Abstract

We demonstrate the compact polarization diversity based on the bidirectional full-port use of a path-independent-insertion-loss (PILOSS) optical switch. A polarization-diversity 4 × 4 strictly non-blocking optical switch is developed using a single thermooptic PILOSS Si-wire switch and fiber-based polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and combiners (PBCs). We measure characteristics of the switch and confirm that the proposed configuration demonstrates the performance in the insertion loss, polarization-dependent loss (PDL), and differential group delay (DGD) comparable with that of a conventional polarization-diversity 4 × 4 PILOSS switch using double switch elements. On the other hand, higher crosstalk is observed. The crosstalk increase is associated with the backward crosstalk at a waveguide intersection based on a directional coupler. The effect of the backward crosstalk on the total crosstalk is estimated, and future prospects are discussed.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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  14. W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated With CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, G. W. Cong, T. Inoue, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Off-Chip Polarization-Diversity 4×4 Si-Wire Optical Switch with Digital DGD Compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 457–460 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, R. S. Muller, and M. C. Wu, “Large-scale broadband digital silicon photonic switches with vertical adiabatic couplers,” Optica 3(1), 64–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2010 (1)

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated With CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated With CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated With CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brouckaert, J.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated With CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chiba, T.

Cong, G.

Cong, G. W.

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, G. W. Cong, T. Inoue, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Off-Chip Polarization-Diversity 4×4 Si-Wire Optical Switch with Digital DGD Compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 457–460 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, G. W. Cong, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-Diversity 4 x 4 Si-Wire Optical Switch,” in Photonics in Switching2015, WeI 3–3.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated With CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, H.

Goh, T.

Hajikano, K.

T. Shimoe, K. Hajikano, and K. Murakami, “Path-independent insertion loss optical space switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication, 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1987), paper WB2.

Han, S.

Hattori, K.

Himeno, A.

Igarashi, Y.

Ikeda, K.

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, G. W. Cong, T. Inoue, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Off-Chip Polarization-Diversity 4×4 Si-Wire Optical Switch with Digital DGD Compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 457–460 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, M. Toyama, M. Ohtsuka, N. Yokoyama, K. Matsumaro, M. Seki, K. Koshino, T. Sugaya, S. Suda, G. Cong, T. Kimura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 32 × 32 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire optical switch with fan-out LGA interposer,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17599–17606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, G. W. Cong, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-Diversity 4 x 4 Si-Wire Optical Switch,” in Photonics in Switching2015, WeI 3–3.

Inoue, T.

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, G. W. Cong, T. Inoue, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Off-Chip Polarization-Diversity 4×4 Si-Wire Optical Switch with Digital DGD Compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 457–460 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ishii, K.

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, G. W. Cong, T. Inoue, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Off-Chip Polarization-Diversity 4×4 Si-Wire Optical Switch with Digital DGD Compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 457–460 (2016).
[Crossref]

Itabashi, S.

Kärtner, F. X.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kawashima, H.

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, G. W. Cong, T. Inoue, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Off-Chip Polarization-Diversity 4×4 Si-Wire Optical Switch with Digital DGD Compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 457–460 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, M. Toyama, M. Ohtsuka, N. Yokoyama, K. Matsumaro, M. Seki, K. Koshino, T. Sugaya, S. Suda, G. Cong, T. Kimura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 32 × 32 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire optical switch with fan-out LGA interposer,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17599–17606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, T. Matsukawa, G. Cong, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, M. Ohno, T. Chiba, H. Tadokoro, M. Yanagihara, Y. Igarashi, M. Masahara, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 8 × 8 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire PILOSS switch,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3887–3894 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, G. W. Cong, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-Diversity 4 x 4 Si-Wire Optical Switch,” in Photonics in Switching2015, WeI 3–3.

Kim, S.-H.

Kimura, T.

Koshino, K.

Kurumida, J.

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, G. W. Cong, T. Inoue, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Off-Chip Polarization-Diversity 4×4 Si-Wire Optical Switch with Digital DGD Compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 457–460 (2016).
[Crossref]

Masahara, M.

Matsukawa, T.

Matsumaro, K.

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Muller, R. S.

Murakami, K.

T. Shimoe, K. Hajikano, and K. Murakami, “Path-independent insertion loss optical space switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication, 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1987), paper WB2.

Namiki, S.

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, G. W. Cong, T. Inoue, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Off-Chip Polarization-Diversity 4×4 Si-Wire Optical Switch with Digital DGD Compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 457–460 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, M. Toyama, M. Ohtsuka, N. Yokoyama, K. Matsumaro, M. Seki, K. Koshino, T. Sugaya, S. Suda, G. Cong, T. Kimura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 32 × 32 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire optical switch with fan-out LGA interposer,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17599–17606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, T. Matsukawa, G. Cong, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, M. Ohno, T. Chiba, H. Tadokoro, M. Yanagihara, Y. Igarashi, M. Masahara, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 8 × 8 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire PILOSS switch,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3887–3894 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, G. W. Cong, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-Diversity 4 x 4 Si-Wire Optical Switch,” in Photonics in Switching2015, WeI 3–3.

Ohno, M.

Ohtsuka, M.

Okuno, M.

Popovic, M. A.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Quack, N.

Rakich, P. T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seki, M.

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated With CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seok, T. J.

Shimoe, T.

T. Shimoe, K. Hajikano, and K. Murakami, “Path-independent insertion loss optical space switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication, 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1987), paper WB2.

Shinojima, H.

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Socci, L.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Suda, S.

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, G. W. Cong, T. Inoue, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Off-Chip Polarization-Diversity 4×4 Si-Wire Optical Switch with Digital DGD Compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 457–460 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, M. Toyama, M. Ohtsuka, N. Yokoyama, K. Matsumaro, M. Seki, K. Koshino, T. Sugaya, S. Suda, G. Cong, T. Kimura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 32 × 32 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire optical switch with fan-out LGA interposer,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17599–17606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, T. Matsukawa, G. Cong, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, M. Ohno, T. Chiba, H. Tadokoro, M. Yanagihara, Y. Igarashi, M. Masahara, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 8 × 8 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire PILOSS switch,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3887–3894 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, G. W. Cong, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-Diversity 4 x 4 Si-Wire Optical Switch,” in Photonics in Switching2015, WeI 3–3.

Sugaya, T.

Suzuki, K.

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, G. W. Cong, T. Inoue, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Off-Chip Polarization-Diversity 4×4 Si-Wire Optical Switch with Digital DGD Compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 457–460 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, M. Toyama, M. Ohtsuka, N. Yokoyama, K. Matsumaro, M. Seki, K. Koshino, T. Sugaya, S. Suda, G. Cong, T. Kimura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 32 × 32 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire optical switch with fan-out LGA interposer,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17599–17606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, T. Matsukawa, G. Cong, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, M. Ohno, T. Chiba, H. Tadokoro, M. Yanagihara, Y. Igarashi, M. Masahara, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 8 × 8 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire PILOSS switch,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3887–3894 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, G. W. Cong, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-Diversity 4 x 4 Si-Wire Optical Switch,” in Photonics in Switching2015, WeI 3–3.

Tadokoro, H.

Takahashi, H.

Tanizawa, K.

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, G. W. Cong, T. Inoue, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Off-Chip Polarization-Diversity 4×4 Si-Wire Optical Switch with Digital DGD Compensation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 457–460 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, M. Toyama, M. Ohtsuka, N. Yokoyama, K. Matsumaro, M. Seki, K. Koshino, T. Sugaya, S. Suda, G. Cong, T. Kimura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 32 × 32 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire optical switch with fan-out LGA interposer,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17599–17606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, T. Matsukawa, G. Cong, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, M. Ohno, T. Chiba, H. Tadokoro, M. Yanagihara, Y. Igarashi, M. Masahara, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 8 × 8 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire PILOSS switch,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3887–3894 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, G. W. Cong, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-Diversity 4 x 4 Si-Wire Optical Switch,” in Photonics in Switching2015, WeI 3–3.

Thourhout, D. V.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated With CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

Toyama, M.

Tsuchizawa, T.

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4872–4880 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vos, K. D.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. D. Vos, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated With CMOS Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4872–4880 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. C.

Yamada, K.

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4872–4880 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PILOSS switch topology and port assignments for a 4 × 4 switch: (a) the conventional port assignment, (b) proposed bidirectional full port assignment, and (c) example of switch setting for the bidirectional full port assignment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration of the polarization-diversity 4 × 4 switch based on the bidirectional full PILOSS port assignment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Insertion loss and the PDL of the polarization-diversity 4 × 4 switch for all possible 16 paths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DGD of the polarization-diversity 4 × 4 switch for all possible 16 paths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Crosstalk of the polarization-diversity 4 × 4 switch for all switch settings.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Switching state when the worst crosstalk is observed at output port #2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Backward and forward crosstalk of an intersection based on the 0-dB directional coupler.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Crosstalk of the polarization-diversity 4 × 4, 8 × 8, and 16 × 16 switches in the worst case as a function of the backward crosstalk of the intersection.

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