Abstract

With quantum Bloch equations and sodium cell based experiment, we systematically resolved optical repumping mechanism of sodium atoms, a path to brighter sodium laser guide star (SLGS) that would be accepted by worldwide observatories. Besides the former studies, we detailed the population distribution of sodium atoms with and without repumping, which makes the repumping mechanism easy to understand. Experimental results based on a buffer gas free sodium cell and a single frequency laser implies that the optimum repumping frequency offset is 1712 MHz, and the repumping power fraction should be 10–18%. The light intensity depended character of repumping is also carried out. We learned that future SLGS pumped by higher effective light intensity would benefit more from repumping. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic investigation of repumping mechanism using a single mode sum-frequency laser, which gives thorough support for previous numerical work and shows that the lab bench experiment could be used as an intermediate link between theoretical modeling and on-sky test.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Rampy, D. Gavel, S. M. Rochester, and R. Holzlöhner, “Toward optimization of pulsed sodium laser guide stars,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(12), 2425–2434 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

P. D. H. Thomas, J. Kane, and C. A. Denman, “Pulsed laser architecture for enhancing backscatter from sodium,” Proc. SPIE 2048, 20483G (2014).

2012 (3)

P. Wizinowich, “Progress in laser guide star adaptive optics and lessons learned,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470D (2012).
[Crossref]

P. M. Hinz, G. Brusa, V. Vaitheeswaran, T. McMahon, T. Connors, R. Knox, A. Bouchez, and M. Montoya, “Design and predicted performance of the GMT ground-layer adaptive optics mode,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84473R (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Rochester, A. Otarola, C. Boyer, D. Budker, B. Ellerbroek, R. Holzloehner, and L. Wang, “Modeling of pulsed-laser guide stars for the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(8), 2176–2188 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Holzloehner, S. M. Rochester, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Optimization of cw sodium laser guide star efficiency,” Astron. Astrophys. 510, A20 (2010).

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

H. Guillet de Chatellus, I. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, and J.-P. Pique, “Suppression of Rayleigh scattering noise in sodium laser guide stars by hyperfine depolarization of fluorescence,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11494–11505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

P. W. Milonni, H. Fearn, J. M. Tell, and R. Q. Fugate, “Theory of continuous-wave excitation of the sodium beacon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 11 (1999).

1994 (2)

Amans, J. P.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Bian, Q.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bo, Y.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bouchez, A.

P. M. Hinz, G. Brusa, V. Vaitheeswaran, T. McMahon, T. Connors, R. Knox, A. Bouchez, and M. Montoya, “Design and predicted performance of the GMT ground-layer adaptive optics mode,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84473R (2012).
[Crossref]

Bouchez, A. H.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boyer, C.

Bradley, C.

Brown, C. G.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brusa, G.

P. M. Hinz, G. Brusa, V. Vaitheeswaran, T. McMahon, T. Connors, R. Knox, A. Bouchez, and M. Montoya, “Design and predicted performance of the GMT ground-layer adaptive optics mode,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84473R (2012).
[Crossref]

Budker, D.

S. M. Rochester, A. Otarola, C. Boyer, D. Budker, B. Ellerbroek, R. Holzloehner, and L. Wang, “Modeling of pulsed-laser guide stars for the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(8), 2176–2188 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Holzloehner, S. M. Rochester, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Optimization of cw sodium laser guide star efficiency,” Astron. Astrophys. 510, A20 (2010).

Calia, D. B.

R. Holzloehner, S. M. Rochester, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Optimization of cw sodium laser guide star efficiency,” Astron. Astrophys. 510, A20 (2010).

Campbell, R. D.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chin, J. C.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Clenet, Y.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Cohen, M.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Conan, J.-M.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Conan, R.

Connors, T.

P. M. Hinz, G. Brusa, V. Vaitheeswaran, T. McMahon, T. Connors, R. Knox, A. Bouchez, and M. Montoya, “Design and predicted performance of the GMT ground-layer adaptive optics mode,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84473R (2012).
[Crossref]

Contos, A. R.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dai, X.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Danforth, P. M.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Denman, C. A.

P. D. H. Thomas, J. Kane, and C. A. Denman, “Pulsed laser architecture for enhancing backscatter from sodium,” Proc. SPIE 2048, 20483G (2014).

Dyson, F.

Ellerbroek, B.

Farinotti, S.

Fearn, H.

P. W. Milonni, H. Fearn, J. M. Tell, and R. Q. Fugate, “Theory of continuous-wave excitation of the sodium beacon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 11 (1999).

Feng, L.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fesquet, V.

Fu, H.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fugate, R. Q.

P. W. Milonni, H. Fearn, J. M. Tell, and R. Q. Fugate, “Theory of continuous-wave excitation of the sodium beacon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 11 (1999).

Fusco, T.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Gavel, D.

Gendron, E.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Gratadour, D.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Guillet de Chatellus, H.

Hackenberg, W.

R. Holzloehner, S. M. Rochester, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Optimization of cw sodium laser guide star efficiency,” Astron. Astrophys. 510, A20 (2010).

Happer, W.

Hartman, S. K.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Herriot, G.

Higbie, J. M.

R. Holzloehner, S. M. Rochester, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Optimization of cw sodium laser guide star efficiency,” Astron. Astrophys. 510, A20 (2010).

Hinz, P. M.

P. M. Hinz, G. Brusa, V. Vaitheeswaran, T. McMahon, T. Connors, R. Knox, A. Bouchez, and M. Montoya, “Design and predicted performance of the GMT ground-layer adaptive optics mode,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84473R (2012).
[Crossref]

Holzloehner, R.

S. M. Rochester, A. Otarola, C. Boyer, D. Budker, B. Ellerbroek, R. Holzloehner, and L. Wang, “Modeling of pulsed-laser guide stars for the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(8), 2176–2188 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Holzloehner, S. M. Rochester, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Optimization of cw sodium laser guide star efficiency,” Astron. Astrophys. 510, A20 (2010).

Holzlöhner, R.

Hubin, N.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Jackson, K.

Jagourel, P.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Jin, K.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Johansson, E. M.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kane, J.

P. D. H. Thomas, J. Kane, and C. A. Denman, “Pulsed laser architecture for enhancing backscatter from sodium,” Proc. SPIE 2048, 20483G (2014).

Kibblewhite, E.

E. Kibblewhite, “The physics of the sodium laser guide star: Predicting and enhancing the photon returns,” in Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveilance Technologies Conference (2009).

Knox, R.

P. M. Hinz, G. Brusa, V. Vaitheeswaran, T. McMahon, T. Connors, R. Knox, A. Bouchez, and M. Montoya, “Design and predicted performance of the GMT ground-layer adaptive optics mode,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84473R (2012).
[Crossref]

Lafon, R. E.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lardiere, O.

Le Mignant, D.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lewis, H.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

MacDonald, G.

Max, C.

Max, C. E.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

McMahon, T.

P. M. Hinz, G. Brusa, V. Vaitheeswaran, T. McMahon, T. Connors, R. Knox, A. Bouchez, and M. Montoya, “Design and predicted performance of the GMT ground-layer adaptive optics mode,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84473R (2012).
[Crossref]

Meimon, S.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Michau, V.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Milonni, P. W.

P. W. Milonni, H. Fearn, J. M. Tell, and R. Q. Fugate, “Theory of continuous-wave excitation of the sodium beacon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 11 (1999).

Moldovan, I.

Montoya, M.

P. M. Hinz, G. Brusa, V. Vaitheeswaran, T. McMahon, T. Connors, R. Knox, A. Bouchez, and M. Montoya, “Design and predicted performance of the GMT ground-layer adaptive optics mode,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84473R (2012).
[Crossref]

Morris, J. R.

Otarola, A.

Paufique, J.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Peng, Q.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pennington, D. M.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Petit, C.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Pique, J.-P.

Rampy, R.

Rao, C.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Robert, C.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Rochester, S. M.

Rousset, G.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Schnetler, H.

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

Stomski, P. J.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Summers, D. M.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tell, J. M.

P. W. Milonni, H. Fearn, J. M. Tell, and R. Q. Fugate, “Theory of continuous-wave excitation of the sodium beacon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 11 (1999).

Thomas, P. D. H.

P. D. H. Thomas, J. Kane, and C. A. Denman, “Pulsed laser architecture for enhancing backscatter from sodium,” Proc. SPIE 2048, 20483G (2014).

Vaitheeswaran, V.

P. M. Hinz, G. Brusa, V. Vaitheeswaran, T. McMahon, T. Connors, R. Knox, A. Bouchez, and M. Montoya, “Design and predicted performance of the GMT ground-layer adaptive optics mode,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84473R (2012).
[Crossref]

van Dam, M. A.

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, Z.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, K.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wizinowich, P.

P. Wizinowich, “Progress in laser guide star adaptive optics and lessons learned,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470D (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xue, X.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zuo, J.

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

R. Holzloehner, S. M. Rochester, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Optimization of cw sodium laser guide star efficiency,” Astron. Astrophys. 510, A20 (2010).

Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

P. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The WM Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(840), 297–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Jin, K. Wei, L. Feng, Y. Bo, J. Zuo, M. Li, H. Fu, X. Dai, Q. Bian, J. Yao, C. Xu, Z. Wang, Q. Peng, X. Xue, X. Cheng, C. Rao, Z. Xu, and Y. Zhang, “Photon return on-sky test of pulsed sodium laser guide star with D2b repumping,” Astron. Soc. Pac. 127(954), 749–756 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (4)

P. Wizinowich, “Progress in laser guide star adaptive optics and lessons learned,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84470D (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Fusco, S. Meimon, Y. Clenet, M. Cohen, H. Schnetler, J. Paufique, V. Michau, J. P. Amans, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, C. Robert, P. Jagourel, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and N. Hubin, “ATLAS: the E-ELT laser tomographic adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360D (2010).
[Crossref]

P. M. Hinz, G. Brusa, V. Vaitheeswaran, T. McMahon, T. Connors, R. Knox, A. Bouchez, and M. Montoya, “Design and predicted performance of the GMT ground-layer adaptive optics mode,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84473R (2012).
[Crossref]

P. D. H. Thomas, J. Kane, and C. A. Denman, “Pulsed laser architecture for enhancing backscatter from sodium,” Proc. SPIE 2048, 20483G (2014).

Other (5)

D. A. Steck, “Sodium D Line Data,” http://steck.us/alkalidata .

M. Auzinsh, D. Budker, and S. M. Rochester, Optically Polarized Atoms Understanding Light-Atom Interactions (Oxford University, 2010).

S. M. Rochester, “Atomic Density Matrix package for Mathematica, version 12.06.21,” http://budker.berkeley.edu/ADM/ .

C. Denman, G. Moore, J. Drummond, M. Eickhoff, P. Hillman, J. Telle, S. Novotny, and R. Fugate, “Two-frequency sodium guide star excitation at the Starfire Optical Range,” in The Central for Adaptive Optics (CFAO) Workshop (2006).

E. Kibblewhite, “The physics of the sodium laser guide star: Predicting and enhancing the photon returns,” in Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveilance Technologies Conference (2009).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sodium D2 line hyperfine structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Occupation density of different states in sodium atoms pumped by 500 W/m2 light intensity. (a) Without repumping. (b) “(R)” represents 14% of light power repumping and dash lines illustrate states without repumping.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup. (M: mirror; EOM: electro-optic phase modulator; BS: beam splitter; F-P: Fabry-Perot interferometer; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; AM: amplitude modulator; λ/4: λ/4wave plate.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sidebands measured by the F-P.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence signals with different repumping offset frequencies. The light intensity is 500 W/m2, and the repumping power fraction is 12%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fluorescence signals with different repumping power fractions. The repumping frequency offset is 1713 MHz and the light intensity is (a) 200 W/m2 and (b) 500 W/m2 respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluorescence signals with 14% of light power repumping (the upper line) and without repumping (the lower line).

Equations (1)

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d dt ρ= 1 ih [H,ρ] 1 2 ( Γ ^ ρ+ρ Γ ^ )+Λ,

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