, W.-T. Chen, and C.-Y. Chao, “The n-alcohols liquid doping effect on the twisted nematic liquid crystals,” Displays (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM images in which darker areas indicate ZnO NPs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement system for voltage-transmittance (V-T) curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Voltage-transmittance curves of ethanol doped PDLC showing that an increase in the concentration of ethanol leads to a reduction in Vth and Vd.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FESEM images of (a) pure PDLC, (b) 3.40 wt% ethanol, (c) 6.56 wt% ethanol doped PDLC films which are under magnification of 7500x. And (d) doped with 10.37 wt% ethanol magnified 2500x.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Applied voltage-transmittance with various concentrations of ZnO.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FESEM images PDLC doped with ZnO NPs: (a) 0.28 wt%, (b) 1.34 wt%, and (c) 2.44 wt%. All the diagrams are under magnification of 7500x.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Driving voltages, threshold voltages, and contrast ratio of PDLC cells with various concentrations of ethanol

Tables Icon

Table 2 Driving voltages, threshold voltages, and contrast ratio of PDLC cells with doped with various concentrations of ZnO NPs

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CR= T max T min ,
E switch = V switch d 0 1 3R ( ε lc ε p +2 ) ( K( l 2 1 ) ε 0 Δε ) 1 2

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